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    Topological nodal line semimetals
    Chen Fang(方辰), Hongming Weng(翁红明), Xi Dai(戴希), Zhong Fang(方忠)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2016, 25 (11): 117106.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/25/11/117106
    Abstract1912)   HTML    PDF (413KB)(1904)      

    We review the recent, mainly theoretical, progress in the study of topological nodal line semimetals in three dimensions. In these semimetals, the conduction and the valence bands cross each other along a one-dimensional curve in the three-dimensional Brillouin zone, and any perturbation that preserves a certain symmetry group (generated by either spatial symmetries or time-reversal symmetry) cannot remove this crossing line and open a full direct gap between the two bands. The nodal line(s) is hence topologically protected by the symmetry group, and can be associated with a topological invariant. In this review, (i) we enumerate the symmetry groups that may protect a topological nodal line; (ii) we write down the explicit form of the topological invariant for each of these symmetry groups in terms of the wave functions on the Fermi surface, establishing a topological classification; (iii) for certain classes, we review the proposals for the realization of these semimetals in real materials; (iv) we discuss different scenarios that when the protecting symmetry is broken, how a topological nodal line semimetal becomes Weyl semimetals, Dirac semimetals, and other topological phases; and (v) we discuss the possible physical effects accessible to experimental probes in these materials.

    Cited: Web of science (248)
    Multi-scale computation methods: Their applications in lithium-ion battery research and development
    Siqi Shi(施思齐), Jian Gao(高健), Yue Liu(刘悦), Yan Zhao(赵彦), Qu Wu(武曲), Wangwei Ju(琚王伟), Chuying Ouyang(欧阳楚英), Ruijuan Xiao(肖睿娟)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2016, 25 (1): 018212.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/25/1/018212
    Abstract1746)   HTML    PDF (8503KB)(1816)      

    Based upon advances in theoretical algorithms, modeling and simulations, and computer technologies, the rational design of materials, cells, devices, and packs in the field of lithium-ion batteries is being realized incrementally and will at some point trigger a paradigm revolution by combining calculations and experiments linked by a big shared database, enabling accelerated development of the whole industrial chain. Theory and multi-scale modeling and simulation, as supplements to experimental efforts, can help greatly to close some of the current experimental and technological gaps, as well as predict path-independent properties and help to fundamentally understand path-independent performance in multiple spatial and temporal scales.

    Cited: Web of science (219)
    Review of magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect in the intermetallic compounds of rare earth with low boiling point metals
    Ling-Wei Li(李领伟)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2016, 25 (3): 037502.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/25/3/037502
    Abstract1111)   HTML    PDF (1443KB)(1077)      

    The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in many rare earth (RE) based intermetallic compounds has been extensively investigated during the last two decades, not only due to their potential applications for magnetic refrigeration but also for better understanding of the fundamental problems of the materials. This paper reviews our recent progress on studying the magnetic properties and MCE in some binary or ternary intermetallic compounds of RE with low boiling point metal(s) (Zn, Mg, and Cd). Some of them exhibit promising MCE properties, which make them attractive for low temperature magnetic refrigeration. Characteristics of the magnetic transition, origin of large MCE, as well as the potential application of these compounds are thoroughly discussed. Additionally, a brief review of the magnetic and magnetocaloric properties in the quaternary rare earth nickel boroncarbides RENi2B2C superconductors is also presented.

