Table of contents

    05 July 2018, Volume 27 Issue 7 Previous issue    Next issue
    Multi-soliton solutions for the coupled modified nonlinear Schrödinger equations via Riemann-Hilbert approach
    Zhou-Zheng Kang(康周正), Tie-Cheng Xia(夏铁成), Xi Ma(马茜)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  070201.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/070201
    Abstract ( 695 )   HTML   PDF (5307KB) ( 278 )  
    The coupled modified nonlinear Schrödinger equations are under investigation in this work. Starting from analyzing the spectral problem of the Lax pair, a Riemann-Hilbert problem for the coupled modified nonlinear Schrödinger equations is formulated. And then, through solving the obtained Riemann-Hilbert problem under the conditions of irregularity and reflectionless case, N-soliton solutions for the equations are presented. Furthermore, the localized structures and dynamic behaviors of the one-soliton solution are shown graphically.
    A macroscopic traffic model based on weather conditions
    Zawar H. Khan, Syed Abid Ali Shah, T. Aaron Gulliver
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  070202.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/070202
    Abstract ( 531 )   HTML   PDF (4902KB) ( 220 )  
    A traffic model based on the road surface conditions during adverse weather is presented. The surface of a road is affected by snow, compacted snow, and ice, which affects the traffic behavior. In this paper, a new macroscopic traffic flow model based on the transition velocity distribution is proposed which characterizes traffic alignment under adverse weather conditions. Two examples are considered to illustrate the effect of the transition velocity behavior on traffic velocity and density. Simulation results are presented which show that this model provides a more accurate characterization of traffic flow behavior than the well known Payne-Whitham model. The proposed model can be used to reduce accidents and improve road safety during adverse weather conditions.
    A new ellipse fitting method of the minimum differential-mode noise in the atom interference gravimeter
    Aopeng Xu(许翱鹏), Zhaoying Wang(王兆英), Delong Kong(孔德龙), Zhijie Fu(付志杰), Qiang Lin(林强)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  070203.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/070203
    Abstract ( 641 )   HTML   PDF (413KB) ( 157 )  
    Ellipse fitting is a useful tool to obtain the differential signal of two atom interference gravimeters. The quality standard of ellipse fitting should be the deviation between the true phase and the fitting phase of the interference fringe. In this paper, we present a new algorithm to fit the ellipse. The algorithm is to minimize the differential noise of two interference gravimeters and obtain a more accurate value of the gravity gradient. We have theoretically derived the expression of the differential-mode noise and implemented the ellipse fitting in the program. This new algorithm is also compared with the classical methods.
    Urban rail departure capacity analysis based on a cellular automaton model
    Wen-Jun Li(李文俊), Lei Nie(聂磊)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  070204.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/070204
    Abstract ( 593 )   HTML   PDF (2351KB) ( 168 )  
    As an important traffic mode, urban rail transit is constantly developing toward improvement in service capacity and quality. When an urban rail transit system is evaluated in terms of its service capacity, the train departure capacity is an important index that can objectively reflect the service level of an urban rail transit facility. In light of the existing cellular automaton models, this paper proposes a suitable cellular automaton model to analyze the train departure capacity of urban rail transit under different variable factors and conditions. The established model can demonstrate the train operating processes by implementing the proposed sound rules, including the rules of train departure at the origin and intermediate stations, and the velocity and position updating rules. The properties of train traffic are analyzed via numerical experiments. The numerical results show that the departure capacity is negatively affected by the train departure control manner. In addition, (i) the real-time signal control can offer a higher train service frequency; (ii) the departure capacity gradually rises with the decrease in the line design speed to a limited extent; (iii) the departure capacity decreases with extension in the train length; (iv) the number of departed trains decreases as the train stop time increases; (v) the departure capacity is not affected by the section length. However, the longer the length, the worse the service quality of the urban rail transit line. The experiments show that the proposed cellular automaton model can be used to analyze the train service capacity of an urban rail transit system by performing quantitative analysis under various considered factors, conditions, and management modes.
    TOPICAL REVIEW—SECUF: Breakthroughs and opportunities for the research of physical science
    Solid-state quantum computation station
    Fanming Qu(屈凡明), Zhongqing Ji(姬忠庆), Ye Tian(田野), Shiping Zhao(赵士平)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  070301.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/070301
    Abstract ( 955 )   HTML   PDF (281KB) ( 441 )  
    Solid-state quantum computation station belongs to the group 2 of manipulation of quantum state in the Synergetic Extreme Condition User Facility. Here we will first outline the research background, aspects, and objectives of the station, followed by a discussion of the recent scientific as well as technological progress in this field based on similar experimental facilities to be constructed in the station. Finally, a brief summary and research perspective will be presented.
    Uncertainty relations in the product form
    Xiaofen Huang(黄晓芬), Ting-Gui Zhang(张廷桂), Naihuan Jing(景乃桓)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  070302.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/070302
    Abstract ( 548 )   HTML   PDF (478KB) ( 135 )  
    We study the uncertainty relation in the product form of variances and obtain some new uncertainty relations with weight, which are shown to be tighter than those derived from the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality.
    Observation of geometric phase in a dispersively coupled resonator-qutrit system Hot!
    Libo Zhang(张礼博), Chao Song(宋超), H Wang(王浩华), Shi-Biao Zheng(郑仕标)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  070303.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/070303
    Abstract ( 874 )   HTML   PDF (1191KB) ( 245 )  

    We present an experiment of observing the geometric phase in a superconducting circuit where the resonator and the qutrit energy levels are dispersively coupled. The drive applied to the resonator displaces its state components associated with the qutrit's ground state and first-excited state along different circular trajectories in phase space. We identify the resonator's phase-space trajectories by Wigner tomography using an ancilla qubit, following which we observe the difference between the geometric phases associated with these trajectories using Ramsey interferometry. This geometric phase is further used to construct the single-qubit π-phase gate with a process fidelity of 0.851±0.001.

    Phase precision of Mach-Zehnder interferometer in PM2.5 air pollution
    Duan Xie(谢端), Haifeng Chen(陈海峰)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  070304.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/070304
    Abstract ( 764 )   HTML   PDF (379KB) ( 131 )  
    This paper theoretically explores the effect of PM2.5 air pollution on the phase precision of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. With the increasing of PM2.5 concentration, phase precision for inputs of coherent state & vacuum state and inputs of coherent state & squeezed vacuum state will gradually decrease and be lower than the standard quantum limit. When the value of relative humidity is increasing, the precision of two input cases is decreasing much faster. We also find that the precision for inputs of coherent state & squeezed state is better than that of coherent state & vacuum state when PM2.5 concentration is lower. As PM2.5 concentration increases, the precision for inputs of coherent state & squeezed state decreases faster, and then the two precisions tend to be the same while the concentration is higher.
    Continuous-variable quantum key distribution based on continuous random basis choice
    Weiqi Liu(刘维琪), Jinye Peng(彭进业), Peng Huang(黄鹏), Shiyu Wang(汪诗寓), Tao Wang(王涛), Guihua Zeng(曾贵华)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  070305.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/070305
    Abstract ( 710 )   HTML   PDF (494KB) ( 230 )  

    Gaussian-modulated coherent state quantum key distribution is gradually moving towards practical application. Generally, the involved scheme is based on the binary random basis choice. To improve the performance and security, we present a scheme based on a continuous random basis choice. The results show that our scheme obviously improves the performance, such as the secure communication distance. Our scheme avoids comparing the measurement basis and discarding the key bits, and it can be easily implemented with current technology. Moreover, the imperfection of the basis choice can be well removed by the known phase compensation algorithm.

    Momentum distribution and non-local high order correlation functions of 1D strongly interacting Bose gas Hot!
    EJKP Nandani, Xi-Wen Guan(管习文)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  070306.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/070306
    Abstract ( 618 )   HTML   PDF (359KB) ( 239 )  

    The Lieb-Liniger model is a prototypical integrable model and has been turned into the benchmark physics in theoretical and numerical investigations of low-dimensional quantum systems. In this note, we present various methods for calculating local and nonlocal M-particle correlation functions, momentum distribution, and static structure factor. In particular, using the Bethe ansatz wave function of the strong coupling Lieb-Liniger model, we analytically calculate the two-point correlation function, the large moment tail of the momentum distribution, and the static structure factor of the model in terms of the fractional statistical parameter α=1-2/γ, where γ is the dimensionless interaction strength. We also discuss the Tan's adiabatic relation and other universal relations for the strongly repulsive Lieb-Liniger model in terms of the fractional statistical parameter.

    Generalized Lanczos method for systematic optimization of tensor network states
    Rui-Zhen Huang(黄瑞珍), Hai-Jun Liao(廖海军), Zhi-Yuan Liu(刘志远), Hai-Dong Xie(谢海东), Zhi-Yuan Xie(谢志远), Hui-Hai Zhao(赵汇海), Jing Chen(陈靖), Tao Xiang(向涛)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  070501.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/070501
    Abstract ( 671 )   HTML   PDF (563KB) ( 154 )  

    We propose a generalized Lanczos method to generate the many-body basis states of quantum lattice models using tensor-network states (TNS). The ground-state wave function is represented as a linear superposition composed from a set of TNS generated by Lanczos iteration. This method improves significantly the accuracy of the tensor-network algorithm and provides an effective way to enlarge the maximal bond dimension of TNS. The ground state such obtained contains significantly more entanglement than each individual TNS, reproducing correctly the logarithmic size dependence of the entanglement entropy in a critical system. The method can be generalized to non-Hamiltonian systems and to the calculation of low-lying excited states, dynamical correlation functions, and other physical properties of strongly correlated systems.

