Table of contents

    05 October 2017, Volume 26 Issue 10 Previous issue    Next issue
    Linear and nonlinear characteristics of time-resolved photoluminescence modulation by terahertz pulse
    Jiao-Li Gong(龚姣丽), Jin-Song Liu(刘劲松), Man Zhang(张曼), Zheng Chu(褚政), Zhen-Gang Yang(杨振刚), Ke-Jia Wang(王可嘉), Jian-Quan Yao(姚建铨)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  100201.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/100201
    Abstract ( 1132 )   HTML   PDF (422KB) ( 507 )  
    The linear and nonlinear characteristics of time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) of n-type bulk semiconductor GaAs modulated with terahertz (THz) pulse are studied by using an ensemble Monte Carlo (EMC) method. In this paper the center energy valley (Γ valley) electron concentration changes with the pulse delay time, sampling time and the outfield are mainly discussed. The results show that the sampling time and the THz field should exceed certain thresholds to effectively excite photoluminescence quenching (PLQ). Adopting a direct current (DC) field makes the sampling time threshold shortened and the linear range of THz field-modulation PL expanded. Moreover, controlling the sampling time and the outfield intensity can improve the linear quality:with forward time, the larger outfield is used; with backward time, the smaller outfield is used. This study can provide a theoretical basis of THz field linear modulation in a larger range for new light emitting devices.
    Local structure-preserving methods for the generalized Rosenau-RLW-KdV equation with power law nonlinearity
    Jia-Xiang Cai(蔡加祥), Qi Hong(洪旗), Bin Yang(杨斌)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  100202.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/100202
    Abstract ( 702 )   HTML   PDF (222KB) ( 348 )  
    Local structure-preserving algorithms including multi-symplectic, local energy-and momentum-preserving schemes are proposed for the generalized Rosenau-RLW-KdV equation based on the multi-symplectic Hamiltonian formula of the equation. Each of the present algorithms holds a discrete conservation law in any time-space region. For the original problem subjected to appropriate boundary conditions, these algorithms will be globally conservative. Discrete fast Fourier transform makes a significant improvement to the computational efficiency of schemes. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithms have satisfactory performance in providing an accurate solution and preserving the discrete invariants.
    An intermediate state of T7 RNA polymerase provides another pathway of nucleotide selection
    Zhan-Feng Wang(王展峰), Yu-Ru Liu(刘玉如), Peng-Ye Wang(王鹏业), Ping Xie(谢平)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  100203.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/100203
    Abstract ( 672 )   HTML   PDF (4931KB) ( 288 )  

    Phage T7 RNA polymerase is a single-subunit transcription enzyme, transcribing template DNA to RNA. Nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) selection and translocation are two critical steps of the transcription elongation. Here, using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we found that between pre-and post-translocation states of T7 RNA polymerase an intermediate state exists, where the O helix C-terminal residue tyrosine 639, which plays important roles in translocation, locates between its pre-and post-translocation positions and the side chain of the next template DNA nucleotide has moved into the active site. NTP selection in this intermediate state was studied, revealing that the selection in the intermediate state can be achieved relying on the effect of Watson-Crick interaction between NTP and template DNA nucleotide, effect of stability of the components near the active site such as the nascent DNA-RNA hybrid and role of tyrosine 639. This indicates that another NTP-selection pathway can also exist besides the main pathway where NTP selection begins at the post-translocation state upon the entry of NTP.

    Soliton and rogue wave solutions of two-component nonlinear Schrödinger equation coupled to the Boussinesq equation
    Cai-Qin Song(宋彩芹), Dong-Mei Xiao(肖冬梅), Zuo-Nong Zhu(朱佐农)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  100204.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/100204
    Abstract ( 793 )   HTML   PDF (2107KB) ( 587 )  
    The nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation and Boussinesq equation are two very important integrable equations. They have widely physical applications. In this paper, we investigate a nonlinear system, which is the two-component NLS equation coupled to the Boussinesq equation. We obtain the bright-bright, bright-dark, and dark-dark soliton solutions to the nonlinear system. We discuss the collision between two solitons. We observe that the collision of bright-bright soliton is inelastic and two solitons oscillating periodically can happen in the two parallel-traveling bright-bright or bright-dark soliton solution. The general breather and rogue wave solutions are also given. Our results show again that there are more abundant dynamical properties for multi-component nonlinear systems.
    Bound states resulting from interaction of the non-relativistic particles with the multiparameter potential
    Ahmet Taş, Ali Havare
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  100301.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/100301
    Abstract ( 689 )   HTML   PDF (334KB) ( 258 )  

    In this study, we present the analytical solutions of bound states for the Schrödinger equation with the multiparameter potential containing the different types of physical potentials via the asymptotic iteration method by applying the Pekeris-type approximation to the centrifugal potential. For any n and l (states) quantum numbers, we derive the relation that gives the energy eigenvalues for the bound states numerically and the corresponding normalized eigenfunctions. We also plot some graphics in order to investigate effects of the multiparameter potential parameters on the energy eigenvalues. Furthermore, we compare our results with the ones obtained in previous works and it is seen that our numerical results are in good agreement with the literature.

    Experimental simulation of violation of the Wright inequality by coherent light
    Feng Zhu(朱锋), Wei Zhang(张巍), Yidong Huang(黄翊东)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  100302.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/100302
    Abstract ( 585 )   HTML   PDF (608KB) ( 195 )  
    In this paper, we investigate the simulation of violation of the Wright inequality by the classical optical experiment theoretically and experimentally. The feasibility of the simulation is demonstrated by theoretical analysis based on descriptions of the classical electrodynamics and quantum mechanics, respectively. Then, the simulation of violation of the Wright inequality is realized experimentally. The setup is based on a laser source, free-space optical devices and power meters. The experimental result violates the noncontextuality hidden variable bound, agreeing with the quantum bound. This method can be extended to other types of noncontextuality inequalities.
    Improving continuous-variable quantum key distribution under local oscillator intensity attack using entanglement in the middle
    Fang-Li Yang(杨芳丽), Ying Guo(郭迎), Jin-Jing Shi(石金晶), Huan-Li Wang(王焕礼), Jin-Jin Pan(潘矜矜)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  100303.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/100303
    Abstract ( 693 )   HTML   PDF (555KB) ( 258 )  

    A modified continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) protocol is proposed by originating the entangled source from a malicious third party Eve in the middle instead of generating it from the trustworthy Alice or Bob. This method is able to enhance the efficiency of the CVQKD scheme attacked by local oscillator (LO) intensity attack in terms of the generated secret key rate in quantum communication. The other indication of the improvement is that the maximum transmission distance and the maximum loss tolerance can be increased significantly, especially for CVQKD schemes based on homodyne detection.

    Moving bright solitons in a pseudo-spin polarization Bose-Einstein condensate
    Tian-Fu Xu(徐天赋), Yu-Feng Zhang(张玉峰), Lei-Chao Xu(许磊超), Zai-Dong Li(李再东)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  100304.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/100304
    Abstract ( 667 )   HTML   PDF (1657KB) ( 229 )  
    We study the moving bright solitons in the weak attractive Bose-Einstein condensate with a spin-orbit interaction. By solving the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the variational method and the imaginary time evolution method, two kinds of solitons (plane wave soliton and stripe solitons) are found in different parameter regions. It is shown that the soliton speed dominates its structure. The detuning between the Raman beam and energy states of the atoms decides the spin polarization strength of the system. The soliton dynamics is also studied for various moving speed and we find that the shape of individual components can be kept when the speed of soliton is low.
    A note on the mass of Kerr-AdS black holes in the off-shell generalized ADT formalism
    Yi-De Jing(景艺德), Jun-Jin Peng(彭俊金)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  100401.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/100401
    Abstract ( 627 )   HTML   PDF (245KB) ( 221 )  
    In this note, the off-shell generalized Abbott-Deser-Tekin (ADT) formalism is applied to explore the mass of Kerr-anti-de Sitter (Kerr-AdS) black holes in various dimensions within asymptotically rotating frames. The cases in four and five dimensions are explicitly investigated. It is demonstrated that the asymptotically rotating effect may make the charge non-integrable or unphysical when the asymptotic non-rotating timelike Killing vector associated with the charge is allowed to vary and the fluctuation of the metric is determined by the variation of all the mass and rotation parameters. To obtain a physically meaningful mass, it is proposed that one can let the non-rotating timelike Killing vector be fixed or perform calculations in the asymptotically static frame. The results further support that the ADT formalism is background-dependent.
    Quantum correlations dynamics of three-qubit states coupled to an XY spin chain:Role of coupling strengths
    Shao-Ying Yin(尹少英), Qing-Xin Liu(刘庆欣), Jie Song(宋杰), Xue-Xin Xu(许学新), Ke-Ya Zhou(周可雅), Shu-Tian Liu(刘树田)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  100501.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/100501
    Abstract ( 681 )   HTML   PDF (970KB) ( 320 )  
    We investigate the prominent impacts of coupling strengths on the evolution of entanglement and quantum discord for a three-qubit system coupled to an XY spin-chain environment. In the case of a pure W state, more robust, even larger nonzero quantum correlations can be obtained by tailoring the coupling strengths between the qubits and the environment. For a mixed state consisting of the GHZ and W states, the dynamics of entanglement and quantum discord can characterize the critical point of quantum phase transition. Remarkably, a large nonzero quantum discord is generally retained, while the nonzero entanglement can only be obtained as the system-environment coupling satisfies certain conditions. We also find that the impact of each qubit's coupling strength on the quantum correlation dynamics strongly depends on the variation schemes of the system-environment couplings.
    Anomalous boundary deformation induced by enclosed active particles
    Wen-De Tian(田文得), Yan Gu(顾燕), Yong-Kun Guo(郭永坤), Kang Chen(陈康)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  100502.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/100502
    Abstract ( 661 )   HTML   PDF (1126KB) ( 262 )  

    We simulate a two-dimensional model of a round soft boundary enclosed with self-propelled particles. Persistent motion drives these particles to accumulate near the boundary, thereby dramatically deforming the boundary shape through collisions. Quantitative analyses of the boundary shape and the particle distribution show that there are two typical regimes in the variation of the morphology with the increase of self-propulsion of particles. One is under small forces, characterized by the radially inhomogeneous distribution of particles and the suppression of local fluctuations of the almost round boundary, and the other is under large forces, featured by the angularly inhomogeneous distribution of particles and the global shape deformation of the boundary. These two features are strongly cooperative. We also find different mechanisms in the particle relocation at low and high particle concentrations.