    Cited: Web of science (157)
    Spinel lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12) as novel anode material for room-temperature sodium-ion battery
    Zhao Liang (赵亮),Pan Hui-Lin (潘慧霖),Hu Yong-Sheng (胡勇胜),Li Hong (李泓),Chen Li-Quan (陈立泉)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2012, 21 (2): 028201.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/21/2/028201
    Abstract1817)      PDF (686KB)(2277)      
    This is the first time that a novel anode material, spinel Li4Ti5O12 which is well known as a “zero-strain” anode material for lithium storage, has been introduced for sodium-ion battery. The Li4Ti5O12 shows an average Na storage voltage of about 1.0 V and a reversible capacity of about 145 mAh/g, thereby making it a promising anode for sodium-ion battery. Ex-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) is used to investigate the structure change in the Na insertion/deinsertion process. Based on this, a possible Na storage mechanism is proposed.
    Cited: Web of science (100)
    A two-step quantum secure direct communication protocol with hyperentanglement
    Gu Bin(顾斌), Huang Yu-Gai(黄余改), Fang Xia(方夏), and Zhang Cheng-Yi(张成义)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2011, 20 (10): 100309.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/20/10/100309
    Abstract1469)      PDF (107KB)(1357)      
    We propose a two-step quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol with hyperentanglement in both the spatial-mode and the polarization degrees of freedom of photon pairs which can in principle be produced with a beta barium borate crystal. The secret message can be encoded on the photon pairs with unitary operations in these two degrees of freedom independently. This QSDC protocol has a higher capacity than the original two-step QSDC protocol as each photon pair can carry 4 bits of information. Compared with the QSDC protocol based on hyperdense coding, this QSDC protocol has the immunity to Trojan horse attack strategies with the process for determining the number of the photons in each quantum signal as it is a one-way quantum communication protocol.
    Cited: Web of science (98)
    Exact solutions for nonlinear partial fractional differential equations
    Khaled A. Gepreel, Saleh Omran
    Chin. Phys. B, 2012, 21 (11): 110204.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/21/11/110204
    Abstract1429)      PDF (105KB)(2341)      
    In this article, we use the fractional complex transformation to convert the nonlinear partial fractional differential equations to the nonlinear ordinary differential equations. We use the improved (G'/G)-expansion function method to calculate the exact solutions for the time and space fractional derivatives Foam Drainage equation and the time and space fractional derivatives nonlinear KdV equation. This method is efficient and powerful in solving wide classes of nonlinear evolution fractional order equations.
    Cited: Web of science (96)
    Exact solutions of nonlinear fractional differential equations by (G’/G)-expansion method
    Ahmet Bekir, Özkan Güner
    Chin. Phys. B, 2013, 22 (11): 110202.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/22/11/110202
    Abstract844)      PDF (189KB)(2541)      
    In this paper, we use the fractional complex transform and the (G’/G)-expansion method to study the nonlinear fractional differential equations and find the exact solutions. The fractional complex transform is proposed to convert a partial fractional differential equation with Jumarie’s modified Riemann–Liouville derivative into its ordinary differential equation. It is shown that the considered transform and method are very efficient and powerful in solving wide classes of nonlinear fractional order equations.
    Cited: Web of science (92)
    A new car-following model with consideration of the traffic interruption probability
    Tang Tie-Qiao(唐铁桥), Huang Hai-Jun(黄海军), Wong S. C.(黄仕进), and Jiang Rui(姜锐)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2009, 18 (3): 975-983.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/18/3/022
    Abstract1392)      PDF (865KB)(1354)      
    In this paper, we present a new car-following model by taking into account the effects of the traffic interruption probability on the car-following behaviour of the following vehicle. The stability condition of the model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. The modified Korteweg--de Vries (KdV) equation is constructed and solved, and three types of traffic flows in the headway sensitivity space---stable, metastable, and unstable---are classified. Both the analytical and simulation results show that the traffic interruption probability indeed has an influence on driving behaviour, and the consideration of traffic interruption probability in the car-following model could stabilize traffic flow.
    Cited: Web of science (91)
    Casson fluid flow and heat transfer over a nonlinearly stretching surface
    Swati Mukhopadhyay
    Chin. Phys. B, 2013, 22 (7): 074701.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/22/7/074701
    Abstract1064)      PDF (364KB)(5884)      
    A boundary layer analysis is presented for non-Newtonian fluid flow and heat transfer over a nonlinearly stretching surface. The Casson fluid model is used to characterize the non-Newtonian fluid behavior. By using suitable transformations, the governing partial differential equations corresponding to the momentum and energy equations are converted into non-linear ordinary differential equations. Numerical solutions of these equations are obtained with the shooting method. The effect of increasing the Casson parameter is to suppress the velocity field. However the temperature is enhanced with the increasing Casson parameter.
    Cited: Web of science (85)
    Teleportation attack on the QSDC protocol with a random basis and order
    Gao Fei(高飞), Wen Qiao-Yan(温巧燕), and Zhu Fu-Chen(朱甫臣)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (9): 3189-3193.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/9/006
    Abstract1783)      PDF (152KB)(988)      
    The quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol with a random basis and order is analysed and an effective attack, i.e. teleportation attack, is presented. An eavesdropper can obtain half of the transmitted secret bits with the help of this special attack. It is shown that quantum teleportation can be employed to weaken the role of the order-rearrangement encryption at least in a certain circumstance. Meanwhile, a possible improvement on this protocol is proposed, which makes it secure against this kind of attack.
    Cited: Web of science (84)
    Nonlinear analysis of traffic jams in an anisotropic continuum model
    Arvind Kumar Gupta and Sapna Sharma
    Chin. Phys. B, 2010, 19 (11): 110503.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/19/11/110503
    Abstract1362)      PDF (1662KB)(1294)      