    Multi-stability involved mixed bursting within the coupled pre-Bötzinger complex neurons
    Zijian Wang(王子剑), Lixia Duan(段利霞), Qinyu Cao(曹秦禹)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  070502.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/070502
    Abstract ( 554 )   HTML   PDF (954KB) ( 173 )  
    Neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex within the mammalian brain stem play important roles in the generation of respiratory rhythms. Experimental observations show that some neurons can exhibit novel mixed bursting activities. In this paper, based on a mathematical model proposed by Butera, we show how the mixed bursting activities depend on the potassium current in the coupled pre-Botzinger complex. Using fast-slow decomposition and bifurcation analysis, we investigate the dynamics of mixed bursting, as well as the mechanisms of transition between different mixed bursting patterns. We find that mixed bursting involves different bistability, and it is the transition state of two types of regular burstings.
    Fixed time integral sliding mode controller and its application to the suppression of chaotic oscillation in power system
    Jiang-Bin Wang(王江彬), Chong-Xin Liu(刘崇新), Yan Wang(王琰), Guang-Chao Zheng(郑广超)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  070503.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/070503
    Abstract ( 719 )   HTML   PDF (1050KB) ( 240 )  
    Chattering phenomenon and singularity are still the main problems that hinder the practical application of sliding mode control. In this paper, a fixed time integral sliding mode controller is designed based on fixed time stability theory, which ensures precise convergence of the state variables of controlled system, and overcomes the drawback of convergence time growing unboundedly as the initial value increases in finite time controller. It makes the controlled system converge to the control objective within a fixed time bounded by a constant as the initial value grows, and convergence time can be changed by adjusting parameters of controllers properly. Compared with other fixed time controllers, the fixed time integral sliding mode controller proposed in this paper achieves chattering-free control, and integral expression is used to avoid singularity generated by derivation. Finally, the controller is used to stabilize four-order chaotic power system. The results demonstrate that the controller realizes the non-singular chattering-free control of chaotic oscillation in the power system and guarantees the fixed time convergence of state variables, which shows its higher superiority than other finite time controllers.
    Mean-square composite-rotating consensus of second-order systems with communication noises
    Li-po Mo(莫立坡), Shao-yan Guo(郭少岩), Yong-guang Yu(于永光)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  070504.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/070504
    Abstract ( 640 )   HTML   PDF (5617KB) ( 247 )  
    We study the mean-square composite-rotating consensus problem of second-order multi-agent systems with communication noises, where all agents rotate around a common center and the center of rotation spins around a fixed point simultaneously. Firstly, a time-varying consensus gain is introduced to attenuate to the effect of communication noises. Secondly, sufficient conditions are obtained for achieving the mean-square composite-rotating consensus. Finally, simulations are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
    TOPICAL REVIEW—SECUF: Breakthroughs and opportunities for the research of physical science
    High-pressure synergetic measurement station (HP-SymS)
    Xiaohui Yu(于晓辉), Fangfei Li(李芳菲), Yonghao Han(韩永昊), Fang Hong(洪芳), Changqing Jin(靳常青), Zhi He(何志), Qiang Zhou(周强)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  070701.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/070701
    Abstract ( 637 )   HTML   PDF (2999KB) ( 297 )  
    In the High-Pressure Synergetic Measurements Station (HP-SymS) of the Synergic Extreme Condition User Facility (SECUF), we will develop ultrahigh-pressure devices based on diamond-anvil cell (DAC) techniques, with a target pressure up to 300 GPa. With the use of cryostat and magnet, we will reach 300 GPa-4.2 K-9 T and conduct simultaneous measurements of the electrical-transport property and Raman/Brillouin spectrascopy. With resistance heating and laser heating, we will reach temperatures of at least 1000 and 3000 K, respectively, coupled with Raman/Brillouin spectroscopy measurements. Some designs of supporting devices, such as a femtosecond laser gasket-drilling device, electrode-deposition device, and the gas-loading device, are also introduced in this article. Finally, we conclude by providing some perspectives on the applications of the DAC in related research fields.
    Sub-millikelvin station at Synergetic Extreme Condition User Facility
    Zhi Gang Cheng(程智刚), Jie Fan(樊洁), Xiunian Jing(景秀年), Li Lu(吕力)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  070702.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/070702
    Abstract ( 749 )   HTML   PDF (5062KB) ( 373 )  
    The Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, is in charge of the construction of the Synergetic Extreme Condition User Facility (SECUF) in Huairou, Beijing. The SECUF is a comprehensive facility focused on providing extreme physical conditions for scientific research, including an ultralow temperature, ultrahigh pressure, ultrahigh magnetic field, and ultrafast laser. The ultralow temperature will be realized by the sub-millikelvin (sub-mK) station, whose main component is an adiabatic nuclear demagnetization refrigerator (ANDR). The refrigerator is designed to have a base temperature below 1 mK and a magnetic field up to 16 T for experiments, as well as a characteristic parameter of B/T ≥ 104 T/K. In this review, we introduce adiabatic nuclear demagnetization refrigeration, thermometry from 10 mK to sub-mK, the properties and parameters of the ANDR of the SECUF, and related prospective research topics.
    Ultrafast electron microscopy in material science
    Huaixin Yang(杨槐馨), Shuaishuai Sun(孙帅帅), Ming Zhang(张明), Zhongwen Li(李中文), Zian Li(李子安), Peng Xu(徐鹏), Huanfang Tian(田焕芳), Jianqi Li(李建奇)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  070703.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/070703
    Abstract ( 638 )   HTML   PDF (7204KB) ( 361 )  
    Recent advances in the ultrafast transmission electron microscope (UTEM), with combined spatial and temporal resolutions, have made it possible to directly visualize the atomic, electronic, and magnetic structural dynamics of materials. In this review, we highlight the recent progress of UTEM techniques and their applications to a variety of material systems. It is emphasized that numerous significant ultrafast dynamic issues in material science can be solved by the integration of the pump-probe approach with the well-developed conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. For instance, UTEM diffraction experiments can be performed to investigate photoinduced atomic-scale dynamics, including the chemical reactions, non-equilibrium phase transition/melting, and lattice phonon coupling. UTEM imaging methods are invaluable for studying, in real space, the elementary processes of structural and morphological changes, as well as magnetic-domain evolution in the Lorentz TEM mode, at a high magnification. UTEM electron energy-loss spectroscopic techniques allow the examination of the ultrafast valence states and electronic structure dynamics, while photoinduced near-field electron microscopy extends the capability of the UTEM to the regime of electromagnetic-field imaging with a high real space resolution.
    A slope-based decoupling algorithm to simultaneously control dual deformable mirrors in a woofer-tweeter adaptive optics system
    Tao Cheng(程涛), Wenjin Liu(刘文劲), Boqing Pang(庞博清), Ping Yang(杨平), Bing Xu(许冰)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  070704.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/070704
    Abstract ( 647 )   HTML   PDF (3143KB) ( 196 )  
    We propose a slope-based decoupling algorithm to simultaneously control the dual deformable mirrors (DMs) in a woofer-tweeter adaptive optics system. This algorithm can directly use the woofer's response matrix measured from a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor to construct a slope-based orthogonal basis, and then selectively distribute the large-amplitude low-order aberration to woofer DM and the remaining aberration to tweeter DM through the slope-based orthogonal basis. At the same moment, in order to avoid the two DMs generating opposite compensation, a constraint matrix used to reset tweeter control vector is convenient to be calculated with the slope-based orthogonal basis. Numeral simulation demonstrates that this algorithm has a good performance to control the adaptive optics system with dual DMs simultaneously. Compared with the typical decoupling algorithm, this algorithm can take full use of the compensation ability of woofer DM and release the stroke of tweeter DM to compensate high-order aberration. More importantly, it does not need to measure the accurate shape of tweeter's influence function and keeps better performance of restraining the coupling error with the continuous-dynamic aberration.
    Relativistic calculations of fine-structure energy levels of He-like Ar in dense plasmas
    Xiang-Fu Li(李向富), Gang Jiang(蒋刚)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  073101.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/073101
    Abstract ( 626 )   HTML   PDF (379KB) ( 185 )  
    The fine-structure energy levels of 1s2s and 1s2p atomic states for the He-like Ar ion immersed in dense plasmas are calculated. The ion sphere model is used to describe the plasma screening effect on the tested ion. The influences of the hard sphere confinement and plasma screening on the fine-structure energy levels are investigated respectively. The calculated results show that the confined effect of the hard sphere on the fine-structure energy levels increases with decreasing hard sphere radius, and the plasma screening effect on the fine-structure energy levels increases with the increase of free electron density. In dense plasmas, the confined effect of the hard sphere on the fine-structure energy levels can be neglected generally, compared with the contribution from free electron screening. An interesting phenomenon about the energy level crossing is found among 1s2s (1S0) and 1s2p (3P0,1) atomic states. The results reported at the present work are useful for plasma diagnostics.
    Slater determinant and exact eigenstates of the two-dimensional Fermi-Hubbard model
    Jun-Hang Ren(任军航), Ming-Yong Ye(叶明勇), Xiu-Min Lin(林秀敏)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  073102.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/073102
    Abstract ( 624 )   HTML   PDF (369KB) ( 166 )  
    We consider the construction of exact eigenstates of the two-dimensional Fermi-Hubbard model defined on an L×L lattice with a periodic condition. Based on the characteristics of Slater determinants, several methods are introduced to construct exact eigenstates of the model. The eigenstates constructed are independent of the on-site electron interaction and some of them can also represent exact eigenstates of the two-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model.
    Diffusion behavior of hydrogen isotopes in tungsten revisited by molecular dynamics simulations
    Mingjie Qiu(丘明杰), Lei Zhai(翟磊), Jiechao Cui(崔节超), Baoqin Fu(付宝勤), Min Li(李敏), Qing Hou(侯氢)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  073103.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/073103
    Abstract ( 639 )   HTML   PDF (2311KB) ( 156 )  

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the diffusion behavior of hydrogen isotopes in single-crystal tungsten in the temperature range of 300-2000 K. The simulations show that the diffusion coefficient of H isotopes exhibits non-Arrhenius behavior, though this deviation from Arrhenius behavior is slight. Many-body and anharmonic effects of the potential surface may induce slight isotope-dependence by the activation energy; however, the dependence of the pre-factor of the diffusion coefficient on the isotope mass is diminished. The simulation results for H-atom migration near W surfaces suggest that no trap mutations occur for H atoms diffusing near either W{100} or W{111} surfaces, in contrast to the findings for He diffusion near W surfaces. Based on the H behavior obtained by our MD simulations, the time evolution of the concentration distribution of interstitial H atoms in a semi-infinite W single crystal irradiated by energetic H projectiles was calculated. The effect of H concentration on H diffusion is discussed, and the applicability of the diffusion coefficients obtained for dilute H in W is assessed.

    Transverse relaxation determination based on light polarization modulation for spin-exchange relaxation free atomic magnetometer
    Xue-Jing Liu(刘学静), Ming Ding(丁铭), Yang Li(李阳), Yan-Hui Hu(胡焱晖), Wei Jin(靳伟), Jian-Cheng Fang(房建成)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  073201.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/073201
    Abstract ( 756 )   HTML   PDF (463KB) ( 217 )  
    A transverse relaxation determination of spin-exchange relaxation free (SERF) magnetometer based on polarization modulation technique is proposed. Compared with the radio-frequency (RF) excitation and light intensity excitation methods used in SERF magnetometer, the light polarization modulation method has a high stability in low-frequency range, which indicates a more accurate transverse relaxation measurement.
    Effect of electron excitation in nonsequential double ionization by intense laser fields
    Xiang Chen(陈翔), Qiujing Han(韩秋静), Jingtao Zhang(张敬涛)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  073202.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/073202
    Abstract ( 538 )   HTML   PDF (628KB) ( 180 )  
    We study the double ionization process of atoms in intense laser fields. The momentum distributions of the correlated electrons are calculated. Contrary to the general expectation, we show an increasing proportion of the electrons ionized via excitation with the increasing laser intensity. These electrons generally have small energy thus they concentratedly distribute on the central region of the momentum diagram. Consequently, the central part of the momentum diagram becomes more notable in higher intensity laser fields. Further study suggests that this phenomenon is general in double ionization.
    Above-threshold ionization of hydrogen atom in chirped laser fields
    Yuan-Yuan Ni(倪园园), Song-Feng Zhao(赵松峰), Xiao-Yong Li(李小勇), Guo-Li Wang(王国利), Xiao-Xin Zhou(周效信)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  073203.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/073203
    Abstract ( 547 )   HTML   PDF (2668KB) ( 249 )  
    Above-threshold ionization (ATI) of a hydrogen atom exposed to chirped laser fields is investigated theoretically by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. By comparing the energy spectra, the two-dimensional momentum spectra, and the angular distributions of photoelectron for the laser pulses with different chirp rates, we show a very clear chirp dependence both in the multiphoton and tunneling ionization processes but no chirp dependence in the single-photon ionization. We find that the chirp dependence in the multiphoton ionization based ATI can be attributed to the excited bound states. In the single-photon and tunneling ionization regimes, the electron can be removed directly from the ground state and thus the excited states may not be very important. It indicates that the chirp dependence in the tunneling ionization based ATI processes is mainly due to the laser pulses with different chirp rates.
    High-order harmonic generation in a two-color strong laser field with Bohmian trajectory theory
    Yi-Yi Huang(黄祎祎), Xuan-Yang Lai(赖炫扬), Xiao-Jun Liu(柳晓军)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  073204.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/073204
    Abstract ( 607 )   HTML   PDF (745KB) ( 258 )  

    We theoretically study the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in a two-color laser field using the Bohmian mechanics. Our results show that, for the case of a weak second-color laser field, the simulation of the HHG with only one central Bohmian trajectory is in a good agreement with the ab initio time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) results. In contrast, with the increase of the amplitude of the second-color laser field, the HHG spectra from the single central Bohmian trajectory deviate from the TDSE results more and more significantly. By analyzing the Bohmian trajectories, we find that the significant deviation is due to the fact that the central Bohmian trajectory leaves the core quickly in the two-color laser field with the breaking of inversion symmetry. Interestingly, we find that another Bohmian trajectory with different initial position, which keeps oscillating around the core, could qualitatively well reproduce the TDSE results. Furthermore, we study the HHG spectrum in a two-color laser field with inversion symmetry and find that the HHG spectrum in TDSE can be still well simulated with the central Bohmian trajectory. These results indicate that, similar to the case of one color laser field, the HHG spectra in a two-color laser field can be also reproduced with a single Bohmian trajectory, although the initial position of the trajectory is dependent on the symmetry of the laser field. Our work thus demonstrates that Bohmian trajectory theory can be used as a promising tool in investigating the HHG process in a two-color laser field.