    A hybrid strategy to control uncertain nonlinear chaotic system
    Yongbo Sui(隋永波), Yigang He(何怡刚), Wenxin Yu(于文新), Yan Li(李燕)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  100503.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/100503
    Abstract ( 745 )   HTML   PDF (5638KB) ( 304 )  
    In this paper, a new method, based on firefly algorithm (FA) and extreme learning machine (ELM), is proposed to control chaos in nonlinear system. ELM is an efficient predicted and classified tool, and can match and fit nonlinear systems efficiently. Hence, mathematical model of uncertain nonlinear system is obtained indirectly. For higher fitting accuracy, a novel swarm intelligence algorithm FA is drawn in our proposed way. The main advantage is that our proposed method can remove the limitation that mathematical model must be known clearly and can be applied to unknown nonlinear chaotic system.
    A novel color image encryption scheme using fractional-order hyperchaotic system and DNA sequence operations
    Li-Min Zhang(张立民), Ke-Hui Sun(孙克辉), Wen-Hao Liu(刘文浩), Shao-Bo He(贺少波)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  100504.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/100504
    Abstract ( 813 )   HTML   PDF (14430KB) ( 375 )  
    In this paper, Adomian decomposition method (ADM) with high accuracy and fast convergence is introduced to solve the fractional-order piecewise-linear (PWL) hyperchaotic system. Based on the obtained hyperchaotic sequences, a novel color image encryption algorithm is proposed by employing a hybrid model of bidirectional circular permutation and DNA masking. In this scheme, the pixel positions of image are scrambled by circular permutation, and the pixel values are substituted by DNA sequence operations. In the DNA sequence operations, addition and substraction operations are performed according to traditional addition and subtraction in the binary, and two rounds of addition rules are used to encrypt the pixel values. The simulation results and security analysis show that the hyperchaotic map is suitable for image encryption, and the proposed encryption algorithm has good encryption effect and strong key sensitivity. It can resist brute-force attack, statistical attack, differential attack, known-plaintext, and chosen-plaintext attacks.
    Dynamical energy equipartition of the Toda model with additional on-site potentials
    Zhenjun Zhang(张振俊), Chunmei Tang(唐春梅), Jing Kang(康静), Peiqing Tong(童培庆)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  100505.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/100505
    Abstract ( 573 )   HTML   PDF (1925KB) ( 206 )  
    We study the dynamical energy equipartition properties in the integrable Toda model with additional uniform or disordered on-site energies by extensive numerical simulations. The total energy is initially equidistributed among some of the lowest frequency linear modes. For the Toda model with uniform on-site potentials, the energy spectrum keeps its profile nearly unchanged in a relatively short time scale. On a much longer time scale, the energies of tail modes increase slowly with time. Energy equipartition is far away from being attached in our studied time scale. For the Toda model with disordered on-site potentials, the energy transfers continuously to the high frequency modes and eventually towards energy equipartition. We further perform a systematic study of the equipartition time teq depending on the energy density ε and the nonlinear parameter α in the thermodynamic limit for the Toda model with disordered on-site potentials. We find teq∝ (1/ε)a(1/α)b, where b≈ 2a. The values of a and b are increased when increasing the strengths of disordered on-site potentials or decreasing the number of initially excited modes.
    Stochastic bounded consensus of second-order multi-agent systems in noisy environment
    Hong-Wei Ren(任红卫), Fei-Qi Deng(邓飞其)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  100506.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/100506
    Abstract ( 633 )   HTML   PDF (530KB) ( 220 )  
    This paper investigates the stochastic bounded consensus of leader-following second-order multi-agent systems in a noisy environment. It is assumed that each agent received the information of its neighbors corrupted by noises and time delays. Based on the graph theory, stochastic tools, and the Lyapunov function method, we derive the sufficient conditions under which the systems would reach stochastic bounded consensus in mean square with the protocol we designed. Finally, a numerical simulation is illustrated to check the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.
    Relating Maxwell's demon and quantitative analysis of information leakage for practical imperative programs
    Kushal Anjaria, Arun Mishra
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  100507.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/100507
    Abstract ( 608 )   HTML   PDF (227KB) ( 159 )  
    Shannon observed the relation between information entropy and Maxwell demon experiment to come up with information entropy formula. After that, Shannon's entropy formula is widely used to measure information leakage in imperative programs. But in the present work, our aim is to go in a reverse direction and try to find possible Maxwell's demon experimental setup for contemporary practical imperative programs in which variations of Shannon's entropy formula has been applied to measure the information leakage. To establish the relation between the second principle of thermodynamics and quantitative analysis of information leakage, present work models contemporary variations of imperative programs in terms of Maxwell's demon experimental setup. In the present work five contemporary variations of imperative program related to information quantification are identified. They are:(i) information leakage in imperative program, (ii) imperative multithreaded program, (iii) point to point leakage in the imperative program, (iv) imperative program with infinite observation, and (v) imperative program in the SOA-based environment. For these variations, minimal work required by an attacker to gain the secret is also calculated using historical Maxwell's demon experiment. To model the experimental setup of Maxwell's demon, non-interference security policy is used. In the present work, imperative programs with one-bit secret information have been considered to avoid the complexity. The findings of the present work from the history of physics can be utilized in many areas related to information flow of physical computing, nano-computing, quantum computing, biological computing, energy dissipation in computing, and computing power analysis.
    Extracting hidden weak sinusoidal signal with short duration from noisy data:Analytical theory and computational realization Hot!
    Ying Zhang(张英), Zhaoyang Zhang(张朝阳), Hong Qian(钱弘), Gang Hu(胡岗)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  100508.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/100508
    Abstract ( 709 )   HTML   PDF (13068KB) ( 241 )  

    Signal detection is both a fundamental topic of data science and a great challenge for practical engineering. One of the canonical tasks widely investigated is detecting a sinusoidal signal of known frequency ω with time duration T:I(t)=Acos ω t+Γ(t), embedded within a stationary noisy data. The most direct, and also believed to be the most efficient, method is to compute the Fourier spectral power at ω:B=|2/T0T I(t)eiωtdt|. Whether one can out-perform the linear Fourier approach by any other nonlinear processing has attracted great interests but so far without a consensus. Neither a rigorous analytic theory has been offered. We revisit the problem of weak signal, strong noise, and finite data length T=O(1), and propose a signal detection method based on resonant filtering. While we show that the linear approach of resonant filters yield a same signal detection efficiency in the limit of T→∞, for finite time length T=O(1), our method can improve the signal detection due to the highly nonlinear interactions between various characteristics of a resonant filter in finite time with respect to transient evolution. At the optimal match between the input I(t), the control parameters, and the initial preparation of the filter state, its performance exceeds the above threshold B considerably. Our results are based on a rigorous analysis of Gaussian processes and the conclusions are supported by numerical computations.

    Indirect pumping bell-bloom magnetometer
    Meng-Bing Wang(王梦冰), Da-Fa Zhao(赵大法), Gui-Ying Zhang(张桂迎), Kai-Feng Zhao(赵凯锋)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  100701.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/100701
    Abstract ( 655 )   HTML   PDF (1520KB) ( 344 )  
    When the ground state hyperfine splitting of alkali metal vapor atoms is well optically resolved, the spin coherence on one hyperfine sublevel can be generated directly or indirectly by pumping the same or the other sublevel respectively. We experimentally studied the pump power dependence of the field response of a Bell-Bloom magnetometer for the two pumping schemes in a paraffin coated 87Rb vapor cell. We find that although the maximum field response is achieved by combining the two pumping schemes, indirect pumping alone can do nearly as good while being much simpler to operate. We have achieved a sensitivity of 100 fT/Hz1/2 with a single indirect pump at room temperature.
    Numerical and experimental analysis of long period gratings in wavelength scale elliptical microfibers
    Wa Jin(金娃), Wei-Hong Bi(毕卫红), Guang-Wei Fu(付广伟)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  100702.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/100702
    Abstract ( 708 )   HTML   PDF (1135KB) ( 226 )  

    We report the fabrication of long-period gratings (LPGs) in elliptical microfibers with femtosecond laser. Based on the numerical analysis of the modes and the mode coupling condition of elliptical microfibers, an LPG is fabricated with a very short pitch of 10 μm by periodically modifying the fiber surface, which demonstrates very strong polarization-dependent resonances, a very low temperature sensitivity of a few picometers in air, and high temperature sensitivity of -1.62 nm/℃ in refractive index oil.