    This paper presents our study of the nonlinear stability of a new anisotropic continuum traffic flow model in which the dimensionless parameter or anisotropic factor controls the non-isotropic character and diffusive influence. In order to establish traffic flow stability criterion or to know the critical parameters that lead, on one hand, to a stable response to perturbations or disturbances or, on the other hand, to an unstable response and therefore to a possible congestion, a nonlinear stability criterion is derived by using a wavefront expansion technique. The stability criterion is illustrated by numerical results using the finite difference method for two different values of anisotropic parameter. It is also been observed that the newly derived stability results are consistent with previously reported results obtained using approximate linearisation methods. Moreover, the stability criterion derived in this paper can provide more refined information from the perspective of the capability to reproduce nonlinear traffic flow behaviors observed in real traffic than previously established methodologies.
    Cited: Web of science (80)
    An improved complex variable element-free Galerkin method for two-dimensional elasticity problems
    Bai Fu-Nong(白福浓), Li Dong-Ming(李东明) Wang Jian-Fei(王健菲), and Cheng Yu-Min(程玉民)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2012, 21 (2): 020204.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/21/2/020204
    Abstract1185)      PDF (324KB)(914)      
    In this paper, the improved complex variable moving least-squares (ICVMLS) approximation is presented. The ICVMLS approximation has an explicit physics meaning. Compared with the complex variable moving least-squares (CVMLS) approximations presented by Cheng and Ren, the ICVMLS approximation has a great computational precision and efficiency. Based on the element-free Galerkin (EFG) method and the ICVMLS approximation, the improved complex variable element-free Galerkin (ICVEFG) method is presented for two-dimensional elasticity problems, and the corresponding formulae are obtained. Compared with the conventional EFG method, the ICVEFG method has a great computational accuracy and efficiency. For the purpose of demonstration, three selected numerical examples are solved using the ICVEFG method.
    Cited: Web of science (78)
    Review of graphene-based strain sensors
    Zhao Jing (赵静), Zhang Guang-Yu (张广宇), Shi Dong-Xia (时东霞)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2013, 22 (5): 057701.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/22/5/057701
    Abstract879)      PDF (2279KB)(3308)      
    In this paper, we review various types of grapheme-based strain sensors. Graphene is a monolayer of carbon atoms, which exhibits prominent electrical and mechanical properties and can be a good candidate in compact strain sensor applications. However, a perfect graphene is robust and has a low piezoresistive sensitivity. So scientist are driven to increase the sensitivity using different kinds of methods since the first graphene-based strain sensor was reported. We give a comprehensive review of graphene-based strain sensors with different structures and mechanisms. It is obvious that graphene offers some advantages and has potential for the strain sensor application in the near future.
    Cited: Web of science (76)
    Evolution of structure and physical properties in Al-substituted Ba-hexaferrites
    Alex Trukhanov, Larisa Panina, Sergei Trukhanov, Vitalii Turchenko, Mohamed Salem
    Chin. Phys. B, 2016, 25 (1): 016102.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/25/1/016102
    Abstract680)   HTML    PDF (1783KB)(502)      
    The investigations of the crystal and magnetic structures of the BaFe12-xAlxO19 (x=0.1-1.2) solid solutions have been performed with powder neutron diffractometry. Magnetic properties of the BaFe12-xAlxO19 (x=0.1-1.2) solid solutions have been measured by vibration sample magnetometry at different temperatures under different magnetic fields. The atomic coordinates and lattice parameters have been Rietveld refined. The invar effect is observed in low temperature range (from 4.2 K to 150 K). It is explained by the thermal oscillation anharmonicity of atoms. The increase of microstress with decreasing temperature is found from Rietveld refinement. The Curie temperature and the change of total magnetic moment per formula unit are found for all compositions of the BaFe12-xAlxO19 (x=0.1-1.2) solid solutions. The magnetic structure model is proposed. The most likely reasons and the mechanism of magnetic structure formation are discussed.
    Cited: Web of science (74)
    Delay-aided stochastic multiresonances on scale-free FitzHugh-Nagumo neuronal networks
    Gan Chun-Biao(甘春标), Perc Matjaž, and Wang Qing-Yun(王青云)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2010, 19 (4): 040508.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/19/4/040508
    Abstract1561)      PDF (3720KB)(961)      
    The stochastic resonance in paced time-delayed scale-free FitzHugh--Nagumo (FHN) neuronal networks is investigated. We show that an intermediate intensity of additive noise is able to optimally assist the pacemaker in imposing its rhythm on the whole ensemble. Furthermore, we reveal that appropriately tuned delays can induce stochastic multiresonances, appearing at every integer multiple of the pacemaker's oscillation period. We conclude that fine-tuned delay lengths and locally acting pacemakers are vital for ensuring optimal conditions for stochastic resonance on complex neuronal networks.
    Cited: Web of science (74)
    Analysis of the wave properties of a new two-lane continuum model with the coupling effect
    Arvind Kumar Gupta and Sapna Sharma
    Chin. Phys. B, 2012, 21 (1): 015201.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/21/1/015201
    Abstract1341)      PDF (654KB)(928)      
    A multilane extension of the single-lane anisotropic continuum model (GK model) developed by Gupta and Katiyar for traffic flow is discussed with the consideration of the coupling effect between the vehicles of different lanes in the instantaneous traffic situation and the lane-changing effect. The conditions for securing the linear stability of the new model are presented. The shock and the rarefaction waves, the local cluster effect and the phase transition are investigated through simulation experiments with the new model and are found to be consistent with the diverse nonlinear dynamical phenomena observed in a real traffic flow. The analysis also focuses on empirically observed two-lane phenomena, such as lane usage inversion and the density dependence of the number of lane changes. It is shown that single-lane dynamics can be extended to multilane cases without changing the basic properties of the single-lane model. The results show that the new multilane model is capable of explaining some particular traffic phenomena and is in accordance with real traffic flow.
    Cited: Web of science (73)
    What makes the Tc of FeSe/SrTiO3 so high?
    Dung-Hai Lee
    Chin. Phys. B, 2015, 24 (11): 117405.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/24/11/117405
    Abstract1034)   HTML    PDF (1404KB)(1351)      