    High-order harmonic generation of Li+ with combined infrared and extreme ultraviolet fields
    Li Wang(王力), Guo-Li Wang(王国利), Zhi-Hong Jiao(焦志宏), Song-Feng Zhao(赵松峰), Xiao-Xin Zhou(周效信)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  073205.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/073205
    Abstract ( 659 )   HTML   PDF (5244KB) ( 243 )  
    We investigate high-order harmonic generation (HHG) of Li+ ion driven by an intense infrared (IR) laser field in combination with a weak XUV pulse. To achieve this, we first construct an accurate single-active electron angular-momentum-dependent model potential of Li+ ion, by which the accurate singlet energy levels of Li+ for the ground state and excited states with higher quantum numbers can be obtained. Then, we solve numerically the three dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation of Li+ ion by means of the generalized pseudospectral method to obtain HHG. Our results show that the strength of assisted XUV is not amplified during the harmonic generation process, but the yield of HHG power spectrum in the whole plateau has a significant enhancement. Furthermore, the optimal phase delay between the IR and XUV pulses allows the production of ultrabroadband supercontinuum spectra. By superposing some harmonics, a strong new single 27-attosecond ultrashort pulse can be obtained.
    Loss of cold atoms due to collisions with residual gases in free flight and in a magneto-optical trap
    Jing-feng Xiang(项静峰), He-nan Cheng(程鹤楠), Xiang-kai Peng(彭向凯), Xin-wen Wang(王新文), Wei Ren(任伟), Jing-wei Ji(吉经纬), Kang-kang Liu(刘亢亢), Jian-bo Zhao(赵剑波), Lin Li(李琳), Qiu-zhi Qu(屈求智), Tang Li(李唐), Bin Wang(汪斌), Mei-feng Ye(叶美凤), Xin Zhao(赵鑫), Yuan-yuan Yao(姚媛媛), De-Sheng Lü(吕德胜), Liang Liu(刘亮)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  073701.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/073701
    Abstract ( 704 )   HTML   PDF (1190KB) ( 159 )  

    The loss rate of cold atoms in a trap due to residual gas collisions differs from that in a free state after the cold atoms are released from the trap. In this paper, the loss rate in a cold rubidium-87 atom cloud was measured in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) and during its free flight. The residual gas pressure was analyzed by a residual gas analyzer, and the pressure distribution in a vacuum chamber was numerically calculated by the angular coefficient method. The decay factor, which describes the decay behavior of cold atoms due to residual gas collisions during a free flight, was calculated. It was found that the decay factor agrees well with theoretical predictions under various vacuum conditions.

    TOPICAL REVIEW—SECUF: Breakthroughs and opportunities for the research of physical science
    Ultra-fast x-ray-dynamic experimental subsystem
    Liming Chen(陈黎明), Xin Lu(鲁欣), Dazhang Li(李大章), Yifei Li(李毅飞)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  074101.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/074101
    Abstract ( 760 )   HTML   PDF (3975KB) ( 249 )  
    Ultra-fast x-ray-dynamic experimental subsystem is a facility which can provide femtosecond hard x-ray sources using a femtosecond laser interacting with plasmas. By utilizing these ultra-fast x-rays as a probe, combined with a naturally synchronized driver laser as a pump, we can perform dynamic studies on samples with a femtosecond time resolution. This subsystem with a four-dimensional ultra-high spatiotemporal resolution is a powerful tool for studies of the process of photosynthesis, Auger electron effects, lattice vibrations, etc. Compared with conventional x-ray sources based on accelerators, this table-top laser-driven x-ray source has significant advantages in terms of the source size, pulse duration, brightness, flexibility, and economy. It is an effective supplement to the synchrotron light source in the ultrafast detection regime.
    Reliable approach for bistatic scattering of three-dimensional targets from underlying rough surface based on parabolic equation
    Dong-Min Zhang(张东民), Cheng Liao(廖成), Liang Zhou(周亮), Xiao-Chuan Deng(邓小川), Ju Feng(冯菊)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  074102.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/074102
    Abstract ( 606 )   HTML   PDF (520KB) ( 151 )  
    A parabolic equation (PE) based method for analyzing composite scattering under an electromagnetic wave incidence at low grazing angle, which composes of three-dimensional (3-D) electrically large targets and rough surface, is presented and discussed. A superior high-order PE version is used to improve the accuracy at wider paraxial angles, and along with the alternating direction implicit (ADI) differential technique, the computational efficiency is further improved. The formula of bistatic normalized radar cross section is derived by definition and near-far field transformation. Numerical examples are given to show the validity and accuracy of the proposed approach, in which the results are compared with those of Kirchhoff approximation (KA) and moment of method (MoM). Furthermore, the bistatic scattering properties of composite model in which the 3-D PEC targets on or above the two-dimensional Gaussian rough surfaces under the tapered wave incidence are analyzed.
    Flexible control of semiconductor laser with frequency tunable modulation transfer spectroscopy
    Ning Ru(茹宁), Yu Wang(王宇), Hui-Juan Ma(马慧娟), Dong Hu(胡栋), Li Zhang(张力), Shang-Chun Fan(樊尚春)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  074201.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/074201
    Abstract ( 752 )   HTML   PDF (1199KB) ( 205 )  
    We introduce a new method of simultaneously implementing frequency stabilization and frequency shift for semiconductor lasers. We name this method the frequency tunable modulation transfer spectroscopy (FTMTS). To realize a stable output of 780 nm semiconductor laser, an FTMTS optical heterodyne frequency stabilization system is constructed. Before entering into the frequency stabilization system, the probe laser passes through an acousto-optical modulator (AOM) twice in advance to achieve tunable frequency while keeping the light path stable. According to the experimental results, the frequency changes from 120 MHz to 190 MHz after the double-pass AOM, and the intensity of laser entering into the system is greatly changed, but there is almost no change in the error signal of the FTMTS spectrum. Using this signal to lock the laser frequency, we can ensure that the frequency of the laser changes with the amount of AOM shift. Therefore, the magneto-optical trap (MOT)-molasses process can be implemented smoothly.
    Super-resolution imaging via sparsity constraint and sparse speckle illumination
    Pengwei Wang(王鹏威), Wei Li(李伟), Chenglong Wang(王成龙), Zunwang Bo(薄遵望), Wenlin Gong(龚文林)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  074202.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/074202
    Abstract ( 589 )   HTML   PDF (4545KB) ( 174 )  
    We present an imaging approach via sparsity constraint and sparse speckle illumination which can dramatically enhance the optical system's imaging resolution. When the object is illuminated by some sparse speckles and the sparse reconstruction algorithm is utilized to restore the blur image, numerical simulated results demonstrate that the image, whose resolution exceeds the Rayleigh limit, can be stably reconstructed even if the detection signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is less than 10 dB. Factors affecting the quality of the reconstructed image, such as the coded pattern's sparsity and the detection SNR, are also studied.
    TOPICAL REVIEW—SECUF: Breakthroughs and opportunities for the research of physical science
    Attosecond laser station
    Hao Teng(滕浩), Xin-Kui He(贺新奎), Kun Zhao(赵昆), Zhi-Yi Wei(魏志义)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  074203.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/074203
    Abstract ( 724 )   HTML   PDF (4664KB) ( 515 )  
    The attosecond laser station (ALS) at the Synergetic Extreme Condition User Facility (SECUF) is a sophisticated and user-friendly platform for the investigation of the electron dynamics in atoms, molecules, and condensed matter on timescales ranging from tens of femtoseconds to tens of attoseconds. Short and tunable coherent extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) light sources based on high-order harmonic generation in atomic gases are being developed to drive a variety of end-stations for inspecting and controlling ultrafast electron dynamics in real time. The combination of such light sources and end-stations offers a route to investigate fundamental physical processes in atoms, molecules, and condensed matter. The ALS consists of four beamlines, each containing a light source designed specifically for application experiments that will be performed in its own end-station. The first beamline will produce broadband XUV light for attosecond photoelectron spectroscopy and attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. It is also capable of performing attosecond streaking to characterize isolated attosecond pulses and will allow studies on the electron dynamics in atoms, moleculars, and condensed matter. The second XUV beamline will produce narrowband femtosecond XUV pulses for time-resolved and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, to study the electronic dynamics on the timescale of fundamental correlations and interactions in solids, especially in superconductors and topological insulators. The third beamline will produce broadband XUV pulses for attosecond coincidence spectroscopy in a cold-target recoil-ion momentum spectrometer, to study the ultrafast dynamics and reactions in atomic and molecular systems. The last beamline produces broadband attosecond XUV pulses designed for time-resolved photoemission electron microscopy, to study the ultrafast dynamics of plasmons in nanostructures and the surfaces of solid materials with high temporal and spatial resolutions simultaneously. The main object of the ALS is to provide domestic and international scientists with unique tools to study fundamental processes in physics, chemistry, biology, and material sciences with ultrafast temporal resolutions on the atomic scale.
    Femtosecond laser user facility for application research on ultrafast science
    Zhaohua Wang(王兆华), Shaobo Fang(方少波), Hao Teng(滕浩), Hainian Han(韩海年), Xinkui He(贺新奎), Zhiyi Wei(魏志义)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  074204.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/074204
    Abstract ( 873 )   HTML   PDF (2198KB) ( 254 )  
    The advent of chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) has greatly advanced the field of ultrafast and ultra-intense laser technology. CPA has become an indispensable platform for multidisciplinary research, such as physics, chemistry, life sciences, and precision metrology. The femtosecond laser facility at the Synergic Extreme Condition User Facility (SECUF) is a comprehensive experimental platform with an advanced femtosecond laser source for ultrafast scientific research. It will provide an ultrafast scientific research system having a few-cycle pulse duration, wide spectral range, high energy, and high repetition rate for multipurpose applications.
    Multiple-image encryption by two-step phase-shifting interferometry and spatial multiplexing of smooth compressed signal
    Xue Zhang(张学), Xiangfeng Meng(孟祥锋), Yurong Wang(王玉荣), Xiulun Yang(杨修伦), Yongkai Yin(殷永凯)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  074205.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/074205
    Abstract ( 627 )   HTML   PDF (1981KB) ( 228 )  
    A multiple-image encryption method based on two-step phase-shifting interferometry (PSI) and spatial multiplexing of a smooth compressed signal is proposed. In the encoding and encryption process, with the help of four index matrices to store original pixel positions, all the pixels of four secret images are firstly reordered in an ascending order; then, the four reordered images are transformed by five-order Haar wavelet transform and performed sparseness operation. After Arnold transform and pixels sampling operation, one combined image can be grouped with the aid of compressive sensing (CS) and spatial multiplexing techniques. Finally, putting the combined image at the input plane of the PSI encryption scheme, only two interferograms ciphertexts can be obtained. During the decoding and decryption, utilizing all the secret key groups and index matrices keys, all the original secret images can be successfully decrypted by a wave-front retrieval algorithm of two-step PSI, spatial de-multiplexing, inverse Arnold transform, inverse discrete wavelet transform, and pixels reordering operation.
    Modulation of energy spectrum and control of coherent microwave transmission at single-photon level by longitudinal field in a superconducting quantum circuit
    Xueyi Guo(郭学仪), Hui Deng(邓辉), Hekang Li(李贺康), Pengtao Song(宋鹏涛), Zhan Wang(王战), Luhong Su(苏鹭红), Jie Li(李洁), Yirong Jin(金贻荣), Dongning Zheng(郑东宁)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  074206.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/074206
    Abstract ( 763 )   HTML   PDF (1537KB) ( 135 )  

    We study the effect of longitudinally applied field modulation on a two-level system using superconducting quantum circuits. The presence of the modulation results in additional transitions and changes the magnitude of the resonance peak in the energy spectrum of the qubit. In particular, when the amplitude λz and the frequency ωl of the modulation field meet certain conditions, the resonance peak of the qubit disappears. Using this effect, we further demonstrate that the longitudinal field modulation of the Xmon qubit coupled to a one-dimensional transmission line could be used to dynamically control the transmission of single-photon level coherent resonance microwave.