    Nested grazing incidence optics for x ray detection
    Lin-Sen Li(李林森), Peng-Fei Qiang(强鹏飞), Li-Zhi Sheng(盛立志), Yong-An Liu(刘永安), Zhe Liu(刘哲), Duo Liu(刘舵), Bao-Sheng Zhao(赵宝升), Chun-Min Zhang(张淳民)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  100703.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/100703
    Abstract ( 641 )   HTML   PDF (2068KB) ( 146 )  
    Grazing incidence optics (GIO) is the most important compound in an x-ray detection system; it is used to concentrate the x-ray photons from outer space. A nested planar GIO for x-ray concentration is designed and developed by authors in this paper; planar segments are used as the reflection mirror instead of curved segments because of the simple process and low cost. After the complex assembling process with a special metal supporter, a final circle light spot of φ 12 mm was obtained in the visible light testing experiment of GIO; the effective area of 1710.51 mm2@1 keV and 530 mm2@8 keV is obtained in the x-ray testing experiment with the GIO-SDD combination, which is supposed to be a concentrating detector in xray detection systems.
    Correlation between electronic structure and energy band in Eu-doped CuInTe2 semiconductor compound with chalcopyrite structure
    Tai Wang(王泰), Yong-Quan Guo(郭永权), Shuai Li(李帅)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  103101.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/103101
    Abstract ( 623 )   HTML   PDF (615KB) ( 258 )  
    The Eu-doped Cu(In, Eu)Te2 semiconductors with chalcopyrite structures are promising materials for their applications in the absorption layer for thin-film solar cells due to their wider band-gaps and better optical properties than those of CuInTe2. In this paper, the Eu-doped CuInTe2 (CuIn1-xEuxTe2, x=0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) are studied systemically based on the empirical electron theory (EET). The studies cover crystal structures, bonding regularities, cohesive energies, energy levels, and valence electron structures. The theoretical values fit the experimental results very well. The physical mechanism of a broadened band-gap induced by Eu doping into CuInTe2 is the transitions between different hybridization energy levels induced by electron hopping between s and d orbitals and the transformations from the lattice electrons to valence electrons for Cu and In ions. The research results reveal that the photovoltaic effect induces the increase of lattice electrons of In and causes the electric resistivity to decrease. The Eu doping into CuInTe2 mainly influences the transition between different hybridization energy levels for Cu atoms, which shows that the 3d electron numbers of Cu atoms change before and after Eu doping. In single phase CuIn1-xEuxTe2, the number of valence electrons changes regularly with increasing Eu content, and the calculated band gap Eg also increases, which implies that the optical properties of Eu-doped CuIn1-xEuxTe2 are improved.
    Absorption spectra and isotope shifts of the (2, 0), (3, 1), and (8, 5) bands of the A2Πu–X2g+ system of 15N2+ in near infrared
    Jia Ye(叶佳), Hailing Wang(汪海玲), Lunhua Deng(邓伦华)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  103102.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/103102
    Abstract ( 666 )   HTML   PDF (213KB) ( 164 )  

    The high-resolution absorption spectra of the (2,0),(3,1),and (8,5) bands of the A2Πu-X2g+ system of 15N2+ have been recorded by using velocity modulation spectroscopy technique in the near infrared region.The rotational constants of the X2g+ and A2Πu states of 15N2+ were derived from the spectroscopic data.The isotope shifts of these bands of the A2Πu-X2g+ system of 14N2+ and 15N2+ were also analyzed and discussed.

    First principle study of edge topological defect-modulated electronic and magnetic properties in zigzag graphene nanoribbons
    Lu-Ting Huang(黄露婷), Zheng Chen(陈铮), Yong-Xin Wang(王永欣), Yan-Li Lu(卢艳丽)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  103103.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/103103
    Abstract ( 638 )   HTML   PDF (1524KB) ( 218 )  
    Zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) is a promising candidate for next-generation spintronic devices. Development of the field requires potential systems with variable and adjustable electromagnetic properties. Here we show a detailed investigation of ZGNR decorated with edge topological defects (ED-ZGNR) synthesized in laboratory by Ruffieux in 2015[Pascal Ruffieux, Shiyong Wang, Bo Yang, et al. 2015 Nature 531 489]. The pristine ED-ZGNR in the ground state is an antiferromagnetic semiconductor, and the acquired band structure is significantly changed compared with that of perfect ZGNR. After doping heteroatoms on the edge, the breaking of degeneration of band structure makes the doped ribbon a half-semi-metal, and nonzero magnetic moments are induced. Our results indicate the tunable electronic and magnetic properties of ZGNR by deriving unique edge state from topological defect, which opens a new route to practical nano devices based on ZGNR.
    Theoretical investigation on forbidden transition properties of fine-structure splitting in 2D state for K-like ions with 26 ≤ Z ≤ 36
    Jian-Peng Liu(刘建鹏), Cheng-Bin Li(李承斌), Hong-Xin Zou(邹宏新)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  103201.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/103201
    Abstract ( 561 )   HTML   PDF (1304KB) ( 213 )  
    Excitation energies, magnetic dipole, and electric quadrupole transition probabilities of the 3d 2D3/2-3d 2D5/2 transition in the potassium-like (K-like) sequence with 26 ≤ Z ≤ 36 are investigated by using the multi-configuration Dirac-Hartree-Fock (MCDHF) method. The contributions of the electron correlations, Breit interaction, and the leading-order quantum electrodynamic (QED) effects on the transition properties are analyzed. The present results are interested in the laboratory tokamak and the astronomical observations. Furthermore, the feasibility of these ions for the highly charged ion (HCI) clocks is discussed. Considering the wavelength of lasers and manipulation process of the atomic clocks, Cu10+ and Zn11+ are recommended as promising candidates with achievable quality factors at the 1015 level.
    Photodetachment dynamics of H- ion in a harmonic potential plus a time-dependent oscillating electric field
    De-Hua Wang(王德华), Chuan-Juan Wang(王传娟)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  103202.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/103202
    Abstract ( 713 )   HTML   PDF (1044KB) ( 268 )  
    The photodetachment dynamics of H- ion in a harmonic potential plus an oscillating electric field is studied using the time-dependent closed orbit theory. An analytical formula for calculating the photodetachment cross section of this system is put forward. It is found that the photodetachment cross section of this system is nearly unaffected for the weak oscillating electric field strength, but oscillates complicatedly when the oscillating electric field strength turns strong. In addition, the frequency of the harmonic potential and the oscillating electric field (the frequency of the harmonic potential and the frequency of the oscillating electric field are the same in the paper, unless otherwise stated.) can also affect the photodetachment dynamics of this system. With the increase of the frequency in the harmonic potential and the oscillating electric field, the number of the closed orbits for the detached electrons increased, which makes the oscillatory structure in the photodetachment cross section much more complex. Our study presents an intuitive understanding of the photodetachment dynamics driven by a harmonic potential plus an oscillating electric field from a space and time dependent viewpoint. This study is very useful in guiding the future experimental research for the photodetachment dynamics in the electric field both changing with space and time.
    Measurement of transient Raman spectrum on gas-gun loading platform and its application in liquid silane Hot!
    Yi-Gao Wang(汪贻高), Fu-Sheng Liu(刘福生), Qi-Jun Liu(刘其军), Wen-Peng Wang(王文鹏), Ming-Jian Zhang(张明建), Feng Xi(习锋), Ling-Cang Cai(蔡灵仓), Ning-Chao Zhang(张宁超)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  103301.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/103301
    Abstract ( 772 )   HTML   PDF (823KB) ( 209 )  

    Combining a low temperature liquidizing system with a transient Raman spectroscopy, a new experimental technique is established for the first time on a two-stage light-gas gun, and it is employed to study shock-compressed fluid silane. With this experimental technique, we first obtain a Raman peak shift relating to the Si-H stretching vibration mode of molecular liquid silane under shock loading conditions. The Raman peak of 2184 cm-1 at an initial state of 0 GPa and 85 K moves to 2223.4 cm-1 at a shocked state of 10.5 GPa and 950 K, and its full width of half maximum broadens from 33 cm-1 to 118 cm-1. The shocked temperature, calculated by the thermodynamic equation of state, is well consistent with that estimated by the Doppler broadening function.

    Influence of the initial electronic state on minima of high-order harmonic spectrum radiated from hydrogen molecular ion
    Hui-Fang Cui(崔会芳), Xiang-Yang Miao(苗向阳)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  103302.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/103302
    Abstract ( 537 )   HTML   PDF (972KB) ( 170 )  
    We theoretically investigate the high-order harmonic generation of the one-dimensional hydrogen molecular ion at fixed intermediate internuclear distance, driven by a multicycle laser field. Our results show that the initial electronic state of the hydrogen molecular ion affects the modulation of the high-order harmonic spectrum, especially the positions of the minima. Based on the two-state model, the underlying physical mechanism of the minimum is analyzed and discussed. Further analysis shows that the different positions of the minima in the different initial electronic states can be understood via the different interferences of the two phase-adiabatic states at the ionization times.
    Combined multi-level quantum mechanics theories and molecular mechanics study of water-induced transition state of OH-+CO2 reaction in aqueous solution
    Chen Li(李琛), Meixing Niu(牛美兴), Peng Liu(刘鹏), Yongfang Li(李永方), Dunyou Wang(王敦友)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  103401.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/103401
    Abstract ( 733 )   HTML   PDF (762KB) ( 172 )  

    The presence of a solvent interacting with a system brings about qualitative changes from the corresponding gas-phase reactions. A solvent can not only change the energetics along the reaction pathway, but also radically alter the reaction mechanism. Here, we investigated the water-induced transition state of the OH-+CO2→HCO3- reaction using a multi-level quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics method with an explicit water model. The solvent energy contribution along the reaction pathway has a maximum value which induces the highest energy point on the potential of mean force. The charge transfer from OH- to CO2 results in the breaking of the OH- solvation shell and the forming of the CO2 solvation shell. The loss of hydrogen bonds in the OH- solvation shell without being compensated by the formation of hydrogen bonds in the CO2 solvation shell induces the transition state in the aqueous solution. The calculated free energy reaction barrier at the CCSD(T)/MM level of theory, 11.8 kcal/mol, agrees very well with the experimental value, 12.1 kcal/mol.