    This paper reviews some of the recent progresses in the study of high temperature superconductivity in the interface between a single unit cell FeSe and SrTiO3. It offers the author’s personal view of why Tc is high and how to further increase it.

    Cited: Web of science (70)
    An improved boundary element-free method (IBEFM) for two-dimensional potential problems
    Ren Hong-Ping(任红萍), Cheng Yu-Min(程玉民), and Zhang Wu(张武)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2009, 18 (10): 4065-4073.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/18/10/002
    Abstract1715)      PDF (217KB)(1004)      
    The interpolating moving least-squares (IMLS) method is discussed first in this paper. And the formulae of the IMLS method obtained by Lancaster are revised. Then on the basis of the boundary element-free method (BEFM), combining the boundary integral equation (BIE) method with the IMLS method, the improved boundary element-free method (IBEFM) for two-dimensional potential problems is presented, and the corresponding formulae of the IBEFM are obtained. In the BEFM, boundary conditions are applied directly, but the shape function in the MLS does not satisfy the property of the Kronecker $\delta$ function. This is a problem of the BEFM, and must be solved theoretically. In the IMLS method, when the shape function satisfies the property of the Kronecker $\delta$  function, then the boundary conditions, in the meshless method based on the IMLS method, can be applied directly. Then the IBEFM, based on the IMLS method, is a direct meshless boundary integral equation method in which the basic unknown quantity is the real solution of the nodal variables, and the boundary conditions can be applied directly and easily, thus it gives a greater computational precision. Some numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the method.
    Cited: Web of science (70)
    Transient chaos in smooth memristor oscillator
    Bao Bo-Cheng(包伯成), Liu Zhong(刘中), and Xu Jian-Ping(许建平)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2010, 19 (3): 030510.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/19/3/030510
    Abstract2166)      PDF (1803KB)(1888)      
    This paper presents a new smooth memristor oscillator, which is derived from Chua's oscillator by replacing Chua's diode with a flux-controlled memristor and a negative conductance. Novel parameters and initial conditions are dependent upon dynamical behaviours such as transient chaos and stable chaos with an intermittence period and are found in the smooth memristor oscillator. By using dynamical analysis approaches including time series, phase portraits and bifurcation diagrams, the dynamical behaviours of the proposed memristor oscillator are effectively investigated in this paper.
    Cited: Web of science (69)
    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles:Synthesis and surface coating techniques for biomedical applications
    Sun Sheng-Nan (孙圣男), Wei Chao (魏超), Zhu Zan-Zan (朱赞赞), Hou Yang-Long (侯仰龙), Subbu S Venkatraman, Xu Zhi-Chuan (徐梽川)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2014, 23 (3): 037503.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/23/3/037503
    Abstract1868)      PDF (4676KB)(14964)      
    Iron oxide nanoparticles are the most popular magnetic nanoparticles used in biomedical applications due to their low cost, low toxicity, and unique magnetic property. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, including magnetite (Fe3O4) and maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), usually exhibit a superparamagnetic property as their size goes smaller than 20 nm, which are often denoted as superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and utilized for drug delivery, diagnosis, therapy, and etc. This review article gives a brief introduction on magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in terms of their fundamentals of magnetism, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and drug delivery, as well as the synthesis approaches, surface coating, and application examples from recent key literatures. Because the quality and surface chemistry play important roles in biomedical applications, our review focuses on the synthesis approaches and surface modifications of iron oxide nanoparticles. We aim to provide a detailed introduction to readers who are new to this field, helping them to choose suitable synthesis methods and to optimize the surface chemistry of iron oxide nanoparticles for their interests.
    Cited: Web of science (68)
    Remote preparation of an entangled two-qubit state with three parties
    Dai Hong-Yi (戴宏毅), Chen Ping-Xing (陈平形), Zhang Ming(张明), and Li Cheng-Zu(李承祖)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (1): 27-33.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/1/005
    Abstract1680)      PDF (136KB)(901)      
    We present a scheme for probabilistic remote preparation of an entangled two-qubit state with three parties from a sender to either of two receivers. The quantum channel is composed of a partially entangled two-qubit state and a partially entangled three-qubit state. We calculate the successful total probabilities of the scheme in general and particular cases, respectively. We also calculate total classical communication cost in a general case and two particular cases, respectively.
    Cited: Web of science (66)
    Simultaneous effects of magnetic field and space porosity on compressible Maxwell fluid transport induced by a surface acoustic wave in a microchannel
    Khaled S. Mekheimer, Soliman R. Komy, Sara I. Abdelsalam
    Chin. Phys. B, 2013, 22 (12): 124702.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/22/12/124702
    Abstract634)      PDF (355KB)(625)      
    Peristaltic motion induced by a surface acoustic wave of a viscous, compressible and electrically conducting Maxwell fluid in a confined parallel-plane microchannel through a porous medium is investigated in the presence of a constant magnetic field. The slip velocity is considered and the problem is discussed only for the free pumping case. A perturbation technique is employed to analyze the problem in terms of a small amplitude ratio. The phenomenon of a “backward flow” is found to exist in the center and at the boundaries of the channel. In the second order approximation, the net axial velocity is calculated for various values of the fluid parameters. Finally, the effects of the parameters of interest on the mean axial velocity, the reversal flow, and the perturbation function are discussed and shown graphically. We find that in the non-Newtonian regime, there is a possibility of a fluid flow in the direction opposite to the propagation of the traveling wave. This work is the most general model of peristalsis created to date with wide-ranging applications in biological, geophysical and industrial fluid dynamics.
    Cited: Web of science (63)
    Effects of filler loading and surface modification on electrical and thermal properties of epoxy/montmorillonite composite
    Zi-Rui Jia(贾梓睿), Zhen-Guo Gao(高振国), Di Lan(兰笛), Yong-Hong Cheng(成永红), Guang-Lei Wu(吴广磊), Hong-Jing Wu(吴宏景)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (11): 117806.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/11/117806
    Abstract734)   HTML    PDF (882KB)(364)      