    A sensitive detection of high Rydberg atom with large dipole moment
    Shan-Shan Zhang(张珊珊), Hong Cheng(成红), Pei-Pei Xin(辛培培), Han-Mu Wang(王汉睦), Zi-Shan Xu(徐子珊), Hong-Ping Liu(刘红平)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  074207.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/074207
    Abstract ( 599 )   HTML   PDF (5513KB) ( 228 )  
    We report a sensitive detection of high Rydberg atom with large dipole moment utilizing its deflection near a pair of parallel cylindrical copper rods which are oppositely charged. When the low-field seeking state Rydberg atoms fly across the gradient electric field formed by the pair of rods, they will be pushed away from the rods while the high-field seeking state ones will be attracted towards the rods. These atoms will form different patterns on an ion imaging system placed downwards at the end of the rods. The spatial distribution of the deflected atoms on the imaging system is also simulated, in good agreement with the experimental results, from which we can deduce the quantum state information of the excited atoms. This state resolvable Rydberg atom detection can be used for the dynamics research of the dipole-dipole interaction between atoms with large dipole moments.
    Estimation of photon counting statistics with imperfect detectors
    Xiao-Chuan Han(韩晓川), Dong-Wei Zhuang(庄东炜), Yu-Xuan Li(李雨轩), Jun-Feng Song(宋俊峰), Yong-Sheng Zhang(张永生)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  074208.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/074208
    Abstract ( 695 )   HTML   PDF (2072KB) ( 180 )  
    The study on photon counting statistics is of fundamental importance in quantum optics. We theoretically analyzed the imperfect detection of an arbitrary quantum state. We derived photon counting formulae for six typical quantum states (i.e., Fock, coherent, squeeze-vacuum, thermal, odd and even coherent states) with finite quantum efficiencies and dark counts based on multiple on/off detector arrays. We applied the formulae to the simulation of multiphoton number detections and obtained both the simulated and ideal photon number distributions of each state. A comparison between the results by using the fidelity and relative entropy was carried out to evaluate the detection scheme and help select detectors for different quantum states.
    Entangling two oscillating mirrors in an optomechanical system via a flying atom
    Yu-Bao Zhang(张玉宝), Jun-Hao Liu(刘军浩), Ya-Fei Yu(於亚飞), Zhi-Ming Zhang(张智明)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  074209.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/074209
    Abstract ( 665 )   HTML   PDF (393KB) ( 259 )  
    We propose a novel scheme for generating the entanglement of two oscillating mirrors in an optomechanical system via a flying atom. In this scheme, a two-level atom, in an arbitrary superposition state, passes through an optomechanical system with two oscillating cavity-mirrors, and then its states are detected. In this way, we can generate the entangled states of the two oscillating mirrors. We derive the analytical expressions of the entangled states and make numerical calculations. We find that the entanglement of the two oscillating mirrors can be controlled by the initial state of the atom, the optomechanical coupling strength, and the coupling strength between the atom and the cavity field. We investigate the dynamics of the system with dissipations and discuss the experimental feasibility.
    Novel single-transverse-mode control of VCSELs with dielectric mode filter
    Lei Xiang(向磊), Xing Zhang(张星), Jian-Wei Zhang(张建伟), You-Wen Huang(黄佑文), Yong-Qiang Ning(宁永强), Li-Jun Wang(王立军)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  074210.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/074210
    Abstract ( 703 )   HTML   PDF (1128KB) ( 210 )  
    We establish a novel method of controlling the transverse modes of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) to achieve 1 mW single-fundamental-mode lasing. A dielectric mode filter is installed on top of the VCSEL. The dielectric layer (SiO2) is deposited and patterned to modify the mirror reflectivity across the oxide aperture via antiphase reflections. This mode selection is nondestructive and universally applicable for other structures under single transverse mode. Destructive etching techniques (dry/wet) or epitaxial regrowth are also not required. This method simplifies the preparation process and improves the repeatability of the device. Measurements show that under continuous-wave current injection, the side-mode suppression ratio exceeds 30 dB.
    Linear polarization output performance of Nd: YAG laser at 946 nm considering the energy-transfer upconversion
    Jin-Xia Feng(冯晋霞), Yuan-Ji Li(李渊骥), Kuan-Shou Zhang(张宽收)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  074211.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/074211
    Abstract ( 671 )   HTML   PDF (357KB) ( 162 )  
    A theoretical model of quasi-three-level laser system is developed, in which both the thermally induced depolarization loss and the effect of energy-transfer upconversion are taken into account. Based on the theoretical investigation of the influences of output transmission and incident pump power on thermally induced depolarization loss, the output performance of 946 nm linearly polarized Nd:YAG laser is experimentally studied. By optimizing the transmission of output coupler, a 946 nm linearly polarized continuous-wave single-transverse-mode laser with an output power of 4.2 W and an optical-optical conversion efficiency of 16.8% is obtained, and the measured beam quality factors are Mx2=1.13 and My2=1.21. The theoretical prediction is in good agreement with the experimental result.
    Coupled resonator-induced transparency on a three-ring resonator
    Xinquan Jiao(焦新泉), Haobo Yu(于皓博), Miao Yu(于淼), Chenyang Xue(薛晨阳), Yongfeng Ren(任勇峰)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  074212.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/074212
    Abstract ( 535 )   HTML   PDF (856KB) ( 199 )  
    The coupled resonator-induced transparency (CRIT) phenomenon, which is analogous to electromagnetically induced transparency in atomic systems, can occur in an original integrated optical resonator system due to the coherent interference of the coupled optical resonators. The system was composed of three ring resonators on silicon, each with the same cavity size, and the optical coupling to the input and output ports was achieved using grating with a power coupling efficiency of 36%. A CRIT resonance whose spectrum shows a narrow transparency peak with a low group velocity was demonstrated. The quality factor of the ring resonator can attain a value up to 6×104, and the harmonic wavelength can be controlled by adjusting the temperature. The through and drop transmission spectra of the resonator are reconciled well with each other and also consistent well with the theoretical analysis.
    Laser absorption spectroscopy for high temperature H2O time-history measurement at 2.55 μm during oxidation of hydrogen
    Yu-Dan Gou(苟于单), De-Xiang Zhang(张德翔), Yi-Jun Wang(王易君), Chang-Hua Zhang(张昌华), Ping Li(李萍), Xiang-Yuan Li(李象远)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  074213.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/074213
    Abstract ( 636 )   HTML   PDF (690KB) ( 167 )  

    Concentration time-histories of H2O were measured behind reflected shock waves during hydrogen combustion. Experiments were conducted at temperatures of 1117-1282 K, the equivalence ratios of 0.5 and 0.25, and a pressure at 2 atm using a mixture of H2/O2 highly diluted with argon. H2O was monitored using tunable mid-infrared diode laser absorption at 2.55 μm (3920.09 cm-1). These time-histories provide kinetic targets to test and refine reaction mechanisms for hydrogen. Comparisons were made with the predictions of four detailed kinetic mechanisms published in the last four years. Such comparisons of H2O concentration profiles indicate that the AramcoMech 2.0 mechanism yields the best agreement with the experimental data, while CRECK, San Diego, and HP-Mech mechanisms show significantly poor predictions. Reaction pathway analysis for hydrogen oxidation indicates that the reaction H+OH+M=H2O+M is the key reaction for controlling the H2O formation by hydrogen oxidation. It is inferred that the discrepancy of the conversion percentage from H to H2O among these four mechanisms induces the difference of performance on H2O time-history predictions. This work demonstrates the potential of time-history measurement for validation of large reaction mechanisms.

    Controllable optical bistability in a three-mode optomechanical system with a membrane resonator
    Jiakai Yan(闫甲楷), Xiaofei Zhu(朱小霏), Bin Chen(陈彬)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  074214.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/074214
    Abstract ( 660 )   HTML   PDF (615KB) ( 202 )  
    We study the optical bistability (OB) in a three-mode cavity optomechanical system, where an oscillating membrane of perfect reflection is inserted between two fixed mirrors of partial transmission. By investigating the behavior of steady state solutions, we find that the left and right cavities will exhibit the bistable behavior simultaneously in this optomechanical system by adjusting the left and right coupling fields. In addition, one can control the OB threshold and the width of the OB curve via adjusting the coupling strength, the detuning, and the decay rate. Moreover, we further illustrate the OB appearing in the cavity by the effective potential as a function of the position.
    Decaying solitary waves propagating in one-dimensional damped granular chain
    Zongbin Song(宋宗斌), Xueying Yang(杨雪滢), Wenxing Feng(封文星), Zhonghong Xi(席忠红), Liejuan Li(李烈娟), Yuren Shi(石玉仁)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  074501.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/074501
    Abstract ( 640 )   HTML   PDF (369KB) ( 138 )  
    We numerically investigate the nonlinear waves propagating in a one-dimensional particle chain when the damping effect is taken into account. It is found that decaying solitary waves exist, in which the amplitude of the wave decreases exponentially as time increases. Meanwhile, the velocity of the solitary wave also slows down as time goes. This result implies that the damping coefficient is an important parameter in such a nonlinear system. Theoretical analysis has also been done by the reductive perturbation method. The result indicates that the nonlinear waves propagating in such a system can be described by the damped KdV equation.
    Interaction between many parallel screw dislocations and a semi-infinite crack in a magnetoelectroelastic solid
    Xin Lv(吕鑫), Guan-Ting Liu(刘官厅)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  074601.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/074601
    Abstract ( 609 )   HTML   PDF (387KB) ( 191 )  
    Based on the fundamental equations of magnetoelectroelastic material and the analytic theory, and using the Muskhelishvili-introduced well-known elastic techniques combined with the superposition principle, the closed form solution of the generalized stress field of the interaction between many parallel screw dislocations and a semi-infinite crack in an infinite magnetoelectroelastic solid is obtained, on the assumption that the surface of the crack is impermeable electrically and magnetically. Besides, the Peach-Koehler formula of n parallel screw dislocations is given. Numerical examples show that the generalized stress varies with the position of point z and is related to the material constants. The results indicate that the stress concentration occurs at the dislocation core and the tip of the crack. The result of interaction makes the system stay in a lower energy state.
    Active control of wall-bounded turbulence for drag reduction with piezoelectric oscillators
    Jian-Xia Bai(白建侠), Nan Jiang(姜楠), Xiao-Bo Zheng(郑小波), Zhan-Qi Tang(唐湛琪), Kang-Jun Wang(王康俊), Xiao-Tong Cui(崔晓通)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  074701.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/074701
    Abstract ( 558 )   HTML   PDF (1797KB) ( 199 )  
    An experimental investigation was performed for active control of coherent structure bursting in the near-wall region of the turbulent boundary layer. By means of synchronous and asynchronous vibrations with double piezoelectric vibrators, the influence of periodic vibration of the double piezoelectric vibrators on the mean velocity profile, drag reduction rate, and coherent structure bursting is analyzed at Reθ=2766. The case with 100 V/160 Hz-ASYN is superior to other conditions in the experiment and a relative drag reduction rate of 18.54% is exciting. Asynchronous vibration is more effective than synchronous vibration in drag reduction at the same voltage and frequency. In all controlled cases, coherent structures at large scales are regulated while the small-scale structures are stimulated. The fluctuating velocity increases significantly. A periodic regulating effect on the coherent structure can be seen in the ASYN control conditions at the frequency of 160 Hz.
    Investigation of flux dependent sensitivity on single event effect in memory devices
    Jie Luo(罗捷), Tie-shan Wang(王铁山), Dong-qing Li(李东青), Tian-qi Liu(刘天奇), Ming-dong Hou(侯明东), You-mei Sun(孙友梅), Jing-lai Duan(段敬来), Hui-jun Yao(姚会军), Kai Xi(习凯), Bing Ye(叶兵), Jie Liu(刘杰)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  076101.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/076101
    Abstract ( 618 )   HTML   PDF (1369KB) ( 212 )  
    Heavy-ion flux is an important experimental parameter in the ground based single event tests. The flux impact on a single event effect in different memory devices is analyzed by using GEANT4 and TCAD simulation methods. The transient radial track profile depends not only on the linear energy transfer (LET) of the incident ion, but also on the mass and energy of the ion. For the ions with the energies at the Bragg peaks, the radial charge distribution is wider when the ion LET is larger. The results extracted from the GEANT4 and TCAD simulations, together with detailed analysis of the device structure, are presented to demonstrate phenomena observed in the flux related experiment. The analysis shows that the flux effect conclusions drawn from the experiment are intrinsically connected and all indicate the mechanism that the flux effect stems from multiple ion-induced pulses functioning together and relies exquisitely on the specific response of the device.
    TOPICAL REVIEW—SECUF: Breakthroughs and opportunities for the research of physical science
    Ultrafast electron diffraction
    Xuan Wang(王瑄), Yutong Li(李玉同)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  076102.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/076102
    Abstract ( 521 )   HTML   PDF (1803KB) ( 360 )  
    Ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) technique has proven to be an innovative tool for providing new insights in lattice dynamics with unprecedented temporal and spatial sensitivities. In this article, we give a brief introduction of this technique using the proposed UED station in the Synergetic Extreme Condition User Facility (SECUF) as a prototype. We briefly discussed UED's functionality, working principle, design consideration, and main components. We also briefly reviewed several pioneer works with UED to study structure-function correlations in several research areas. With these efforts, we endeavor to raise the awareness of this tool among those researchers, who may not yet have realized the emerging opportunities offered by this technique.
    Function of large-volume high-pressure apparatus at SECUF
    Pinwen Zhu(朱品文), Qiang Tao(陶强), Lu Wang(王璐), Zhi He(何志), Tian Cui(崔田)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  076103.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/076103
    Abstract ( 764 )   HTML   PDF (2502KB) ( 339 )  
    Pressure allows the precise tuning of a fundamental parameter, the interatomic distance, which controls the electronic structure and virtually all interatomic interactions that determine material properties. Hence, pressure tuning is an effective tool in the search for new materials with enhanced properties. To realize pressure tuning on matter, large-volume press (LVP) apparatuses have been widely used not only to synthesize novel materials but also to implement the in situ measurement of physical properties. Herein, we introduce the LVP apparatuses, including belt-type, cubic anvil, and 6-8 type multi-anvil, that will be constructed at the Synergetic Extreme Condition User Facility (SECUF) at Jilin University. Typically, cell volumes of 1000 mm3 can be obtained at 20 GPa in a belt-type apparatus that is significantly larger than that obtained in a 6-8 type multi-anvil apparatus at the same pressure. Furthermore, the in situ measurement of physical properties, including thermological, electrical, and mechanical behaviors, is coupled to these LVP apparatuses. Some typical results of both synthetic experiments and in situ measurements obtained from the LVP apparatuses are also reviewed.
    Band engineering of double-wall Mo-based hybrid nanotubes
    Lei Tao(陶蕾), Yu-Yang Zhang(张余洋), Jiatao Sun(孙家涛), Shixuan Du(杜世萱), Hong-Jun Gao(高鸿钧)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  076104.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/076104
    Abstract ( 685 )   HTML   PDF (1635KB) ( 202 )  