    A leap-frog discontinuous Galerkin time-domain method of analyzing electromagnetic scattering problems
    Xue-Wu Cui(崔学武), Feng Yang(杨峰), Long-Jian Zhou(周龙建), Min Gao(高敏), Fei Yan(闫飞), Zhi-Peng Liang(梁志鹏)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  104101.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/104101
    Abstract ( 646 )   HTML   PDF (735KB) ( 260 )  

    Several major challenges need to be faced for efficient transient multiscale electromagnetic simulations, such as flexible and robust geometric modeling schemes, efficient and stable time-stepping algorithms, etc. Fortunately, because of the versatile choices of spatial discretization and temporal integration, a discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) method can be a very promising method of solving transient multiscale electromagnetic problems. In this paper, we present the application of a leap-frog DGTD method to the analyzing of the multiscale electromagnetic scattering problems. The uniaxial perfect matching layer (UPML) truncation of the computational domain is discussed and formulated in the leap-frog DGTD context. Numerical validations are performed in the challenging test cases demonstrating the accuracy and effectiveness of the method in solving transient multiscale electromagnetic problems compared with those of other numerical methods.

    Diurnal cooling for continuous thermal sources under direct subtropical sunlight produced by quasi-Cantor structure
    Jia-Ye Wu(吴嘉野), Yuan-Zhi Gong(龚远志), Pei-Ran Huang(黄培然), Gen-Jun Ma(马根骏), Qiao-Feng Dai(戴峭峰)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  104201.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/104201
    Abstract ( 676 )   HTML   PDF (535KB) ( 210 )  

    In this paper, an optical radiative cooler with quasi-Cantor structure is theoretically proposed and analyzed. This simple and symmetrically designed optical structure operates upon continuous thermal sources in diurnal subtropical conditions, and its efficiency is much higher than natural cooling, for instance, when operating upon a typical 323.15 K continuous thermal source with a wind speed at 3 m·-1, it can generate a net cooling power of 363.68 W·m-2, which is 18.26% higher than that of non-radiative heat exchange (natural cooling) under the same conditions. Additionally, several aspects are considered in its design to ensure a low cost in application, which is of great economical and environmental significance.

    Near-field characteristics of highly non-paraxial subwavelength optical fields with hybrid states of polarization
    Rui-Pin Chen(陈瑞品), Teng-Yue Gao(高腾跃), Khian-Hooi Chew(周健辉), Chao-Qing Dai(戴朝卿), Guo-Quan Zhou(周国泉), Sai-Ling He(何赛灵)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  104202.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/104202
    Abstract ( 768 )   HTML   PDF (1425KB) ( 203 )  
    The vectorial structure of an optical field with hybrid states of polarization (SoP) in the near-field is studied by using the angular spectrum method of an electromagnetic beam. Physical images of the longitudinal components of evanescent waves are illustrated and compared with those of the transverse components from the vectorial structure. Our results indicate that the relative weight integrated over the transverse plane of the evanescent wave depends strongly on the number of the polarization topological charges. The shapes of the intensity profiles of the longitudinal components are different from those of the transverse components, and it can be manipulated by changing the initial SoP of the field cross-section. The longitudinal component of evanescent wave dominates the near-field region. In addition, it also leads to three-dimensional shape variations of the optical field and the optical spin angular momentum flux density distributions.
    Wavefront analysis for plenoptic camera imaging
    Yin-Sen Luan(栾银森), Bing Xu(许冰), Ping Yang(杨平), Guo-Mao Tang(汤国茂)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  104203.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/104203
    Abstract ( 640 )   HTML   PDF (1355KB) ( 202 )  
    The plenoptic camera is a single lens stereo camera which can retrieve the direction of light rays while detecting their intensity distribution. In this paper, to reveal more truths of plenoptic camera imaging, we present the wavefront analysis for the plenoptic camera imaging from the angle of physical optics but not from the ray tracing model of geometric optics. Specifically, the wavefront imaging model of a plenoptic camera is analyzed and simulated by scalar diffraction theory and the depth estimation is redescribed based on physical optics. We simulate a set of raw plenoptic images of an object scene, thereby validating the analysis and derivations and the difference between the imaging analysis methods based on geometric optics and physical optics are also shown in simulations.
    Reflective ghost imaging free from vibrating detectors
    Heng-xing Li(李恒星), Yan-feng Bai(白艳锋), Xiao-hui Shi(施晓辉), Su-qin Nan(南苏琴), Li-jie Qu(屈利杰), Qian Shen(沈倩), Xi-quan Fu(傅喜泉)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  104204.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/104204
    Abstract ( 709 )   HTML   PDF (4428KB) ( 208 )  
    The vibration is one of the important factors affecting imaging quality of conventional remote sensing imaging because the relative motion between the imaging system and the target can result in the degradation of imaging quality. The influence of the vibration of the detector in the test path on reflective ghost imaging (RGI) is investigated theoretically and experimentally. We analyze the effects of the vibrating amplitude and velocity. The results demonstrate that the microvibrations of the bucket detector have almost no impact on the imaging resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of RGI, i.e., the degradation of imaging quality caused by the vibration of the detector can be overcome to some extent. Our results can be helpful for remote sensing imaging.
    Generation of single and multiple dissipative soliton in an erbium-doped fiber laser
    Li-Na Duan(段利娜), Jin Wen(文进), Wei Fan(樊伟), Wei Wang(王炜)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  104205.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/104205
    Abstract ( 638 )   HTML   PDF (618KB) ( 228 )  
    We experimentally report on the generation of single and multiple dissipative soliton via nonlinear polarization rotation technique. The spectrum of the mode-locked dissipative soliton exhibits typical steep edges with a flat top; the pulse duration is 10.07 ps. It is found that with the pump power increasing from 110 mW to 161 mW, the top of the mode-locked spectrum becomes flater and the 3-dB spectral bandwidth is broadened, which indicates that the gain-dispersion effect is lowered under stronger pump. However, the full bandwidth of the spectrum is narrowed, which proves that the spectral filter effect increases and overcomes the effect of self-phase modulation induced spectral broadening. Such a phenomenon was not noticed nor reported before. Our experiment also demonstrates that the pulse interval is highly dependent on the input pump power:with pump power increasing, the pulse interval tends towards more uniform. So our observation qualitatively analyzes the relationship between mode-locked pulse characteristics and input pump power.
    Self-compression of 1.8-μm pulses in gas-filled hollow-core fibers
    Rui-Rui Zhao(赵睿睿), Ding Wang(王丁), Yu Zhao(赵钰), Yu-Xin Leng(冷雨欣), Ru-Xin Li(李儒新)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  104206.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/104206
    Abstract ( 705 )   HTML   PDF (927KB) ( 236 )  
    We numerically study the self-compression of the optical pulses centered at 1.8-μm in a hollow-core fiber (HCF) filled with argon. It is found that the pulse can be self-compressed to 2 optical cycles when the input pulse energy is 0.2-mJ and the gas pressure is 500-mbar (1 bar=105 Pa). Inducing a proper positive chirp into the input pulse can lead to a shorter temporal duration after self-compression. These results will benefit the generation of energetic few-cycle mid-infrared pulses.
    The intensity detection of single-photon detectors based on photon counting probability density statistics
    Zijing Zhang(张子静), Long Wu(吴龙), Jie Song(宋杰), Yuan Zhao(赵远)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  104207.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/104207
    Abstract ( 600 )   HTML   PDF (1122KB) ( 197 )  
    Single-photon detectors possess the ultra-high sensitivity, but they cannot directly respond to signal intensity. Conventional methods adopt sampling gates with fixed width and count the triggered number of sampling gates, which is capable of obtaining photon counting probability to estimate the echo signal intensity. In this paper, we not only count the number of triggered sampling gates, but also record the triggered time position of photon counting pulses. The photon counting probability density distribution is obtained through the statistics of a series of the triggered time positions. Then Minimum Variance Unbiased Estimation (MVUE) method is used to estimate the echo signal intensity. Compared with conventional methods, this method can improve the estimation accuracy of echo signal intensity due to the acquisition of more detected information. Finally, a proof-of-principle laboratory system is established. The estimation accuracy of echo signal intensity is discussed and a high accuracy intensity image is acquired under low-light level environments.
    Structural evolution study of additions of Sb2S3 and CdS into GeS2 chalcogenide glass by Raman spectroscopy
    Hai-Tao Guo(郭海涛), Ming-Jie Zhang(张鸣杰), Yan-Tao Xu(许彦涛), Xu-Sheng Xiao(肖旭升), Zhi-Yong Yang(杨志勇)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  104208.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/104208
    Abstract ( 662 )   HTML   PDF (669KB) ( 264 )  

    The structures of pseudo-binary GeS2-Sb2S3, GeS2-CdS, Sb2S3-CdS, and pseudo-ternary GeS2-Sb2S3-CdS chalcogenide systems are systematically investigated by Raman spectroscopy. It is shown that a small number of[S3Ge-GeS3] structural units (SUs) and -S-S-/S8 groups exist simultaneously in GeS2 glass which has a three-dimensional continuous network backbone consisting of cross-linked corner-sharing and edge-sharing[GeS4] tetrahedra. When Sb2S3 is added into GeS2 glass, the network backbone becomes interconnected[GeS4] tetrahedra and[SbS3] pyramids. Moreover, Ge atoms in[S3Ge-GeS3] SUs tend to capture S atoms from Sb2S3, leading to the formation of[S2Sb-SbS2] SUs. When CdS is added into GeS2 glass,[Cd4GeS6] polyhedra are formed, resulting in a strong crystallization tendency. In addition, Ge atoms in[S3Ge-GeS3] SUs tend to capture S atoms from CdS, resulting in the dissolution of Ge-Ge bond. Co-melting of Sb2S3 or CdS with GeS2 reduces the viscosity of the melt and improves the homogeneity of the glass. The GeS2 glass can only dissolve up to 10-mol% CdS without crystallization. In comparison, GeS2-Sb2S3 glasses can dissolve up to 20-mol% CdS, implying that Sb2S3 could delay the construction of[Cd4GeS6] polyhedron and increase the dissolving amount of CdS in the glass.