    Epoxy-based composites containing montmorillonite (MMT) modified by silylation reaction with γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (γ-APTES) and 3-(glycidyloxypropyl) trimethoxysilane (GPTMS) are successfully prepared. The effects of filler loading and surface modification on the electrical and thermal properties of the epoxy/MMT composites are investigated. Compared with the pure epoxy resin, the epoxy/MMT composite, whether MMT is surface-treated or not, shows low dielectric permittivity, low dielectric loss, and enhanced dielectric strength. The MMT in the epoxy/MMT composite also influences the thermal properties of the composite by improving the thermal conductivity and stability. Surface functionalization of MMT not only conduces to the better dispersion of the nanoparticles, but also significantly affects the electric and thermal properties of the hybrid by influencing the interfaces between MMT and epoxy resin. Improved interfaces are good for enhancing the electric and thermal properties of nanocomposites. What is more, the MMT modified with GPTMS rather than γ-APTES is found to have greater influence on improving the interface between the MMT filler and polymer matrices, thus resulting in lower dielectric loss, lower electric conductivity, higher breakdown strength, lower thermal conductivity, and higher thermal stability.

    Cited: Web of science (62)
    Metamaterials and plasmonics:From nanoparticles to nanoantenna arrays, metasurfaces, and metamaterials
    Francesco Monticone, Andrea Alú
    Chin. Phys. B, 2014, 23 (4): 047809.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/23/4/047809
    Abstract1462)      PDF (1452KB)(3128)      
    The rise of plasmonic metamaterials in recent years has unveiled the possibility of revolutionizing the entire field of optics and photonics, challenging well-established technological limitations and paving the way to innovations at an unprecedented level. To capitalize the disruptive potential of this rising field of science and technology, it is important to be able to combine the richness of optical phenomena enabled by nanoplasmonics in order to realize metamaterial components, devices, and systems of increasing complexity. Here, we review a few recent research directions in the field of plasmonic metamaterials, which may foster further advancements in this research area. We will discuss the anomalous scattering features enabled by plasmonic nanoparticles and nanoclusters, and show how they may represent the fundamental building blocks of complex nanophotonic architectures. Building on these concepts, advanced components can be designed and operated, such as optical nanoantennas and nanoantenna arrays, which, in turn, may be at the basis of metasurface devices and complex systems. Following this path, from basic phenomena to advanced functionalities, the field of plasmonic metamaterials offers the promise of an important scientific and technological impact, with applications spanning from medical diagnostics to clean energy and information processing.
    Cited: Web of science (62)
    Fair quantum blind signatures
    Wang Tian-Yin(王天银) and Wen Qiao-Yan(温巧燕)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2010, 19 (6): 060307.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/19/6/060307
    Abstract1528)      PDF (88KB)(1073)      
    We present a new fair blind signature scheme based on the fundamental properties of quantum mechanics. In addition, we analyse the security of this scheme, and show that it is not possible to forge valid blind signatures. Moreover, comparisons between this scheme and public key blind signature schemes are also discussed.
    Cited: Web of science (62)
    Novel copper redox-based cathode materials for room-temperature sodium-ion batteries
    Xu Shu-Yin (徐淑银), Wu Xiao-Yan (吴晓燕), Li Yun-Ming (李云明), Hu Yong-Sheng (胡勇胜), Chen Li-Quan (陈立泉)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2014, 23 (11): 118202.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/23/11/118202
    Abstract1390)      PDF (465KB)(809)      

    Layered oxides of P2-type Na0.68Cu0.34Mn0.66O2, P2-type Na0.68Cu0.34Mn0.50Ti0.16O2, and O'3-type NaCu0.67Sb0.33O2 were synthesized and evaluated as cathode materials for room-temperature sodium-ion batteries. The first two materials can deliver a capacity of around 70 mAh/g. The Cu2+ is oxidized to Cu3+ during charging, and the Cu3+ goes back to Cu2+ upon discharging. This is the first demonstration of the highly reversible change of the redox couple of Cu2+/Cu3+ with high storage potential in secondary batteries.

    Cited: Web of science (60)
    A theoretical study of a plasmonic sensor comprising a gold nano-disk array on gold film with a SiO2 spacer
    Xiangxian Wang(王向贤), Jiankai Zhu(朱剑凯), Huan Tong(童欢), Xudong Yang(杨旭东), Xiaoxiong Wu(吴枭雄), Zhiyuan Pang(庞志远), Hua Yang(杨华), Yunping Qi(祁云平)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2019, 28 (4): 044201.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/28/4/044201
    Abstract733)   HTML    PDF (900KB)(364)      

    A plasmonic refractive index (RI) sensor with high RI sensitivity based on a gold composite structure is proposed. This composite structure is constructed from a perfect gold nano-disk square array on a gold film, with a SiO2 spacer. The reflection spectra of the composite structure, with analyte RI in the range of 1.30 to 1.40, are theoretically studied using the finite-difference time-domain method. The incident light beam is partly coupled to the localized surface plasmons (LSP) of the single nano-disks and partly transferred to the propagating surface plasmons (PSP) by grating coupling. The reflectivity is nearly zero at the valley of the reflection spectrum because of the strong coupling between LSP and PSP. Also, the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of one of the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) modes is very narrow, which is helpful for RI sensing. An RI sensitivity as high as 853 nm/RIU is obtained. The influence of the structure parameters on the RI sensitivity and the sensor figure of merit (FOM) are investigated in detail. We find that the sensor maintains high RI sensitivity over a large range of periods and nano-disk diameters. Results of the theoretical simulation of the composite structure as a plasmonic sensor are promising. Thus, this composite structure could be extensively applied in the fields of biology and chemistry.