    Hybrid transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) with different chalcogens on each side (X-TM-Y) have attracted attention because of their unique properties. Nanotubes based on hybrid TMD materials have advantages in flexibility over conventional TMD nanotubes. Here we predict the wide band gap tunability of hybrid TMD double-wall nanotubes (DWNTs) from metal to semiconductor. Using density-function theory (DFT) with HSE06 hybrid functional, we find that the electronic property of X-Mo-Y DWNTs (X=O and S, inside a tube; Y=S and Se, outside a tube) depends both on electronegativity difference and diameter difference. If there is no difference in electron negativity between inner atoms (X) of outer tube and outer atoms (Y) of inner tube, the band gap of DWNTs is the same as that of the inner one. If there is a significant electronegativity difference, the electronic property of the DWNTs ranges from metallic to semiconducting, depending on the diameter differences. Our results provide alternative ways for the band gap engineering of TMD nanotubes.

    Charge noise acting on graphene double quantum dots in circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture
    Yan Li(李炎), Shu-Xiao Li(李舒啸), Hai-Ou Li(李海欧)dag, Guang-Wei Deng(邓光伟), Gang Cao(曹刚), Ming Xiao(肖明), Guo-Ping Guo(郭国平)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  076105.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/076105
    Abstract ( 493 )   HTML   PDF (2361KB) ( 260 )  
    We investigate the dephasing mechanisms induced by the charge noise and microwave heating effect acting on a graphene double quantum dot (DQD) capacitively coupled to a microwave resonator. The charge noise is obtained from DC transport current, and its contribution to dephasing is simultaneously determined by the amplitude response of the microwave resonator. A lowfrequency 1/f-type noise is demonstrated to be the dominant factor of the dephasing of graphene DQD. Furthermore, when the applied microwave power is larger than-90 dBm, the dephasing rate of graphene DQD increases rapidly with the increase of microwave power, and fluctuates slightly with the applied microwave power smaller than-90 dBm. Our results can be applied to suppress the impeditive influence on the dephasing of graphene-based devices associated with microwave input in the perspective investigations.
    Co-adsorption of O2 and H2O on α-uranium (110) surface: A density functional theory study
    Xin Qu(瞿鑫), Ru-Song Li(李如松), Bin He(何彬), Fei Wang(王飞), Kai-Long Yuan(袁凯龙)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  076501.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/076501
    Abstract ( 515 )   HTML   PDF (683KB) ( 177 )  
    First-principles calculations based on density functional theory corrected by Hubbard parameter U (DFT+U) are applied to the study on the co-adsorption of O2 and H2O molecules to α-U(110) surface. The calculation results show that DFT+U method with Ueff=1.5 eV can yield the experimental results of lattice constant and elastic modulus of α-uranium bulk well. Of all 7 low index surfaces of α-uranium, the (001) surface is the most stable with lowest surface energy while the (110) surface possesses the strongest activity with the highest surface energy. The adsorptions of O2 and H2O molecules are investigated separated. The O2 dissociates spontaneously in all initial configurations. For the adsorption of H2O molecule, both molecular and dissociative adsorptionsoccur. Through calculations of co-adsorption, it can be confirmed that the inhibition effect of O2 on the corrosion of uranium by water vapor originates from the preferential adsorption mechanism, while the consumption of H atoms by O atoms exerted little influence on the corrosion of uranium.
    Thermal conductivity of systems with a gap in the phonon spectrum
    E Salamatov
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  076502.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/076502
    Abstract ( 495 )   HTML   PDF (550KB) ( 175 )  
    An original theoretical model for describing the low-temperature thermal conductivity in systems with a region of forbidden values (a gap) in the phonon spectrum is proposed. The model is based on new experimental results on the temperature dependence of the phonon diffusion coefficient in nanoceramics and dielectric glasses which showed a similar anomalous behavior of the diffusion coefficient in these systems that may be described under the assumption of a gap in the phonon spectrum. In this paper, the role of the gap in low-temperature behavior of the thermal conductivity, κ (T), is analyzed. The plateau in the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity is shown to correlate with the position and the width of the gap. The temperature dependence of thermal conductivity of such systems when changing the scattering parameters related to various mechanisms is studied. It is found that the umklapp process (U-processes) involving low-frequency short-wavelength phonons below the gap forms the behavior of the temperature dependence of thermal conductivity in the plateau region. A comparison of the calculated and experimental results shows considerable possibilities of the model in describing the low-temperature thermal conductivity in glass-like systems.
    Growth and transport properties of topological insulator Bi2Se3 thin film on a ferromagnetic insulating substrate
    Shanna Zhu(朱珊娜), Gang Shi(史刚), Peng Zhao(赵鹏), Dechao Meng(孟德超), Genhao Liang(梁根豪), Xiaofang Zhai(翟晓芳), Yalin Lu(陆亚林), Yongqing Li(李永庆), Lan Chen(陈岚), Kehui Wu(吴克辉)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  076801.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/076801
    Abstract ( 561 )   HTML   PDF (2358KB) ( 210 )  

    Exchange coupling between topological insulator and ferromagnetic insulator through proximity effect is strongly attractive for both fundamental physics and technological applications. Here we report a comprehensive investigation on the growth behaviors of prototype topological insulator Bi2Se3 thin film on a single-crystalline LaCoO3 thin film on SrTiO3 substrate, which is a strain-induced ferromagnetic insulator. Different from the growth on other substrates, the Bi2Se3 films with highest quality on LaCoO3 favor a relatively low substrate temperature during growth. As a result, an inverse dependence of carrier mobility with the substrate temperature is found. Moreover, the magnetoresistance and coherence length of weak antilocalization also have a similar inverse dependence with the substrate temperature, as revealed by the magnetotransport measurements. Our experiments elucidate the special behaviors in Bi2Se3/LaCoO3 heterostructures, which provide a good platform for exploring related novel quantum phenomena, and are inspiring for device applications.

    TOPICAL REVIEW—SECUF: Breakthroughs and opportunities for the research of physical science
    Quantum oscillation measurements in high magnetic field and ultra-low temperature
    Pu Wang(王瀑), Gang Li(李岗), Jian-Lin Luo(雒建林)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  077101.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/077101
    Abstract ( 625 )   HTML   PDF (981KB) ( 283 )  
    The physical properties of a solid are determined by the electrons near the Fermi energy and their low-lying excitations. Thus, it is crucially important to obtain the band structure near the Fermi energy of a material to understand many novel phenomena that occur, such as high-Tc superconductivity, density waves, and Dirac-type excitations. One important way to determine the Fermi surface topology of a material is from its quantum oscillations in an external magnetic field. In this article, we provide a brief introduction to the substation at the Synergetic Extreme Condition User Facility (SECUF), with a focus on quantum oscillation measurements, including our motivation, the structure of and the challenges in building the substation, and perspectives.
    Robustness of coherence between two quantum dots mediated by Majorana fermions
    Liang Chen(陈亮), Ye-Qi Zhang(张业奇), Rong-Sheng Han(韩榕生)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  077102.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/077102
    Abstract ( 578 )   HTML   PDF (964KB) ( 147 )  
    We study three important measurements used to identify the quantum correlations between two quantum dots (QDs) mediated by a pair of Majorana fermions (MFs) in a superconducting quantum wire. We find that, in addition to the quantum discord, the robustness of coherence (ROC) can also be considered as a quantity to measure the quantum correlation for the special case where the quantum entanglement is vanishing. For comparison, we study the quantum correlation between two QDs mediated by other fermions, i.e., regular fermions and superconducting fermions. We find that, when the quantum entanglement is not vanishing, i.e., the concurrence is finite, the detailed difference between the concurrence and ROC can be considered as an important implication for the existence of MFs.
    Anisotropic elastic properties and ideal uniaxial compressive strength of TiB2 from first principles calculations
    Min Sun(孙敏), Chong-Yu Wang(王崇愚), Ji-Ping Liu(刘吉平)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  077103.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/077103
    Abstract ( 651 )   HTML   PDF (550KB) ( 211 )  
    The structural, anisotropic elastic properties and the ideal compressive and tensile strengths of titanium diboride (TiB2) were investigated using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The stress-strain relationships of TiB2 under <1010>, <1210>, and <0001> compressive loads were calculated. Our results showed that the ideal uniaxial compressive strengths are |σ<1210>|=142.96 GPa,|σ<0001>|=188.75 GPa, and |σ<1010>|=245.33 GPa, at strains-0.16,-0.32, and-0.24, respectively. The variational trend is just the opposite to that of the ideal tensile strength with σ<1010>=44.13 GPa, σ<0001>=47.03 GPa, and σ<1210>=56.09 GPa, at strains 0.14, 0.28, and 0.22, respectively. Furthermore, it was found that TiB2 is much stronger under compression than in tension. The ratios of the ideal compressive to tensile strengths are 5.56, 2.55, and 4.01 for crystallographic directions <1010>, <1210>, and <0001>, respectively. The present results are in excellent agreement with the most recent experimental data and should be helpful to the understanding of the compressive property of TiB2.
    The effects of combining alloying elements on the elastic properties of γ-Ni in Ni-based superalloy: High-throughput first-principles calculations
    Baokun Lu(路宝坤), Chongyu Wang(王崇愚)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  077104.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/077104
    Abstract ( 670 )   HTML   PDF (1597KB) ( 209 )  
    Using high-throughput first-principles calculations, we systematically studied the synergistic effect of alloying two elements (Al and 28 kinds of 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metals) on the elastic constants and elastic moduli of γ-Ni. We used machine learning to theoretically predict the relationship between alloying concentration and mechanical properties, giving the binding energy between the two elements. We found that the ternary alloying elements strengthened the γ phase in the order of Re > Ir > W > Ru > Cr > Mo > Pt > Ta > Co. There is a quadratic parabolic relationship between the number of d shell electrons in the alloying element and the bulk modulus, and the maximum bulk modulus appears when the d shell is half full. We found a linear relationship between bulk modulus and alloying concentration over a certain alloying range. Using linear regression, we found the linear fit concentration coefficient of 29 elements. Using machine learning to theoretically predict the bulk modulus and lattice constants of Ni32XY, we predicted values close to the calculated results, with a regression parameter of R2=0.99626. Compared with pure Ni, the alloyed Ni has higher bulk modulus B, G, E, C11, and C44, but equal C12. The alloying strengthening in some of these systems is closely tied to the binding of elements, indicating that the binding energy of the alloy is a way to assess its elastic properties.
    Mid-infrared luminescence of Dy3+-doped Ga2S3-Sb2S3-CsI chalcohalide glasses
    Anping Yang(杨安平), Jiahua Qiu(邱嘉桦), Mingjie Zhang(张鸣杰), Mingyang Sun(孙明阳), Zhiyong Yang(杨志勇)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  077105.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/077105
    Abstract ( 519 )   HTML   PDF (437KB) ( 156 )  
    The mid-infrared (MIR) luminescent properties of Dy3+ ions in a new chalcohalide glass host, Ga2S3-Sb2S3-CsI, are investigated; and the suitability of the doped glass for MIR fiber lasers is evaluated. The Dy3+-doped chalcohalide glasses exhibit good thermal stability and intense MIR emissions around 2.96 μ and 4.41 μm. These emissions show quantum efficiencies (η) as high as ~60%, and have relatively large stimulated emission cross sections (σem). The low phonon energy (~307 cm-1) of the host glass accounts for the intense MIR emissions, as well as the high η. These favorable thermal and emission properties make the Dy3+-doped Ga2S3-Sb2S3-CsI glasses promising materials for MIR fiber amplifiers or lasers.
    Metal-to-insulator transition in two-dimensional ferromagnetic monolayer induced by substrate
    Can Qi(齐灿), Jun Hu(胡军)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  077106.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/077106
    Abstract ( 623 )   HTML   PDF (847KB) ( 218 )  

    Two-dimensional (2D) ferromagnetic (FM) materials have great potential for applications in next-generation spintronic devices. Since most 2D FM materials come from van der Waals crystals, stabilizing them on a certain substrate without killing the ferromagnetism is still a challenge. Through systematic first-principles calculations, we proposed a new family of 2D FM materials which combines TaX (X=S, Se or Te) monolayer and Al2O3(0001) substrate. The TaX monolayers provide magnetic states and the Al2O3(0001) substrate stabilizes the former. Interestingly, the Al2O3(0001) substrate leads to a metal-to-insulator transition in the TaX monolayers and induces a band gap up to 303 meV. Our study paves the way to explore promising 2D FM materials for practical applications in spintronics devices.