    Heterogeneous growth of KDP/KT crystal
    Chao Wang(王超), Wei Shi(施巍), Zhuang-Zhuang Zhang(张壮壮), Hui Cao(曹惠), Ren-Chao Che(车仁超)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  104209.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/104209
    Abstract ( 555 )   HTML   PDF (1800KB) ( 181 )  
    The growth of heterogeneous crystal has aroused a great deal of interest in recent years. In this study, KH2PO4 (KDP)/KTaO3 (KT) heterogeneous crystal is acquired based on the KT substrate. Here, we report the observation of the oriented layer-by-layer structure in KDP/KT composite crystal by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The structure of KDP/KT composite crystal is accurately identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for the first time and we find that the KT crystals dope into KDP crystal in the growth process with the mode of doping. It can be obtained from the analysis of crystal structure that the structure difference leads to the doping growth mode. Our research demonstrates a facile method to fabricate a composite nonlinear optical crystal based on KDP/KT heterostructure, and might shed light on potential applications of the composite nonlinear optical crystal.
    Damage threshold influenced by polishing imperfection distribution under 355-nm laser irradiation
    Zhen Yu(余振), Hong-Ji Qi(齐红基), Wei-Li Zhang(张伟丽), Hu Wang(王虎), Bin Wang(王斌), Yue-Liang Wang(王岳亮), Hao-Peng Huang(黄昊鹏)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  104210.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/104210
    Abstract ( 648 )   HTML   PDF (1624KB) ( 233 )  
    A systematic interpretation of laser-induced damage in the nanosecond regime is realized with a defect distribution buried inside the redeposited layer arising from a polishing process. Under the 355-nm laser irradiation, the size dependence of the defect embedded in the fused silica can be illustrated through the thermal conduction model. Considering CeO2 as the major initiator, the size distribution with the power law model is determined from the damage probability statistics. To verify the accuracy of the size distribution, the ion output scaling with depth for the inclusion element is obtained with the secondary ion mass spectrometer. For CeO2 particulates in size of the depth interval with ion output satisfied in the negative exponential form, the corresponding density is consistent with that of the identical size in the calculated size distribution. This coincidence implies an alternative method for the density analysis of photoactive imperfections within optical components at the semi-quantitative level based on the laser damage tests.
    Surface plasmon resonance-induced tunable polarization filters based on nanoscale gold film-coated photonic crystal fibers
    Yingchao Liu(刘英超), Hailiang Chen(陈海良), Shuguang Li(李曙光), Qiang Liu(刘强), Jianshe Li(李建设)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  104211.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/104211
    Abstract ( 663 )   HTML   PDF (898KB) ( 284 )  
    Surface plasmon resonance induced tunable polarization filters based on nanoscale gold film-coated photonic crystal fibers were proposed and analyzed. The characteristics of the polarization filter were calculated by finite element method (FEM). The gold film was selectively coated on the inner wall of one cladding air hole which was located near the fiber core along the y-axis direction. When the phase of core fundamental mode and surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) mode matches, the two modes couple with each other intensely. Numerical results show that the resonance wavelength and strength vary with fiber structural parameters and the index of the infilling liquid. The fiber parameters were optimized to achieve specific functions. Under the optimal structure, we realized a dual channel filter at the communication wavelength of 1.31 μm and 1.55 μm for y polarization direction and x polarization direction. Then a single channel polarized filter at the communication wavelength of 1.55 μm is also achieved by adjusting the refractive index of the infilling liquid. The proposed polarization filters realized dual channel filtering and single channel filtering simultaneously under the same structure for the first time to the best of our knowledge.
    Performance of thermoelectric generator with graphene nanofluid cooling
    Jiao-jiao Xing(邢姣娇), Zi-hua Wu(吴子华), Hua-qing Xie(谢华清), Yuan-yuan Wang(王元元), Yi-huai Li(李奕怀), Jian-hui Mao(毛建辉)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  104401.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/104401
    Abstract ( 738 )   HTML   PDF (1276KB) ( 378 )  

    Improvement of the heat transfer of the cold side is one of the approaches to enhance the performance of TEG systems. As a new type of heat transfer media, nanofluids can enhance the heat transfer performance of working liquid significantly. Based on a three-dimensional and steady-state numerical model,the heat transfer and thermoelectric conversion properties of TEG systems were studied. Graphene anoplatelet aqueous nanofluids were used as the coolants for the cold side of the TEG system to improve the heat transfer capacity of the cold side. The results showed that the heat absorbed by the hot side, voltage, output power, and conversion efficiency of the TEG system were increased greatly by the nanofluid coolants. The output power and the conversion efficiency using 0.1-wt% graphene nanoplatelet aqueous nanofluid as the coolant are enhanced by 26.39% and 14.74%, respectively.

    Simulation on effect of metal/graphene hybrid transparent electrode on characteristics of GaN light emitting diodes
    Ming-Can Qian(钱明灿), Shu-Fang Zhang(张淑芳), Hai-Jun Luo(罗海军), Xing-Ming Long(龙兴明), Fang Wu(吴芳), Liang Fang(方亮), Da-Peng Wei(魏大鹏), Fan-Ming Meng(孟凡明), Bao-Shan Hu(胡宝山)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  104402.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/104402
    Abstract ( 623 )   HTML   PDF (1555KB) ( 299 )  
    In order to decrease the Schottky barrier height and sheet resistance between graphene (Gr) and the p-GaN layers in GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs), some transparent thin films with good conductivity and large work function are essential to insert into Gr and p-GaN layers. In this work, the ultra-thin films of four metals (silver (Ag), golden (Au), nickel (Ni), platinum (Pt)) are explored to introduce as a bridge layer into Gr and p-GaN, respectively. The effect of a different combination of Gr/metal transparent conductive layers (TCLs) on the electrical, optical, and thermal characteristics of LED was investigated by the finite element methods. It is found that both the TCLs transmittance and the surface temperature of the LED chip reduces with the increase of the metal thickness, and the transmittance decreases to about 80% with the metal thickness increasing to 2 nm. The surface temperature distribution, operation voltage, and optical output power of the LED chips with different metal/Gr combination were calculated and analyzed. Based on the electrical, optical, and thermal performance of LEDs, it is found that 1.5-nm Ag or Ni or Pt, but 1-nm Au combined with 3 layered (L) Gr is the optimal Gr/metal hybrid transparent and current spreading electrode for ultra-violet (UV) or near-UV LEDs.
    Two-dimensional thermal illusion device with arbitrary shape based on complementary media
    Ge Xia(夏舸), Wei Kou(寇蔚), Li Yang(杨立), Yong-Cheng Du(杜永成)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  104403.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/104403
    Abstract ( 593 )   HTML   PDF (2108KB) ( 190 )  
    On the basis of transformation thermodynamics and compensation medium theory, we develop a method to design a two-dimensional thermal illusion device with arbitrary shape, and the general expression of thermal conductivity in the each region is obtained. Simulation results show that when an object is covered with the thermal illusion device, it will accurately perform the same temperature distribution signature as another object we have predetermined. Owing to the property of deceiving and interfering with the observer, the thermal illusion device can achieve generalized thermal stealth by using thermal metamaterials, which may have a potential application in military field.
    A numerical study of contact force in competitive evacuation
    Peng Lin(林鹏), Jian Ma(马剑), You-Ling Si(司有亮), Fan-Yu Wu(吴凡雨), Guo-Yuan Wang(王国元), Jian-Yu Wang(王建宇)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  104501.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/104501
    Abstract ( 747 )   HTML   PDF (676KB) ( 257 )  

    Crowd force by the pushing or crushing of people has resulted in a number of accidents in recent decades. The aftermath investigations have shown that the physical interaction of a highly competitive crowd could produce dangerous pressure up to 4500 N/m, which leads to compressive asphyxia or even death. In this paper, a numerical model based on discrete element method (DEM) as referenced from granular flow was proposed to model the evacuation process of a group of highly competitive people, in which the movement of people follows Newton's second law and the body deformation due to compression follows Hertz contact model. The study shows that the clogs occur periodically and flow rate fluctuates greatly if all people strive to pass through a narrow exit at high enough desired velocity. Two types of contact forces acting on people are studied. The first one, i.e., vector contact force, accounts for the movement of the people following Newton's second law. The second one, i.e., scale contact force, accounts for the physical deformation of the human body following the contact law. Simulation shows that the forces chain in crowd flow is turbulent and fragile. A few narrow zones with intense forces are observed in the force field, which is similar to the strain localization observed in granular flow. The force acting on a person could be as high as 4500 N due to force localization, which may be the root cause of compressive asphyxia of people in many crowd incidents.