    Cited: Web of science (59)
    Analytic solution for magnetohydrodynamic boundary layer flow of Casson fluid over a stretching/shrinking sheet with wall mass transfer
    Krishnendu Bhattacharyya, Tasawar Hayat, Ahmed Alsaedi
    Chin. Phys. B, 2013, 22 (2): 024702.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/22/2/024702
    Abstract703)      PDF (524KB)(1501)      
    In this analysis, the magnetohydrodynamic boundary layer flow of Casson fluid over a permeable stretching/shrinking sheet in presence of wall mass transfer is studied. Using similarity transformations, the governing equations are converted to an ordinary differential equation and then solved analytically. The introduction of magnetic field changes the behavior of the entire flow dynamics in the shrinking sheet case and also has major impact in the stretching sheet case. The similarity solution is always unique in the stretching case, and in the shrinking case the solution shows dual nature for certain values of the parameters. For stronger magnetic field, the similarity solution for the shrinking sheet case becomes unique.
    Cited: Web of science (59)
    All-solid-state lithium batteries with inorganic solid electrolytes: Review of fundamental science
    Xiayin Yao(姚霞银), Bingxin Huang(黄冰心), Jingyun Yin(尹景云), Gang Peng(彭刚), Zhen Huang(黄祯), Chao Gao(高超), Deng Liu(刘登), Xiaoxiong Xu(许晓雄)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2016, 25 (1): 018802.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/25/1/018802
    Abstract1291)   HTML    PDF (5055KB)(4330)      

    The scientific basis of all-solid-state lithium batteries with inorganic solid electrolytes is reviewed briefly, touching upon solid electrolytes, electrode materials, electrolyte/electrode interface phenomena, fabrication, and evaluation. The challenges and prospects are outlined as well.

    Cited: Web of science (57)
    Exotic electronic states in the world of flat bands:From theory to material
    Liu Zheng (刘峥), Liu Feng (刘锋), Wu Yong-Shi (吴咏时)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2014, 23 (7): 077308.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/23/7/077308
    Abstract1080)      PDF (1690KB)(1232)      

    It has long been noticed that special lattices contain single-electron flat bands (FB) without any dispersion. Since the kinetic energy of electrons is quenched in the FB, this highly degenerate energy level becomes an ideal platform to achieve strongly correlated electronic states, such as magnetism, superconductivity, and Wigner crystal. Recently, the FB has attracted increasing interest because of the possibility to go beyond the conventional symmetry-breaking phases towards topologically ordered phases, such as lattice versions of fractional quantum Hall states. This article reviews different aspects of FBs in a nutshell. Starting from the standard band theory, we aim to bridge the frontier of FBs with the textbook solidstate physics. Then, based on concrete examples, we show the common origin of FBs in terms of destructive interference, and discuss various many-body phases associated with such a singular band structure. In the end, we demonstrate real FBs in quantum frustrated materials and organometallic frameworks.

    Cited: Web of science (55)
    Fault tolerant quantum secure direct communication with quantum encryption against collective noise
    Huang Wei (黄伟), Wen Qiao-Yan (温巧燕), Jia Heng-Yue (贾恒越), Qin Su-Juan (秦素娟), Gao Fei (高飞)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2012, 21 (10): 100308.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/21/10/100308
    Abstract1245)      PDF (117KB)(791)      
    We present two novel quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocols over different collective-noise channels. Different from the previous QSDC schemes over collective-noise channels, which are all source-encrypting protocols, our two protocols are based on channel-encryption. In both schemes, two authorized users first share a sequence of EPR pairs as their reusable quantum key. Then they use their quantum key to encrypt and decrypt the secret message carried by the decoherence-free states over the collective-noise channel. In theory, the intrinsic efficiencies of both protocols are high since there is no need to consume any entangled states including both the quantum key and the information carriers except the ones used for eavesdropping checks. For checking eavesdropping, the two parties only need to perform two-particle measurements on the decoy states during each round. Finally, we make a security analysis of our two protocols and demonstrate that they are secure.
    Cited: Web of science (55)
    Thermal properties of two-dimensional materials
    Gang Zhang(张刚), Yong-Wei Zhang(张永伟)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (3): 034401.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/3/034401
    Abstract876)   HTML    PDF (4492KB)(1325)      

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene, phosphorene, and transition metal dichalcogenides (e.g., MoS2 and WS2), have attracted a great deal of attention recently due to their extraordinary structural, mechanical, and physical properties. In particular, 2D materials have shown great potential for thermal management and thermoelectric energy generation. In this article, we review the recent advances in the study of thermal properties of 2D materials. We first review some important aspects in thermal conductivity of graphene and discuss the possibility to enhance the ultra-high thermal conductivity of graphene. Next, we discuss thermal conductivity of MoS2 and the new strategy for thermal management of MoS2 device. Subsequently, we discuss the anisotropic thermal properties of phosphorene. Finally, we review the application of 2D materials in thermal devices, including thermal rectifier and thermal modulator.