    Image charge effect on the light emission of rutile TiO2(110) induced by a scanning tunneling microscope Hot!
    Chaoyu Guo(郭钞宇), Xiangzhi Meng(孟祥志), Qin Wang(王钦), Ying Jiang(江颖)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  077301.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/077301
    Abstract ( 820 )   HTML   PDF (1087KB) ( 301 )  

    The plasmon-enhanced light emission of rutile TiO2(110) surface has been investigated by a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM). We found that the photon emission arises from the inelastic electron tunneling between the STM tip and the conduction band or defect states of TiO2(110). In contrast to the Au(111) surface, the maximum photon energy as a function of the bias voltage clearly deviates from the linear scaling behavior, suggesting the non-negligible effect of the STM tip on the band structure of TiO2. By performing differential conductance (dI/dV) measurements, it was revealed that such a deviation is not related to the tip-induced band bending, but is attributed to the image charge effect of the metal tip, which significantly shifts the band edges of the TiO2(110) towards the Femi level (EF) during the tunneling process. This work not only sheds new lights onto the understanding of plasmon-enhanced light emission of semiconductor surfaces, but also opens up a new avenue for engineering the plasmon-mediated interfacial charge transfer in molecular and semiconducting materials.

    Electronic properties of silicene in BN/silicene van der Waals heterostructures
    Ze-Bin Wu(吴泽宾), Yu-Yang Zhang(张余洋), Geng Li(李更), Shixuan Du(杜世萱), Hong-Jun Gao(高鸿钧)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  077302.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/077302
    Abstract ( 570 )   HTML   PDF (11971KB) ( 227 )  

    Silicene is a promising 2D Dirac material as a building block for van der Waals heterostructures (vdWHs). Here we investigate the electronic properties of hexagonal boron nitride/silicene (BN/Si) vdWHs using first-principles calculations. We calculate the energy band structures of BN/Si/BN heterostructures with different rotation angles and find that the electronic properties of silicene are retained and protected robustly by the BN layers. In BN/Si/BN/Si/BN heterostructure, we find that the band structure near the Fermi energy is sensitive to the stacking configurations of the silicene layers due to interlayer coupling. The coupling is reduced by increasing the number of BN layers between the silicene layers and becomes negligible in BN/Si/(BN)3/Si/BN. In (BN)n/Si superlattices, the band structure undergoes a conversion from Dirac lines to Dirac points by increasing the number of BN layers between the silicene layers. Calculations of silicene sandwiched by other 2D materials reveal that silicene sandwiched by low-carbon-doped boron nitride or HfO2 is semiconducting.

    Intrinsic charge transport behaviors in graphene-black phosphorus van der Waals heterojunction devices
    Guo-Cai Wang(王国才), Liang-Mei Wu(吴良妹), Jia-Hao Yan(严佳浩), Zhang Zhou(周璋), Rui-Song Ma(马瑞松), Hai-Fang Yang(杨海方), Jun-Jie Li(李俊杰), Chang-Zhi Gu(顾长志), Li-Hong Bao(鲍丽宏), Shi-Xuan Du(杜世萱), Hong-Jun Gao(高鸿钧)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  077303.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/077303
    Abstract ( 527 )   HTML   PDF (975KB) ( 268 )  

    Heterostructures from mechanically-assembled stacks of two-dimensional materials allow for versatile electronic device applications. Here, we demonstrate the intrinsic charge transport behaviors in graphene-black phosphorus heterojunction devices under different charge carrier densities and temperature regimes. At high carrier densities or in the ON state, tunneling through the Schottky barrier at the interface between graphene and black phosphorus dominates at low temperatures. With temperature increasing, the Schottky barrier at the interface is vanishing, and the channel current starts to decrease with increasing temperature, behaving like a metal. While at low carrier densities or in the OFF state, thermal emission over the Schottky barrier at the interface dominates the carriers transport process. A barrier height of ~67.3 meV can be extracted from the thermal emission-diffusion theory.

    Improving compatibility between thermoelectric components through current refraction
    K Song(宋坤), H P Song(宋豪鹏), C F Gao(高存法)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  077304.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/077304
    Abstract ( 662 )   HTML   PDF (526KB) ( 186 )  
    It is well known that components with dissimilar compatibility factors cannot be combined by segmentation into an efficient thermoelectric generator, since each component needs a unique optimal current density. Based on the complex variable method, the thermal-electric field within a bi-layered thermoelectric composite has been analyzed, and the field distributions have been obtained in closed-form. Our analysis shows that current refraction occurs at the interface, both the refraction angle and current density vary with the incidence angle. Further analysis proves that the current densities in two components can be adjusted independently by adjusting the incidence current density and incidence angle, thus the optimal current density can be matched in both components, and the conversion efficiency can be significantly increased. These results point to a new route for high efficiency thermoelectric composites.
    Structural phase transition, precursory electronic anomaly, and strong-coupling superconductivity in quasi-skutterudite (Sr1-xCax)3Ir4Sn13 and Ca3Rh4Sn13 Hot!
    Jun Luo(罗军), Jie Yang(杨杰), S Maeda, Zheng Li(李政), Guo-Qing Zheng(郑国庆)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  077401.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/077401
    Abstract ( 577 )   HTML   PDF (1048KB) ( 228 )  

    The interplay between superconductivity and structural phase transition has attracted enormous interest in recent years. For example, in Fe-pnictide high temperature superconductors, quantum fluctuations in association with structural phase transition have been proposed to lead to many novel physical properties and even the superconductivity itself. Here we report a finding that the quasi-skutterudite superconductors (Sr1-xCax)3Ir4Sn13 (x=0, 0.5, 1) and Ca3Rh4Sn13 show some unusual properties similar to the Fe-pnictides, through 119Sn nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements. In (Sr1-xCax)3Ir4Sn13, the NMR linewidth increases below a temperature T* that is higher than the structural phase transition temperature Ts. The spin-lattice relaxation rate (1/T1) divided by temperature (T), 1/T1T and the Knight shift K increase with decreasing T down to T*, but start to decrease below T*, and followed by more distinct changes at Ts. In contrast, none of the anomalies is observed in Ca3Rh4Sn13 that does not undergo a structural phase transition. The precursory phenomenon above the structural phase transition resembles that occurring in Fe-pnictides. In the superconducting state of Ca3Ir4Sn13, 1/T1 decays as exp(-/kBT) with a large gap =2.21 kBTc, yet without a Hebel-Slichter coherence peak, which indicates strong-coupling superconductivity. Our results provide new insight into the relationship between superconductivity and the electronic-structure change associated with structural phase transition.

    TOPICAL REVIEW—SECUF: Breakthroughs and opportunities for the research of physical science
    Advanced high-pressure transport measurement system integrated with low temperature and magnetic field
    Jing Guo(郭静), Qi Wu(吴奇), Liling Sun(孙力玲)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  077402.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/077402
    Abstract ( 547 )   HTML   PDF (3938KB) ( 280 )  
    We briefly introduce a new high-pressure transport measurement system integrated with low temperature and magnetic field that is being established as one of the user experimental stations of the Synergetic Extreme Condition User Facilities in the Huairou District of Beijing, China. To demonstrate the capabilities of the system for condensed matter research, the emergence of some pressure-induced phenomena and physics related to superconductivity found previously is also introduced, and then a perspective for such an advanced high-pressure system is presented.
    Cubic anvil cell apparatus for high-pressure and low-temperature physical property measurements
    Jin-Guang Cheng(程金光), Bo-Sen Wang(王铂森), Jian-Ping Sun(孙建平), Yoshiya Uwatoko
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  077403.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/077403
    Abstract ( 655 )   HTML   PDF (2532KB) ( 266 )  
    We will build a cubic anvil cell (CAC) apparatus for high-pressure and low-temperature physical property measurements in the synergic extreme condition user facility (SECUF). In this article, we first introduce the operating principle, the development history, and the current status of the CAC apparatus, and subsequently describe the design plan and technical targets for the CAC in SECUF. We will demonstrate the unique advantages of CAC, i.e., excellent pressure homogeneity and large hydrostatic pressure capacity, by summarizing our recent research progresses using CAC. Finally, we conclude by providing some perspectives on the applications of CAC in the related research fields.
    Nuclear magnetic resonance measurement station in SECUF using hybrid superconducting magnets
    Zheng Li(李政), Guo-qing Zheng(郑国庆)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  077404.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/077404
    Abstract ( 787 )   HTML   PDF (3451KB) ( 214 )  
    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is one of the most powerful tools to explore new quantum states of condensed matter induced by high magnetic fields at a microscopic level. High magnetic field enhances the intensity of the NMR signal, and more importantly, can induce novel phenomena. In this article, examples are given on the field-induced charge density wave (CDW) in high-Tc superconductors and on the studies of quantum spin liquids. We provide a brief introduction to the high magnetic field NMR platform, the station 4 of the Synergetic Extreme Condition User Facility (SECUF), being built at Huairou, Beijing.
    Effect of Mn substitution on superconductivity in iron selenide (Li, Fe)OHFeSe single crystals
    Yiyuan Mao(毛义元), Zian Li(李子安), Huaxue Zhou(周花雪), Mingwei Ma(马明伟), Ke Chai(柴可), Shunli Ni(倪顺利), Shaobo Liu(刘少博), Jinpeng Tian(田金鹏), Yulong Huang(黄裕龙), Jie Yuan(袁洁), Fang Zhou(周放), Jianqi Li(李建奇), Kui Jin(金魁), Xiaoli Dong(董晓莉), Zhongxian Zhao(赵忠贤)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  077405.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/077405
    Abstract ( 741 )   HTML   PDF (1135KB) ( 163 )  

    We synthesize a series of Mn substituted (Li, Fe)OHFeSe superconductor single crystals via a modified ion-exchange method, with the Mn concentration z (the atomic ratio of Mn:Se) ranging from 0 to 0.07. The distribution homogeneity of the Mn element incorporated into the lattice of (Li, Fe)OHFeSe is checked by combined measurements of high-angle-annular-dark-field (HAADF) imaging and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Interestingly, we find that the superconducting transition temperature Tc and unit cell parameter c of the Mn-doped (Li, Fe)OHFeSe samples display similar V-shaped evolutions with the increasing dopant concentration z. We propose that, with increasing doping level, the Mn dopant first occupies the tetrahedral sites in the (Li, Fe)OH layers before starting to substitute the Fe element in the superconducting FeSe layers, which accounts for the V-shaped change in cell parameter c. The observed positive correlation between the Tc and lattice parameter c, regardless of the Mn doping level z, indicates that a larger interlayer separation, or a weaker interlayer coupling, is essential for the high-Tc superconductivity in (Li, Fe)OHFeSe. This agrees with our previous observations on powder, single crystal, and film samples of (Li, Fe)OHFeSe superconductors.