    Modulation of absorption manner in helicon discharges by changing profile of low axial magnetic field
    Gao Zhao(赵高), Yu Wang(王宇), Chen Niu(牛晨), Zhong-Wei Liu(刘忠伟), Jiting Ouyang(欧阳吉庭), Qiang Chen(陈强)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  105201.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/105201
    Abstract ( 654 )   HTML   PDF (1465KB) ( 199 )  
    The modulation of absorption manner in helicon discharge by changing the profile of low axial magnetic field is explored experimentally in this work. The experiments are carried out in Boswell-type antenna driven by 13.56-MHz power source in 0.35-Pa argon environment. The peak of the external non-uniform magnetic field (Bex) along the axis is observed in a range from 0 Gs to 250 Gs (1 Gs=10-4 T), where the electron density varies from 0.5×1016 m-3 to 9×1016 m-3. When Bex is located near the tube upper end sealed by a dielectric plate, or near the tube bottom end connected with a diffusion chamber, the plasmas are centralized in the tube in the former case while the strong luminance appears between the edge of the tube and the axial line in the latter case. When Bex is located in the middle of the antenna, moreover, an effective resistance (Reff) peak appears apparently with increasing magnetic field. The glow moves toward first the edge of the tube and then the two antenna legs as the magnetic field increases. The discharge in this case is caused by the absorption of Trivelpiece-Gould (TG) wave. It is suggested that Bex is located in the middle of the antenna to obtain a higher efficiency of power transfer.
    Electric ignition energy evaluation and the energy distribution structure of energy released in electrostatic discharge process
    Qingming Liu(刘庆明), Jinxiang Huang(黄金香), Huige Shao(邵惠阁), Yunming Zhang(张云明)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  105202.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/105202
    Abstract ( 622 )   HTML   PDF (496KB) ( 178 )  

    Ignition energy is one of the important parameters of flammable materials, and evaluating ignition energy precisely is essential to the safety of process industry and combustion science and technology. By using electric spark discharge test system, a series of electric spark discharge experiments were conducted with the capacitor-stored energy in the range of 10 J, 100 J, and 1000 J, respectively. The evaluation method for energy consumed by electric spark, wire, and switch during capacitor discharge process has been studied respectively. The resistance of wire, switch, and plasma between electrodes has been evaluated by different methods and an optimized evaluation method has been obtained. The electric energy consumed by wire, electric switch, and electric spark-induced plasma between electrodes were obtained and the energy structure of capacitor-released energy was analyzed. The dynamic process and the characteristic parameters (the maximum power, duration of discharge process) of electric spark discharge process have been analyzed. Experimental results showed that, electric spark-consumed energy only accounts for 8%-14% of the capacitor-released energy. With the increase of capacitor-released energy, the duration of discharge process becomes longer, and the energy of plasma accounts for more in the capacitor-released energy. The power of electric spark varies with time as a damped sinusoids function and the period and the maximum value increase with the capacitor-released energy.

    Preparation of graphene oxides with different sheet sizes by temperature control
    Zhe Qian(钱哲), Liang Chen(陈亮), De-Yuan Li(李德远), Bing-Quan Peng(彭兵权), Guo-Sheng Shi(石国升), Gang Xu(徐刚), Hai-Ping Fang(方海平), Ming-Hong Wu(吴明红)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  106101.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/106101
    Abstract ( 520 )   HTML   PDF (1641KB) ( 220 )  

    The sheet size of a graphene oxide (GO) can greatly influence its electrical, optical, mechanical, electrochemical and catalytic property. It is a key challenge to how to control the sheet size during its preparation in different application fields. According to our previous theoretical calculations of the effect of temperature on the oxidation process of graphene, we use Hummers method to prepare GOs with different sheet sizes by simply controlling the temperature condition in the process of the oxidation reaction of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) with graphene and the dilution process with deionized water. The results detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) show that the average sizes of GO sheets prepared at different temperatures are about 1 μm and 7 μm respectively. The ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) shows that lower temperature can lead to smaller oxidation degrees of GO and less oxygen functional groups on the surface. In addition, we prepare GO membranes to test their mechanical strengths by ultrasonic waves, and we find that the strengths of the GO membranes prepared under low temperatures are considerably higher than those prepared under high temperatures, showing the high mechanical strengths of larger GO sheets. Our experimental results testify our previous theoretical calculations. Compared with the traditional centrifugal separation and chemical cutting method, the preparation process of GO by temperature control is simple and low-cost and also enables large-size synthesis. These findings develop a new method to control GO sheet sizes for large-scale potential applications.

    Structural modification in swift heavy ion irradiated muscovite mica
    Sheng-Xia Zhang(张胜霞), Jie Liu(刘杰), Jian Zeng(曾健), Pei-Pei Hu(胡培培), Peng-Fei Zhai(翟鹏飞)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  106102.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/106102
    Abstract ( 721 )   HTML   PDF (988KB) ( 209 )  

    Two-layer monoclinic (2M) muscovite mica sheets with a thickness of 12 μm are irradiated with Sn ions at room temperature with electronic energy loss (dE/dx)e of 14.7 keV/nm. The ion fluence is varied between 1×1011 and 1×1013 ions/cm2. Structural transition in irradiated mica is investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD). The main diffraction peaks shift to the high angles, and the inter-planar distance decreases due to swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. Dehydration takes place in mica during SHI irradiation and mica with one-layer monoclinic (1M) structure is thought to be generated in 2M mica after SHI irradiation. In addition, micro stress and damage cross section in irradiated mica are analyzed according to XRD data. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) is used on the irradiated mica to obtain the detailed information about the latent tracks and structural modifications directly. The latent track in mica presents an amorphous zone surrounded by strain contrast shell, which is associated with the residual stress in irradiated mica.

    Stability and mechanical properties of various Hf-H phases:A density-functional theory study
    Wei Xiao(肖伟), Lu Sun(孙璐), Shu-Hui Huang(黄树晖), Jian-Wei Wang(王建伟), Lei Cheng(程磊), Li-Gen Wang(王立根)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  106103.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/106103
    Abstract ( 504 )   HTML   PDF (312KB) ( 155 )  

    We performe first-principles density functional theory calculations to investigate the stability and mechanical properties of various HfHx (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) phases. For pure Hf phases, the calculated results show that the HCP and FCC phases are mechanically stable, while the BCC phase is unstable at 0 K. Also, as for various HfHx phases, we find that H location and concentration could have a significant effect on their stability and mechanical properties. When 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.25, the HCP phases with H at (tetrahedral) T sites are energetically most stable among various phases. The FCC and BCC phases with H at T sites turn to be relatively more favorable than the HCP phase when H concentration is higher than 0.25. Furthermore, our calculated results indicate that the H solution in Hf can largely affect their mechanical properties such as the bulk moduli (B) and shear moduli (G).

    Simulations of guiding of low-energy ions through a single nanocapillary in insulating materials
    Shi-Dong Liu(刘世东), Yong-Tao Zhao(赵永涛), Yu-Yu Wang(王瑜玉)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  106104.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/106104
    Abstract ( 458 )   HTML   PDF (2473KB) ( 158 )  

    Simulations of guiding of low-energy ions through a single nanocapillary in insulating polymers are reported. The nanocapillary has a diameter of 100 nm and a length of 10 μm. Different from previous work, in our simulations a hyperbolic function is used to describe the decay of the charges deposited on the capillary surface. The present simulations reproduce the self-organized charge-up process occurring in the capillary. It is shown that lower-energy ions undergo more oscillations to get guiding equilibrium than those of higher-energy ions, resulting in a longer charging time, which is in good agreement with previous experimental results. Moreover, the experimentally observed mass independence of ion guiding is proved in our simulations. In particular, it is found that the maximum of the repulsive field within the capillary is independent of the ion energy as well as the tilt angle. To counterbalance the increasing of the transversal energy caused by increasing the tilt angle or incident energy, the effective length of the repulsive field is expanded in a self-organizing manner.

    Elastic, thermodynamic, electronic, and optical properties of recently discovered superconducting transition metal boride NbRuB:An ab-initio investigation
    F Parvin, S H Naqib
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  106201.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/106201
    Abstract ( 550 )   HTML   PDF (729KB) ( 319 )  

    The elastic, thermodynamic, electronic, and optical properties of recently discovered and potentially technologically important transition metal boride NbRuB, are investigated using the density functional formalism. Both generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and local density approximation (LDA) are used for optimizing the geometry and for estimating various elastic moduli and constants. The optical properties of NbRuB are studied for the first time with different photon polarizations. The frequency (energy) dependence of various optical constants complement quite well the essential features of the electronic band structure calculations. Debye temperature of NbRuB is estimated from the thermodynamical study. All these theoretical estimates are compared with published results, where available, and discussed in detail. Both electronic band structure and optical conductivity reveal robust metallic characteristics. The NbRuB possesses significant elastic anisotropy. Electronic features, on the other hand, are almost isotropic in nature. The effects of electronic band structure and Debye temperature on the emergence of superconductivity are also analyzed.

    Theoretical calculations of hardness and metallicity for multibond hexagonal 5d transition metal diborides with ReB2 structure
    Jun Yang(杨俊), Fa-Ming Gao(高发明), Yong-Shan Liu(刘永山)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  106202.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/106202
    Abstract ( 600 )   HTML   PDF (669KB) ( 158 )  

    The hardness, electronic, and elastic properties of 5d transition metal diborides with ReB2 structure are studied theoretically by using the first principles calculations. The calculated results are in good agreement with the previous experimental and theoretical results. Empirical formulas for estimating the hardness and partial number of effective free electrons for each bond in multibond compounds with metallicity are presented. Based on the formulas, IrB2 has the largest hardness of 21.8 GPa, followed by OsB2 (21.0 GPa) and ReB2 (19.7 GPa), indicating that they are good candidates as hard materials.

    First-principles analysis of the structural, electronic, and elastic properties of cubic organic-inorganic perovskite HC(NH2)2PbI3
    Jun-Fei Wang(王俊斐), Xiao-Nan Fu(富笑男), Jun-Tao Wang(王俊涛)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  106301.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/106301
    Abstract ( 591 )   HTML   PDF (366KB) ( 536 )  

    The structural, electronic, and elastic properties of cubic HC(NH2)2PbI3 perovskite are investigated by density functional theory using the Tkatchenko-Scheffler pairwise dispersion scheme. Our relaxed lattice parameters are in agreement with experimental data. The hydrogen bonding between NH2 and I ions is found to have a crucial role in FAPbI3 stability. The first calculated band structure shows that HC(NH2)2PbI3 has a direct bandgap (1.02 eV) at R-point, lower than the bandgap (1.53 eV) of CH3NH3PbI3. The calculated density of states reveals that the strong hybridization of s(Pb)-p(I) orbital in valence band maximum plays an important role in the structural stability. The photo-generated effective electron mass and hole mass at R-point along the R-Γ and R-M directions are estimated to be smaller:me*=0.06m0 and mh*=0.08m0 respectively, which are consistent with the values experimentally observed from long range photocarrier transport. The elastic properties are also investigated for the first time, which shows that HC(NH2)2PbI3 is mechanically stable and ductile and has weaker strength of the average chemical bond. This work sheds light on the understanding of applications of HC(NH2)2PbI3 as the perovskite in a planar-heterojunction solar cell light absorber fabricated on flexible polymer substrates.