    Cited: Web of science (54)
    Review of cavity optomechanical cooling
    Liu Yong-Chun (刘永椿), Hu Yu-Wen (胡毓文), Wong Chee Wei (黄智维), Xiao Yun-Feng (肖云峰)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2013, 22 (11): 114213.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/22/11/114213
    Abstract1008)      PDF (1300KB)(1396)      
    Quantum manipulation of macroscopic mechanical systems is of great interest in both fundamental physics and applications ranging from high-precision metrology to quantum information processing. For these purposes, a crucial step is to cool the mechanical system to its quantum ground state. In this review, we focus on the cavity optomechanical cooling, which exploits the cavity enhanced interaction between optical field and mechanical motion to reduce the thermal noise. Recent remarkable theoretical and experimental efforts in this field have taken a major step forward in preparing the motional quantum ground state of mesoscopic mechanical systems. This review first describes the quantum theory of cavity optomechanical cooling, including quantum noise approach and covariance approach; then, the up-to-date experimental progresses are introduced. Finally, new cooling approaches are discussed along the directions of cooling in the strong coupling regime and cooling beyond the resolved sideband limit.
    Cited: Web of science (54)
    An improved interpolating element-free Galerkin method with nonsingular weight function for two-dimensional potential problems
    Wang Ju-Feng (王聚丰), Sun Feng-Xin (孙凤欣), Cheng Yu-Min (程玉民)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2012, 21 (9): 090204.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/21/9/090204
    Abstract1262)      PDF (192KB)(1217)      
    In this paper, an improved interpolating moving least-square (IIMLS) method is presented. The shape function of the IIMLS method satisfies the property of Kronecker δ function. The weight function used in the IIMLS method is nonsingular. Then the IIMLS method can overcome the difficulties caused by the singularity of the weight function in the IMLS method. And the number of unknown coefficients in the trial function of the IIMLS method is less than that of the moving least-square (MLS) approximation. Then by combining the IIMLS method with the Galerkin weak form of the potential problem, the improved interpolating element-free Galerkin (IIEFG) method for two-dimensional potential problems is presented. Compared with the conventional element-free Galerkin (EFG) method, the IIEFG method can directly use the essential boundary conditions. Then the IIEFG method has a higher accuracy. For demonstration, three numerical examples are solved using the IIEFG method.
    Cited: Web of science (54)
    A fractal approach to low velocity non-Darcy flow in a low permeability porous medium
    Cai Jian-Chao (蔡建超)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2014, 23 (4): 044701.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/23/4/044701
    Abstract585)      PDF (276KB)(681)      
    In this paper, the mechanism for fluid flow at low velocity in a porous medium is analyzed based on plastic flow of oil in a reservoir and the fractal approach. The analytical expressions for flow rate and velocity of non-Newtonian fluid flow in the low permeability porous medium are derived, and the threshold pressure gradient (TPG) is also obtained. It is notable that the TPG (J) and permeability (K) of the porous medium analytically exhibit the scaling behavior J K-DT/(1 + DT), where DT is the fractal dimension for tortuous capillaries. The fractal characteristics of tortuosity for capillaries should be considered in analysis of non-Darcy flow in a low permeability porous medium. The model predictions of TPG show good agreement with those obtained by the available expression and experimental data. The proposed model may be conducible to a better understanding of the mechanism for nonlinear flow in the low permeability porous medium.
    Cited: Web of science (53)
    Complex variable element-free Galerkin method for viscoelasticity problems
    Cheng Yu-Min (程玉民), Li Rong-Xin (李荣鑫), Peng Miao-Juan (彭妙娟)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2012, 21 (9): 090205.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/21/9/090205
    Abstract1256)      PDF (304KB)(792)      
    Based on the complex variable moving least-square (CVMLS) approximation, the complex variable element-free Galerkin (CVEFG) method for two-dimensional viscoelasticity problems under the creep condition is presented in this paper. The Galerkin weak form is employed to obtain the equation system, and the penalty method is used to apply the essential boundary conditions, then the corresponding formulae of the CVEFG method for two-dimensional viscoelasticity problems under the creep condition are obtained. Compared with the element-free Galerkin (EFG) method, with the same node distribution, the CVEFG method has a higher precision, and to obtain the similar precision, the CVEFG method has a greater computational efficiency. Some numerical examples are given to demonstrate the validity and the efficiency of the method in this paper.
    Cited: Web of science (53)
    Flow difference effect in the lattice hydrodynamic model
    Tian Jun-Fang(田钧方), Jia Bin(贾斌), Li Xing-Gang(李新刚), and Gao Zi-You(高自友)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2010, 19 (4): 040303.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/19/4/040303
    Abstract1781)      PDF (360KB)(966)      
    In this paper, a new lattice hydrodynamic model based on Nagatani's model [Nagatani T 1998 Physica A 261 599] is presented by introducing the flow difference effect. The stability condition for the new model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. The result shows that considering the flow difference effect leads to stabilization of the system compared with the original lattice hydrodynamic model. The jamming transitions among the freely moving phase, the coexisting phase, and the uniform congested phase are studied by nonlinear analysis. The modified KdV equation near the critical point is derived to describe the traffic jam, and kink--antikink soliton solutions related to the traffic density waves are obtained. The simulation results are consistent with the theoretical analysis for the new model.
    Cited: Web of science (53)
    New agegraphic dark energy as a rolling tachyon
    Cui Jing-Lei(崔晶磊),Zhang Li(张莉), Zhang Jing-Fei(张敬飞), and Zhang Xin(张鑫)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2010, 19 (1): 019802.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/19/1/019802
    Abstract1638)      PDF (318KB)(640)      
    Combining the general relativity and the uncertainty relation in quantum mechanics, the energy density of quantum fluctuations of space-time can be viewed as dark energy. The so-called agegraphic dark energy model is just based on this viewpoint, in which the age of the universe is introduced as the length measure. Recently, the new agegraphic dark energy model was proposed, where the dynamical dark energy is measured by the conformal age of the universe. On the other hand, scalar-field dark energy models like tachyons are often regarded as an effective description of some underlying theory of dark energy. In this paper, we show that the new agegraphic dark energy can be described completely by a tachyon scalar-field. We thus reconstruct the potential and the dynamics of the tachyon scalar-field, according to the evolution of the new agegraphic dark energy.
    Cited: Web of science (52)
    A new nonlinear oscillator with infinite number of coexisting hidden and self-excited attractors
    Yan-Xia Tang(唐妍霞), Abdul Jalil M Khalaf, Karthikeyan Rajagopal, Viet-Thanh Pham, Sajad Jafari, Ye Tian(田野)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (4): 040502.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/4/040502
    Abstract762)   HTML    PDF (16518KB)(289)      