    Highly sensitive and stable SERS probes of alternately deposited Ag and Au layers on 3D SiO2 nanogrids for detection of trace mercury ions
    Yi Tian(田毅), Han-Fu Wang(王汉夫), Lan-Qin Yan(闫兰琴), Xian-Feng Zhang(张先锋), Attia Falak, Pei-Pei Chen(陈佩佩), Feng-Liang Dong(董凤良), Lian-Feng Sun(孙连峰), Wei-Guo Chu(禇卫国)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  077406.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/077406
    Abstract ( 568 )   HTML   PDF (4293KB) ( 254 )  

    The hazard of Hg ion pollution triggers the motivation to explore a fast, sensitive, and reliable detection method. Here, we design and fabricate novel 36-nm-thick Ag-Au composite layers alternately deposited on three-dimensional (3D) periodic SiO2 nanogrids as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) probes. The SERS effects of the probes depend mainly on the positions and intensities of their localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peaks, which is confirmed by the absorption spectra from finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations. By optimizing the structure and material to maximize the intrinsic electric field enhancement based on the design method of 3D periodic SERS probes proposed, high performance of the Ag-Au/SiO2 nanogrid probes is achieved with the stability further enhanced by annealing. The optimized probes show the outstanding stability with only 4.0% SERS intensity change during 10-day storage, the excellent detection uniformity of 5.78% (RSD), the detection limit of 5.0×10-12 M (1 ppt), and superior selectivity for Hg ions. The present study renders it possible to realize the rapid and reliable detection of trace heavy metal ions by developing high-performance 3D periodic structure SERS probes by designing novel 3D structure and optimizing plasmonic material.

    TOPICAL REVIEW—SECUF: Breakthroughs and opportunities for the research of physical science
    Magneto optics and time resolved terahertz spectrocopy
    T Dong(董涛), Z G Chen(谌志国), N L Wang(王楠林)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  077501.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/077501
    Abstract ( 626 )   HTML   PDF (3485KB) ( 463 )  
    Exploring, manipulating, and understanding new exotic quantum phenomena in condensed-matter systems have generated great interest in the scientific community. Static and time resolved optical spectroscopies after photoexcitations are important experimental tools for probing charge dynamics and quasiparticle excitations in quantum materials. In Synergetic Extreme Condition User Facility (SECUF), we shall construct magneto-infrared and terahertz measurement systems and develop a number of ultrafast femtosecond laser based systems, including intense near to mid-infrared pump terahertz probe. In this article, we shall describe several systems to be constructed and developed in the facilities, then present some examples explaining the application of magneto optics and time resolved spectroscopy techniques.
    Asymmetric response of magnetic impurity in Bernal-stacked bilayer honeycomb lattice
    Jin-Hua Sun(孙金华), Ho-Kin Tang(邓皓键)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  077502.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/077502
    Abstract ( 577 )   HTML   PDF (679KB) ( 145 )  

    We utilize the Hirsch-Fye quantum Monte Carlo method to investigate the local moment formation of a magnetic impurity in a Bernal-stacked bilayer honeycomb lattice. A tight-binding model with the two most significant inter-layer hoppings, t1 between pairs of dimer sites and t3 between pairs of non-dimer sites, is used to describe the kinetic energy of the system. The local moment formed shows an asymmetric response to the inter-layer hoppings depending on which sublattice the impurity is coupled to. In the dimer and non-dimer couplings, the effects of t1 and t3 onto the local moment are quite opposite. When tuning the local moment, this asymmetric response is observed in a wide parameter range. This asymmetric response is also discussed by the computations of spectral densities, as well as correlation functions between the magnetic impurity and the conduction electrons.

    Magnetic properties of L10 FePt thin film influenced byrecoverable strains stemmed from the polarization of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 substrate
    Li-Wang Liu(刘立旺), Cheng-Chao Hu(胡成超), Ye-Chuan Xu(徐野川), Hou-Bing Huang(黄厚兵), Jiang-Wei Cao(曹江伟), Linyun Liang(梁林云), Wei-Feng Rao(饶伟锋)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  077503.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/077503
    Abstract ( 505 )   HTML   PDF (2774KB) ( 207 )  

    The magnetic properties and magnetization reversible processes of L10 FePt (3 nm)/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) heterostructure were investigated by using the phase field model. The simulation results show that the magnetic coercivities and magnetic domains evolution in the L10 FePt thin film are significantly influenced by the compressive strains stemming from the polarization of single crystal PMN-PT substrate under an applied electric field. It is found that the magnetic coercivities increase with increasing of the compressive strain. A large compressive strain is beneficial to aligning the magnetic moments along the out-of-plane direction and to the enhancement of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The variations of magnetic energy densities show that when compressive strains are different at the magnetization reversible processes, the magnetic anisotropy energies and the magnetic exchange energies firstly increase and then decrease, the negative demagnetization energy peaks appear at coercivities fields, and the magnetoelastic energies are invariable at large external magnetic field with the energy maximum appearing at coercivities fields. The variations of the magnetoelastic energies bring about the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy so that the magnetoelastic energy is lower at the large external magnetic fields, whereas the appearance of magnetoelastic energy peaks is due to the magnetization-altered direction from the normal direction of the plane of the L10 FePt thin film at coercivities fields.

    Magnetic properties of misch-metal partially substituted Nd-Fe-B magnets sintered by dual alloy method
    Jie-Fu Xiong(熊杰夫), Rong-Xiang Shang(商荣翔), Yan-Li Liu(刘艳丽), Xin Zhao(赵鑫), Wen-Liang Zuo(左文亮), Feng-Xia Hu(胡凤霞), Ji-Rong Sun(孙继荣), Tong-Yun Zhao(赵同云), Ren-Jie Chen(陈仁杰), Bao-Gen Shen(沈保根)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  077504.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/077504
    Abstract ( 782 )   HTML   PDF (8914KB) ( 179 )  
    The misch-metal (MM) partially substituted Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets were fabricated by the dual alloy method, and the crystal structure, microstructure, and magnetic properties were analyzed comprehensively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals that the increasing content of the MM has an inconsiderable effect on the crystallographic alignment of the magnets. Grains of the two main phases are uniformly distributed, and slightly deteriorate on the grain boundary. Due to the diffusion between the adjacent grains, the MM substituted Nd-Fe-B magnets contain three types of components with different Ce/La concentrations. Moreover, the first-order reversal curve (FORC) diagram is introduced to analyze the magnetization reversal process, coercivity mechanism, and distribution of reversal field in magnetic samples. The analysis indicates that there are two major reversal components, corresponding to the two different main phases. The domain nucleation and growth are determined to be the leading mechanism in controlling the magnetization reversal processes of the magnets sintered by the dual alloy method.
    Domain wall dynamics in magnetic nanotubes driven by an external magnetic field
    Zai-Dong Li(李再东), Yue-Chuan Hu(胡月川), Peng-Bin He(贺鹏斌), Lin-Lin Sun(孙琳琳)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  077505.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/077505
    Abstract ( 638 )   HTML   PDF (397KB) ( 170 )  
    We use the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation to investigate field-driven domain wall propagation in magnetic nanotubes. We find that the distortion is maximum as the time becomes infinite and the exact rigid-body solutions are obtained analytically. We also find that the velocity increases with increasing the ratio of inner radius and outer radius. That is to say, we can accelerate domain wall motion not only by increasing the magnetic field, but also by reducing the thickness of the nanotubes.
    TOPICAL REVIEW—SECUF: Breakthroughs and opportunities for the research of physical science
    Raman scattering under extreme conditions
    Feng Jin(金峰), Yang Yang(杨洋), An-Min Zhang(张安民), Jian-Ting Ji(籍建葶), Qing-Ming Zhang(张清明)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  077801.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/077801
    Abstract ( 479 )   HTML   PDF (9964KB) ( 396 )  
    Raman scattering is a versatile and powerful technique and has been widely used in modern scientific research and vast industrial applications. It is one of the fundamental experimental techniques in condensed matter physics, since it can sensitively probe the basic elementary excitations in solids like electron, phonon, magnon, etc. The application of extreme conditions (low temperature, high magnetic field, high pressure, etc.) to Raman scattering, will push its capability up to an unprecedented level, because this enables us to look into new quantum phases driven by extreme conditions, trace the evolution of the excitations and their coupling, and hence uncover the underlying physics. This review contains two topics. In the first part, we will introduce the Raman facility under extreme conditions, belonging to the optical spectroscopy station of Synergetic Extreme Condition User Facilities (SECUF), with emphasis on the system design and the capability the facility can provide. Then in the second part we will focus on the applications of Raman scattering under extreme conditions to a variety of condensed matter systems such as superconductors, correlated electron systems, charge density waves (CDW) materials, etc. Finally, as a rapidly developing technique, time-resolved Raman scattering will be highlighted here.
    Crystal growth, spectroscopic characteristics, and Judd-Ofelt analysis of Dy: Lu2O3 for yellow laser
    Jiaojiao Shi(施佼佼), Bin Liu(刘斌), Qingguo Wang(王庆国), Huili Tang(唐慧丽), Feng Wu(吴锋), Dongzhen Li(李东振), Hengyu Zhao(赵衡煜), Zhanshan Wang(王占山), Wen Deng(邓文), Xiaodong Xu(徐晓东), Jun Xu(徐军)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  077802.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/077802
    Abstract ( 616 )   HTML   PDF (762KB) ( 199 )  

    Dy:Lu2O3 was grown by the float-zone (Fz) method. According to the absorption spectrum, the Judd-Ofelt (JO) parameters Ω2, Ω4, and Ω6 were calculated to be 4.86×10-20 cm2, 2.02×10-20 cm2, and 1.76×10-20 cm2, respectively. The emission cross-section at 574 nm corresponding to the 4F9/26H13/2 transition was calculated to be 0.53×10-20 cm2. The yellow (4F9/26H13/2 transition) to blue (4F9/26H15/2 transition) intensity ratio ranges up to 12.9. The fluorescence lifetime of the 4F9/2 energy level was measured to be 112.1 μs. These results reveal that Dy:Lu2O3 is a promising material for use in yellow lasers.

    Time-resolved shadowgraphs and morphology analyses of aluminum ablation with multiple femtosecond laser pulses
    Zehua Wu(吴泽华), Nan Zhang(张楠), Xiaonong Zhu(朱晓农), Liqun An(安力群), Gangzhi Wang(王刚志), Ming Tan(谭明)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  077901.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/077901
    Abstract ( 593 )   HTML   PDF (4214KB) ( 174 )  
    Aluminum ablation by multiple femtosecond laser pulses is investigated via time-resolved shadowgraphs and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the ablation spot. The spatial distribution of the ejected material and the radius of the shock wave generated during the ablation are found to vary with the increase in the number of pulses. In the initial two pulses, nearly concentric and semicircular stripes within the shock wave front are observed, unlike in subsequent pulses. Ablation by multiple femtosecond pulses exhibits different characteristics compared with the case induced by single femtosecond pulse because of the changes to the aluminum target surface induced by the preceding pulses.
    Optoelectronic properties of single-crystalline GaInAsSb quaternary alloy nanowires
    Meng-Zi Li(李梦姿), Xin-Liang Chen(陈新亮), Hong-Lai Li(李洪来), Xue-Hong Zhang(张学红), Zhao-Yang Qi(祁朝阳), Xiao-Xia Wang(王晓霞), Peng Fan(范鹏), Qing-Lin Zhang(张清林), Xiao-Li Zhu(朱小莉), Xiu-Juan Zhuang(庄秀娟)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  078101.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/078101
    Abstract ( 461 )   HTML   PDF (1386KB) ( 214 )  
    Bandgap engineering of semiconductor nanomaterials is critical for their applications in nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, and photonics. Here we report, for the first time, the growth of single-crystalline quaternary alloyed Ga0.75In0.25As0.49Sb0.51 nanowires via a chemical-vapor-deposition method. The synthesized nanowires have a uniform composition distribution along the growth direction, with a zinc-blende structure. In the photoluminescence investigation, these quaternary alloyed semiconductor nanowires show a strong band edge light emission at 1950 nm (0.636 eV). Photodetectors based on these alloy nanowires show a strong light response in the near-infrared region (980 nm) with the external quantum efficiency of 2.0×104% and the responsivity of 158 A/W. These novel near-infrared photodetectors may find promising applications in integrated infrared photodetection, information communication, and processing.
    Silica encapsulated ZnO quantum dot-phosphor nanocomposites: Sol-gel preparation and white light-emitting device application
    Ya-Chuan Liang(梁亚川), Kai-Kai Liu(刘凯凯), Ying-Jie Lu(卢英杰), Qi Zhao(赵琪), Chong-Xin Shan(单崇新)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  078102.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/078102
    Abstract ( 721 )   HTML   PDF (1655KB) ( 198 )  

    ZnO quantum dots (QDs) as an eco-friendly and low-cost material has bright fluorescence, which makes it promising material for healthy lighting and displaying. However, the low fluorescence efficiency and poor stability of ZnO QDs impede their applications in lighting application. In this work, silica encapsulated ZnO QD-phosphors nanocomposites (ZSPN) have been prepared through a sol-gel synthesis process, where yellow-emitting ZnO QDs and blue-emitting BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ are employed as the luminescence cores and silica as link between two luminescence materials. Tunable photoluminescence of ZSPN and the white light emission have been achieved through changing mass ratio of both of ZnO QDs and commercial phosphors. The PLQY of the ZSPN can reach 63.7% and they can maintain high luminous intensity even the ambient temperature up to 110 ℃ and after 35 h of UV irradiation. In addition, they can keep stable for 40 days. By coating the ZSPN phosphors onto a ultraviolet chip, WLEDs with luminous efficiency of 73.6 lm/W and the color coordinate, correlated color temperature, and color rendering index can reach (0.32, 0.34), 5580 K, and 87, respectively, indicating the bright prospect of the ZSPN phosphors used in healthy lighting.