    Layering of confined water between two graphene sheets and its liquid-liquid transition
    Xuyan Zhou(周戌燕), Yunrui Duan(段云瑞), Long Wang(王龙), Sida Liu(刘思达), Tao Li(李涛), Yifan Li(李一凡), Hui Li(李辉)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  106401.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/106401
    Abstract ( 741 )   HTML   PDF (2158KB) ( 180 )  

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to explore the layering structure and liquid-liquid transition of liquid water confined between two graphene sheets with a varied distance at different pressures. Both the size of nanoslit and pressure could cause the layering and liquid-liquid transition of the confined water. With increase of pressure and the nanoslit's size, the confined water could have a more obvious layering. In addition, the neighboring water molecules firstly form chain structure, then will transform into square structure, and finally become triangle with increase of pressure. These results throw light on layering and liquid-liquid transition of water confined between two graphene sheets.

    Anomalous behavior and phase transformation of α -GaOOH nanocrystals under static compression
    Zhao Zhang(张钊), Hang Cui(崔航), Da-Peng Yang(杨大鹏), Jian Zhang(张剑), Shun-Xi Tang(汤顺熙), Si Wu(吴思), Qi-Liang Cui(崔啟良)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  106402.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/106402
    Abstract ( 585 )   HTML   PDF (911KB) ( 233 )  

    The structural compression mechanism and compressibility of gallium oxyhydroxide, α -GaOOH, are investigated by in situ synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction at pressures up to 31.0 GPa by using the diamond anvil cell technique. The α -GaOOH sustains its orthorhombic structure when the pressure is lower than 23.8 GPa. The compression is anisotropic under hydrostatic conditions, with the a-axis being most compressible. The compression proceeds mainly by shrinkage of the void channels formed by the coordination GaO3(OH)3 octahedra of the crystal structure. Anomaly is found in the compression behavior to occur at 14.6 GPa, which is concomitant with the equatorial distortion of the GaO3(OH)3 octahedra. A kink occurs at 14.6 GPa in the plot of finite strain f versus normalized stress F, indicating the change in the bulk compression behavior. The fittings of a second order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state to the P-V data in different pressure ranges result in the bulk moduli B0=199(1) GPa for P < 14.6 GPa and B0=167(2) GPa for P > 14.6 GPa. As the pressure is increased to about 25.8 GPa, a first-order phase transformation takes place, which is evidenced by the abrupt decrease in the unit cell volume and b and c lattice parameters.

    Negative thermal expansion and photoluminescence in solid solution (HfSc)0.83W2.25P0.83O12δ
    Yuan Liang(梁源), Yong-Guang Cheng(程永光), Xiang-Hong Ge(葛向红), Bao-He Yuan(袁保合), Juan Guo(郭娟), Qian Sun(孙强), Er-Jun Liang(梁二军)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  106501.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/106501
    Abstract ( 701 )   HTML   PDF (1188KB) ( 210 )  

    A solid solution of (HfSc)0.83W2.25P0.83O12-δ is synthesized by the high-temperature, solid-state reaction and fast-quenching method. It is shown that it possesses an orthorhombic structure with space group Pmmm (47) and exhibits negative thermal expansion (NTE) property with low anisotropy in thermal expansion. The coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) for a, b, and c axes are -1.41×10-6 K-1, -2.23×10-6 K-1, and -1.87×10-6 K-1, respectively. This gives rise to volume and linear CTEs of -3.10×10-6 K-1 and -1.03×10-6 K-1, respectively. Besides, it exhibits also intense photoluminescence from 360 nm to about 600 nm. The mechanism of NTE and the correlation of the PL with axial thermal expansion property are discussed.

    Thermal conductivity of carbon nanoring linked graphene sheets:A molecular dynamics investigation
    Gang Shi(石刚), Jianwei Zhang(张鉴炜), Yonglv He(贺雍律), Su Ju(鞠苏), Dazhi Jiang(江大志)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  106502.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/106502
    Abstract ( 779 )   HTML   PDF (1587KB) ( 292 )  

    Improving the thermal conduction across graphene sheets is of great importance for their applications in thermal management. In this paper, thermal transport across a hybrid structure formed by two graphene nanoribbons and carbon nanorings (CNRs) was investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. The effects of linker diameter, number, and height on thermal conductivity of the CNRs-graphene hybrid structures were studied respectively, and the CNRs were found effective in transmitting the phonon modes of GNRs. The hybrid structure with 2 linkers showed the highest thermal conductivity of 68.8 W·m-1·K-1. Our work presents important insight into fundamental principles governing the thermal conduction across CNR junctions and provides useful guideline for designing CNR-graphene structure with superior thermal conductivity.

    Structural, optical, and electrical properties of Cu-doped ZrO2 films prepared by magnetron co-sputtering
    Nian-Qi Yao(姚念琦), Zhi-Chao Liu(刘智超), Guang-Rui Gu(顾广瑞), Bao-Jia Wu(吴宝嘉)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  106801.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/106801
    Abstract ( 632 )   HTML   PDF (768KB) ( 401 )  

    Copper (Cu)-doped ZrO2 (CZO) films with different Cu content (0 at.%~8.07 at.%) are successfully deposited on Si (100) substrates by direct current (DC) and radio frequency (RF) magnetron co-sputtering. The influences of Cu content on structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of CZO films are discussed in detail. The CZO films exhibit ZrO2 monocline (111) preferred orientation, which indicates that Cu atoms are doped in ZrO2 host lattice. The crystallite size estimated form x-ray diffraction (XRD) increases by Cu doping, which accords with the result observed from the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The electrical resistivity decreases from 2.63 Ω.cm to 1.48 Ω·cm with Cu doping content increasing, which indicates that the conductivity of CZO film is improved. However, the visible light transmittances decrease slightly by Cu doping and the optical band gap values decrease from 4.64 eV to 4.48 eV for CZO films.

    Tunable resonant radiation force exerted on semiconductor quantum well nanostructures:Nonlocal effects
    Guang-Hui Wang(王光辉), Xiong-Shuo Yan(颜雄硕), Jin-Ke Zhang(张金珂)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  106802.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/106802
    Abstract ( 589 )   HTML   PDF (1220KB) ( 183 )  

    Resonant radiation force exerted on a semiconductor quantum well nanostructure (QWNS) from intersubband transition of electrons is investigated by taking the nonlocal coupling between the polarizability of electrons and applied optical fields into account for two kinds of polarized states. The numerical results show the spatial nonlocality of optical response can induce the spectral peak position of the exerted force to have a blueshift, which is sensitively dependent on the polarized state and the QWNS width. It is also demonstrated that resonant radiation force is controllable by the polarization and incident directions of applied light waves. This work provides effective methods for controlling optical force and manipulating nano-objects, and observing radiation forces in experiment. This nonlocal interaction mechanism can also be used to probe and predominate internal quantum properties of nanostructures, and to manipulate collective behavior of nano-objects.

    Interfacial nanobubbles produced by long-time preserved cold water Hot!
    Li-Min Zhou(周利民), Shuo Wang(王硕), Jie Qiu(邱杰), Lei Wang(王磊), Xing-Ya Wang(王兴亚), Bin Li(李宾), Li-Juan Zhang(张立娟), Jun Hu(胡钧)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  106803.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/106803
    Abstract ( 829 )   HTML   PDF (2850KB) ( 309 )  

    Interfacial gaseous nanobubbles which have remarkable properties such as unexpectedly long lifetime and significant potential applications, are drawing more and more attention. However, the recent dispute about the contamination or gas inside the nanobubbles causes a large confusion due to the lack of simple and clean method to produce gas nanobubbles. Here we report a convenient and clean method to effectively produce interfacial nanobubbles based on a pure water system. By adding the cold water cooled at 4 ℃ for more than 48 h onto highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface, we find that the average density and total volume of nanobubbles are increased to a high level and mainly dominated by the concentrations of the dissolved gases in cold water. Our findings and methods are crucial and helpful for settling the newly arisen debates on gas nanobubbles.

    Comparative study of electrical characteristics for n-type 4H-SiC planar and trench MOS capacitors annealed in ambient NO
    Zhan-Wei Shen(申占伟), Feng Zhang(张峰), Sima Dimitrijev, Ji-Sheng Han(韩吉胜), Guo-Guo Yan(闫果果), Zheng-Xin Wen(温正欣), Wan-Shun Zhao(赵万顺), Lei Wang(王雷), Xing-Fang Liu(刘兴昉), Guo-Sheng Sun(孙国胜), Yi-Ping Zeng(曾一平)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  107101.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/107101
    Abstract ( 585 )   HTML   PDF (1086KB) ( 369 )  

    The interface properties and electrical characteristics of the n-type 4H-SiC planar and trench metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors are investigated by measuring the capacitance voltage and current voltage. The flat-band voltage and interface state density are evaluated by the quasi-static method. It is not effective on further improving the interface properties annealing at 1250 ℃ in NO ambient for above 1 h due to the increasing interface shallow and fast states. These shallow states reduce the effective positive fixed charge density in the oxide. For the vertical MOS capacitors on the (1120) and (1100) faces, the interface state density can be reduced by approximately one order of magnitude, in comparison to the result of the planar MOS capacitors on the (0001) face under the same NO annealing condition. In addition, it is found that Fowler-Nordheim tunneling current occurs at an oxide electric field of 7 MV/cm for the planar MOS device. However, Poole-Frenkel conduction current occurs at a lower electric field of 4 MV/cm for the trench MOS capacitor. This is due to the local field crowded at the trench corner severely causing the electrons to be early captured at or emitted from the SiO2/SiC interface. These results provide a reference for an in-depth understanding of the mobility-limiting factors and long term reliability of the trench and planar SiO2/SiC interfaces.