    In this paper, we introduce a new two-dimensional nonlinear oscillator with an infinite number of coexisting limit cycles. These limit cycles form a layer-by-layer structure which is very unusual. Forty percent of these limit cycles are self-excited attractors while sixty percent of them are hidden attractors. Changing this new system to its forced version, we introduce a new chaotic system with an infinite number of coexisting strange attractors. We implement this system through field programmable gate arrays.

    Cited: Web of science (51)
    Exponential synchronization of stochastic impulsive perturbed chaotic Lur'e systems with time-varying delay and parametric uncertainty
    Ma Tie-Dong (马铁东), Zhang Hua-Guang (张化光), Fu Jie (浮洁)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (12): 4407-4417.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/12/013
    Abstract1714)      PDF (415KB)(693)      
    This paper is devoted to investigating the scheme of exponential synchronization for uncertain stochastic impulsive perturbed chaotic Lur'e systems. The parametric uncertainty is assumed to be norm bounded. Based on the Lyapunov function method, time-varying delay feedback control technique and a modified Halanay inequality for stochastic differential equations, several sufficient conditions are presented to guarantee the exponential synchronization in mean square between two identical uncertain chaotic Lur'e systems with stochastic and impulsive perturbations. These conditions are expressed in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), which can easily be checked by utilizing the numerically efficient Matlab LMI toolbox. It is worth pointing out that the approach developed in this paper can provide a more general framework for the synchronization of multi--perturbation chaotic Lur'e systems, which reflects a more realistic dynamics. Finally, a numerical example is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
    Cited: Web of science (51)
    Chaos in a fractional-order micro-electro-mechanical resonator and its suppression
    Mohammad Pourmahmood Aghababa
    Chin. Phys. B, 2012, 21 (10): 100505.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/21/10/100505
    Abstract1238)      PDF (466KB)(884)      
    The present paper investigates the existence of chaos in a non-autonomous fractional-order micro-electro-mechanical resonator system (FOMEMRS). Using the maximal Lyapunov exponent criterion, we show that the FOMEMRS exhibits chaos. Strange attractors of the system are plotted to validate its chaotic behavior. Afterward, a novel fractional finite-time controller is introduced to suppress the chaos of the FOMEMRS with model uncertainties and external disturbances in a given finite time. Using the latest version of the fractional Lyapunov theory, the finite time stability and robustness of the proposed scheme are proved. Finally, we present some computer simulations to illustrate the usefulness and applicability of the proposed method.
    Cited: Web of science (50)
    Phase transition and high temperature thermoelectric properties of copper selenide Cu2-xSe (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.25)
    Xiao Xing-Xing(肖星星), Xie Wen-Jie(谢文杰), Tang Xin-Feng(唐新峰), and Zhang Qing-Jie(张清杰)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2011, 20 (8): 087201.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/20/8/087201
    Abstract1806)      PDF (420KB)(1946)      
    With good electrical properties and an inherently complex crystal structure, Cu$_{2 - x}$Se is a potential ``phonon glass electron crystal'' thermoelectric material that has previously not attracted much interest. In  this study, Cu$_{2 - x}$Se ($0 \le x \le 0.25$) compounds were synthesized by a melting-quenching method, and then sintered by spark plasma sintering to obtain bulk material. The effect of Cu content on the phase transition  and thermoelectric properties of Cu$_{2 - x}$Se were investigated in the temperature range of 300~K--750~K. The results of X-ray diffraction at room temperature show that Cu$_{2 - x}$Se compounds possess a cubic structure with  a space group of $Fm3m$ (#225) when $0.15 < x \le  0.25$, whereas they adopt a composite of monoclinic and cubic phases when $0 \le x \le 0.15$. The thermoelectric property measurements show that with increasing Cu content,  the electrical conductivity decreases, the Seebeck coefficient increases and the thermal conductivity decreases. Due to the relatively good power factor and low thermal conductivity, the nearly stoichiometric Cu$_{2}$Se compound achieves the highest $ZT$ of 0.38 at 750 K. It is expected that the thermoelectric performance can be further optimized by doping appropriate elements and/or via a nanostructuring approach.
    Cited: Web of science (50)
ISSN 1674-1056   CN 11-5639/O4

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