    A high-performance rechargeable Li-O2 battery with quasi-solid-state electrolyte Hot!
    Jia-Yue Peng(彭佳悦), Jie Huang(黄杰), Wen-Jun Li(李文俊), Yi Wang(王怡), Xiqian Yu(禹习谦), Yongsheng Hu(胡勇胜), Liquan Chen(陈立泉), Hong Li(李泓)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  078201.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/078201
    Abstract ( 792 )   HTML   PDF (2740KB) ( 255 )  

    A novel transparent and soft quasi-solid-state electrolyte (QSSE) was proposed and fabricated, which consists of ionic liquid (PYR14TFSI) and nano-fumed silica. The QSSE demonstrates high ionic conductivity of 4.6×10-4 S/cm at room temperature and wide electrochemical stability window of over 5 V. The Li-O2 battery using such quasi-solid-state electrolyte exhibits a low charge-discharge overpotential at the first cycle and excellent long-term cyclability over 500 cycles.

    The electric field and frequency responses of giant electrorheological fluids
    Hanqing Zhao(赵汉青), Rong Shen(沈容), Kunquan Lu(陆坤权)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  078301.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/078301
    Abstract ( 704 )   HTML   PDF (11112KB) ( 146 )  

    The giant electrorheological (ER) fluid is based on the principle of a polar molecule dominated electrorheological (PM-ER) effect. The response of the shear stress for PM-ER fluid in alternate electric fields with triangle/square wave forms for different frequencies has been studied. The results show that the shear stress cannot well follow the rapid change of electric field and the average shear stresses of PM-ER fluids decrease with the increasing frequency of the applied field due to the response decay of the shear stress on applied field. The behavior is quite different from that of traditional ER fluids. However, the average shear stress of PM-ER fluid in a square wave electric field of ±E at low frequency can keep at high value. The obtained knowledge must be helpful for the design and operation of PM-ER fluids in the applications.

    Dependence of single event upsets sensitivity of low energy proton on test factors in 65 nm SRAM
    Yin-Yong Luo(罗尹虹), Feng-Qi Zhang(张凤祁), Xiao-Yu Pan(潘霄宇), Hong-Xia Guo(郭红霞), Yuan-Ming Wang(王圆明)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  078501.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/078501
    Abstract ( 502 )   HTML   PDF (647KB) ( 184 )  

    In order to accurately predict the single event upsets (SEU) rate of on-orbit proton, the influence of the proton energy distribution, incident angle, supply voltage, and test pattern on the height, width, and position of SEU peak of low energy protons (LEP) in 65 nm static random access memory (SRAM) are quantitatively evaluated and analyzed based on LEP testing data and Monte Carlo simulation. The results show that different initial proton energies used to degrade the beam energy will bring about the difference in the energy distribution of average proton energy at the surface and sensitive region of the device under test (DUT), which further leads to significant differences including the height of SEU peak and the threshold energy of SEU. Using the lowest initial proton energy is extremely important for SEU testing with low energy protons. The proton energy corresponding to the SEU peak shifts to higher average proton energies with the increase of the tilt angle, and the SEU peaks also increase significantly. The reduction of supply voltage lowers the critical charge of SEU, leading to the increase of LEP SEU cross section. For standard 6-transitor SRAM with bit-interleaving technology, SEU peak does not show clear dependence on three test patterns of logical checkerboard 55H, all “1”, and all “0”. It should be noted that all the SEUs in 65 nm SRAM are single cell upset in LEP testing due to proton's low linear energy transfer (LET) value.

    Ge/Si heterojunction L-shape tunnel field-effect transistors with hetero-gate-dielectric
    Cong Li(李聪), Zhi-Rui Yan(闫志蕊), Yi-Qi Zhuang(庄奕琪), Xiao-Long Zhao(赵小龙), Jia-Min Guo(郭嘉敏)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  078502.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/078502
    Abstract ( 506 )   HTML   PDF (1485KB) ( 223 )  
    A Ge/Si heterojunction L-shaped tunnel field-effect transistor combined with hetero-gate-dielectric (GHL-TFET) is proposed and investigated by TCAD simulation. Current-voltage characteristics, energy-band diagrams, and the distribution of the band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) generation rate of GHL-TFET are analyzed. In addition, the effect of the vertical channel width on the ON-current is studied and the thickness of the gate dielectric is optimized for better suppression of ambipolar current. Moreover, analog/RF figure-of-merits of GHL-TFET are also investigated in terms of the cut-off frequency and gain bandwidth production. Simulation results indicate that the ON-current of GHL-TFET is increased by about three orders of magnitude compared with that of the conventional L-shaped TFET. Besides, the introduction of the hetero-gate-dielectric not only suppresses the ambipolar current effectively but also improves the analog/RF performance drastically. It is demonstrated that the maximum cut-off frequency of GHL-TFET is about 160 GHz, which is 20 times higher than that of the conventional L-shaped TFET.
    Synthesis of thermally stable HfOxNy as gate dielectric for AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors
    Tong Zhang(张彤), Taofei Pu(蒲涛飞), Tian Xie(谢天), Liuan Li(李柳暗), Yuyu Bu(补钰煜), Xiao Wang(王霄), Jin-Ping Ao(敖金平)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  078503.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/078503
    Abstract ( 872 )   HTML   PDF (1160KB) ( 167 )  

    In this paper, we adopted thermally stable HfOxNy as gate dielectric for TiN/HfOxNy/AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) application. It demonstrated that the surface morphologies, composition, and optical properties of the HfOxNy films were dependent on oxygen flow rate in the O2/N2/Ar mixture sputtering ambient. The obtained metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors by depositing HfO2 and HfOxNy dielectric at different oxygen flow rates possessed a small hysteresis and a low leakage current. After post deposition annealing at 900 ℃, the device using HfOxNy dielectric operated normally with good pinch-off characteristics, while obvious degradation are observed for the HfO2 gated one at 600 ℃. This result shows that the HfOxNy dielectric is a promising candidate for the self-aligned gate process.

    Treatable focal region modulated by double excitation signal superimposition to realize platform temperature distribution during transcranial brain tumor therapy with high-intensity focused ultrasound
    Shi-Hui Chang(常诗卉), Rui Cao(曹睿), Ya-Bin Zhang(张亚斌), Pei-Guo Wang(王佩国), Shi-Jing Wu(吴世敬), Yu-Han Qian(钱宇晗), Xi-Qi Jian(菅喜岐)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  078701.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/078701
    Abstract ( 478 )   HTML   PDF (1855KB) ( 192 )  
    Recently, the phase compensation technique has allowed the ultrasound to propagate through the skull and focus into the brain. However, the temperature evolution during treatment is hard to control to achieve effective treatment and avoid over-high temperature. Proposed in this paper is a method to modulate the temperature distribution in the focal region. It superimposes two signals which focus on two preset different targets with a certain distance. Then the temperature distribution is modulated by changing triggering time delay and amplitudes of the two signals. The simulation model is established based on an 82-element transducer and computed tomography (CT) data of a volunteer's head. A finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is used to calculate the temperature distributions. The results show that when the distances between the two targets respectively are 7.5-12.5 mm on the acoustic axis and 2.0-3.0 mm in the direction perpendicular to the acoustic axis, a focal region with a uniform temperature distribution (64-65 ℃) can be created. Moreover, the volume of the focal region formed by one irradiation can be adjusted (26.8-266.7 mm3) along with the uniform temperature distribution. This method may ensure the safety and efficacy of HIFU brain tumor therapy.
    Dependence of the solar cell performance on nanocarbon/Si heterojunctions
    Shiqi Xiao(肖仕奇), Qingxia Fan(范庆霞), Xiaogang Xia(夏晓刚), Zhuojian Xiao(肖卓建), Huiliang Chen(陈辉亮), Wei Xi(席薇), Penghui Chen(陈鹏辉), Junjie Li(李俊杰), Yanchun Wang(王艳春), Huaping Liu(刘华平), Weiya Zhou(周维亚)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  078801.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/078801
    Abstract ( 497 )   HTML   PDF (1270KB) ( 178 )  

    Solar cells that combine single-crystalline silicon (Si) with graphene (G) have been widely researched in order to develop next-generation photovoltaic devices. However, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of G/Si solar cell without chemical doping is commonly low due to the relatively high resistance of graphene. In this work, through combining graphene with carbon nanotube (CNT) networks, we fabricated three kinds of hybrid nanocarbon film/Si heterojunction solar cells in order to increase the PCE of the graphene based Si solar cell. We investigated the characteristics of different nanocarbon film/Si solar cells and found that their performance depends on the heterojunctions. Specifically, a doping-free G-CNT/Si solar cell demonstrated a high PCE of 7.9%, which is nearly equal to the combined value of two individuals (G/Si and CNT/Si). This high efficiency is attributed to the synergistic effect of graphene and CNTs, and can be further increased to 9.1% after applying a PMMA antireflection coating. This study provides a potential way to further improve the Si based heterojunction solar cells.

    Self-assembled monolayer modified copper(I) iodide hole transport layer for efficient polymer solar cells
    Yuancong Zhong(钟远聪), Qilun Zhang(张琪伦), You Wei(魏优), Qi Li(李琦), Yong Zhang(章勇)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  078802.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/078802
    Abstract ( 575 )   HTML   PDF (3272KB) ( 235 )  
    The morphology of the copper iodide (CuI) film as an inorganic p-type material has an important influence on enhancing the performance of polymer solar cells (PSCs). A self-assembled monolayer of 3-aminopropanoic acid (C3-SAM) was used on the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) before depositing the CuI films. Consequently, a well-distributed and smooth CuI film was formed with pinhole free and complete surface coverage. The root mean square of the corresponding CuI film was reduced from 3.63 nm for ITO/CuI to 0.77 nm. As a result, the average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of PSCs with the device structure of ITO/C3-SAM/CuI/P3HT:PC61BM/ZnO/Al increased significantly from 2.55% (best 2.66%) to 3.04% (best 3.20%) after C3-SAM treatment. This work provides an effective strategy to control the morphology of CuI films through interfacial modification and promotes its application in efficient PSCs.
    Model and application of bidirectional pedestrian flows at signalized crosswalks
    Tao Zhang(张涛), Gang Ren(任刚), Zhi-Gang Yu(俞志钢), Yang Yang(杨阳)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7):  078901.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/078901
    Abstract ( 745 )   HTML   PDF (2327KB) ( 218 )  
    This research of bidirectional pedestrian flows at signalized crosswalks is divided into two parts:model and application. In the model part, a mixed survey including the questionnaire investigation and tracking investigation is conducted to gain the basic data about walking tendentiousness of a pedestrian crossing. Then, the forward, right-hand, outstripping, and influential coefficients are outlined to quantize walking tendentiousness of pedestrian crossing and estimate transition probabilities of pedestrians. At last, an improved cellular automation model is proposed to describe walking tendentiousness and crossing behaviors of pedestrians. In the application part, channelization research of bidirectional pedestrian flows is presented for real signalized crosswalk. In this process, the effects of right-side-walking and conformity behaviors on the efficiency of pedestrian crossing are thoroughly analyzed based on simulations and experiments to obtain a final channelization method to raise the efficiency of a pedestrian crossing at the crosswalk.
ISSN 1674-1056   CN 11-5639/O4
, Vol. 27, No. 7

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