    The residual C concentration control for low temperature growth p-type GaN
    Shuang-Tao Liu(刘双韬), De-Gang Zhao(赵德刚), Jing Yang(杨静), De-Sheng Jiang(江德生), Feng Liang(梁锋), Ping Chen(陈平), Jian-Jun Zhu(朱建军), Zong-Shun Liu(刘宗顺), Xiang Li(李翔), Wei Liu(刘炜), Yao Xing(邢瑶), Li-Qun Zhang(张立群)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  107102.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/107102
    Abstract ( 625 )   HTML   PDF (368KB) ( 250 )  

    In this work, the influence of C concentration to the performance of low temperature growth p-GaN is studied. Through analyses, we have confirmed that the C impurity has a compensation effect to p-GaN. At the same time we have found that several growth and annealing parameters have influences on the residual C concentration:(i) the C concentration decreases with the increase of growth pressure; (ii) we have found there exists a Ga memory effect when changing the Cp2Mg flow which will lead the growth rate and C concentration increase along the increase of Cp2Mg flow; (iii) annealing outside of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) could decrease the C concentration while in situ annealing in MOCVD has an immobilization role to C concentration.

    Effect of disorder on exciton dissociation in conjugated polymers
    Yuwen Feng(冯誉雯), Hui Zhao(赵晖), Yuguang Chen(陈宇光), Yonghong Yan(鄢永红)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  107103.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/107103
    Abstract ( 567 )   HTML   PDF (351KB) ( 165 )  

    By using a multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree-Fock (MCTDHF) method for the time-dependent Schrödinger equation and a Newtonian equation of motion for lattice, we investigate the disorder effects on the dissociation process of excitons in conjugated polymer chains. The simulations are performed within the framework of an extended version of the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model modified to include on-site disorder, off-diagonal, electron-electron interaction, and an external electric field. Our results show that Coulomb correlation effects play an important role in determining the exciton dissociation process. The electric field required to dissociate an exciton can practically impossibly occur in a pure polymer chain, especially in the case of triplet exciton. However, when the on-site disorder effects are taken into account, this leads to a reduction in mean dissociation electric fields. As the disorder strength increases, the dissociation field decreases effectively. On the contrary, the effects of off-diagonal disorder are negative in most cases. Moreover, the dependence of exciton dissociation on the conjugated length is also discussed.

    Thermoelectric properties of Li-doped Sr0.7Ba0.3Nb2O6-δ ceramics
    Ya-Cui Zhang(张亚翠), Jian Liu(刘剑), Yi Li(李宜), Yu-Fei Chen(陈宇飞), Ji-Chao Li(李吉超), Wen-Bin Su(苏文斌), Yu-Cheng Zhou(周昱成), Jin-Ze Zhai(翟近泽), Teng Wang(王腾), Chun-Lei Wang(王春雷)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  107201.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/107201
    Abstract ( 506 )   HTML   PDF (666KB) ( 177 )  

    Thermoelectric properties of Li-doped Sr0.70Ba0.30Nb2O6-δ ceramics were investigated in the temperature range from 323 K to 1073 K. The electrical conductivity increases significantly after lithium interstitial doping. However, both of the magnitudes of Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity vary non-monotonically but synchronously with the doping contents, indicating that doped lithium ions may not be fully ionized and oxygen vacancy may also contribute to carriers. The lattice thermal conductivity increases firstly and then decreases as the doping content increases, which is affected by competing factors.Thermoelectric performance is enhanced by lithium interstitial doping due to the increase of the power factor and the thermoelectric figure of merit reaches maximum value (0.21 at 1073 K) in the sample Sr0.70Ba0.30Li0.10Nb2O6.

    Optimize the thermoelectric performance of CdO ceramics by doping Zn
    Xin-Yu Zha(查欣雨), Lin-Jie Gao(高琳洁), Hong-Chang Bai(白洪昌), Jiang-Long Wang(王江龙), Shu-Fang Wang(王淑芳)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  107202.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/107202
    Abstract ( 648 )   HTML   PDF (2760KB) ( 278 )  

    The thermoelectric performance of CdO ceramics was enhanced by simultaneously optimizing the electrical and thermal transport properties via a small amount of Zn doping (≤ 3%). The introduction of Zn can obviously increase the electrical conductivity of CdO due to the simultaneous increase of carrier concentration and mobility, and eventually results in an improvement in power factor. Zn doping is also effective in suppressing the thermal conductivity of CdO because of stronger phonon scatterings from point defects, Zn-riched second phase, and grain boundaries. A best ZT of about 0.45 has been achieved in the Cd1-xZnxO systems at about 1000 K, which is comparable to the highest values reported for other n-type oxide TE materials.

    Simulation study of InAlN/GaN high-electron mobility transistor with AlInN back barrier
    Tie-Cheng Han(韩铁成), Hong-Dong Zhao(赵红东), Lei Yang(杨磊), Yang Wang(王杨)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  107301.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/107301
    Abstract ( 722 )   HTML   PDF (349KB) ( 613 )  

    In this work, we use a 3-nm-thick Al0.64In0.36N back-barrier layer in In0.17Al0.83N/GaN high-electron mobility transistor (HEMT) to enhance electron confinement. Based on two-dimensional device simulations, the influences of Al0.64In0.36N back-barrier on the direct-current (DC) and radio-frequency (RF) characteristics of InAlN/GaN HEMT are investigated, theoretically. It is shown that an effective conduction band discontinuity of approximately 0.5 eV is created by the 3-nm-thick Al0.64In0.36N back-barrier and no parasitic electron channel is formed. Comparing with the conventional InAlN/GaN HEMT, the electron confinement of the back-barrier HEMT is significantly improved, which allows a good immunity to short-channel effect (SCE) for gate length decreasing down to 60 nm (9-nm top barrier). For a 70-nm gate length, the peak current gain cut-off frequency (fT) and power gain cut-off frequency (fmax) of the back-barrier HEMT are 172 GHz and 217 GHz, respectively, which are higher than those of the conventional HEMT with the same gate length.

    Effects of spacer layers on magnetic properties and exchange couplings of Nd-Fe-B/Nd-Ce-Fe-B multilayer films
    Ya-Chao Sun(孙亚超), Ming-Gang Zhu(朱明刚), Wei Liu(刘伟), Rui Han(韩瑞), Wen-Chen Zhang(张文臣), Yan-Feng Li(李岩峰), Wei Li(李卫)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  107501.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/107501
    Abstract ( 646 )   HTML   PDF (581KB) ( 208 )  

    The influences of the spacer-layer Ta on the structures and magnetic properties of NdFeB/NdCeFeB multilayer films are investigated via DC sputtering under an Ar pressure of 1.2 Pa. An obvious (00l) texture of the hard phase is observed in each of the films, which indicates that the main phase of the film does not significantly change with Ta spacer-layer thickness. As a result, both the remanence and the saturation magnetization of the magnet first increase and then decrease, and the maximum values of 4π Mr and Hcj are 10.4 kGs (1 Gs=10-4 T) and 15.0 kOe (1 Oe=79.5775 A·m-1) for the film with a 2-nm-thick Ta spacer-layer, respectively, where the crystalline structures are columnar shape particles. The measured relationship between irreversible portion D (H)=-△ Mirr/2Mr and H indicates that the nucleation field of the film decreases with spacer layer thickness increasing, owing to slightly disordered grains near the interface between different magnetic layers.

    N-type GaSb single crystals with high below-band gap transmission
    Yong-Biao Bai(白永彪), You-Wen Zhao(赵有文), Gui-Ying Shen(沈桂英), Xiao-Yu Chen(陈晓玉), Jing-Ming Liu(刘京明), Hui Xie(谢晖), Zhi-Yuan Dong(董志远), Jun Yang(杨俊), Feng-Yun Yang(杨凤云), Feng-Hua Wang(王凤华)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  107801.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/107801
    Abstract ( 690 )   HTML   PDF (630KB) ( 279 )  

    Te-doped GaSb single crystals are studied by measuring Hall effect, infrared (IR) transmission and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. It is found that the n-type GaSb with IR transmittance can be obtained as high as 60% by the critical control of the Te-doping concentration and electrical compensation. The concentration of the native acceptor-associated defects is apparently low in the Te-doped GaSb compared with those in undoped and heavily Te-doped GaSb. The mechanism for the high IR transmittance is analyzed by considering the defect-involved optical absorption process.

    Germanene nanomeshes:Cooperative effects of degenerate perturbation and uniaxial strain on tuning bandgap
    Yan Su(苏燕), Xinyu Fan(范新宇)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  108101.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/108101
    Abstract ( 556 )   HTML   PDF (4375KB) ( 188 )  

    Based on the detailed first-principles calculations, we have carefully investigated the defect induced band splitting and its combination with Dirac cone move in bandgap opening. The uniaxial strain can split the π -like bands into πa and πz bands with energy interval Estrain to shift the Dirac cone. Also, the inversion symmetry preserved antidot can split πa (πz) into πa1 and πa2 (πz1 and πz2) bands with energy interval Edefect to open bandgap in the nanomesh with Γ as four-fold degenerate Dirac point according to the band-folding analysis. Though the Edefect would keep almost unaffected, the Estrain would be increased by enhancing the uniaxial strain to continuously tune the gap width. Then the bandgap can be reversibly switched on/off. Our studies of the inversion symmetry preserved nanomesh show distinct difference in bandgap opening mechanism as compared to the one by breaking the sublattice equivalence in the (GaAs)6 nanoflake patterned nanomesh. Here, the π-band gap remains almost unchanged against strain enhancing.

    Angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of GeOx growth by plasma post-oxidation
    Zhiqian Zhao(赵治乾), Jing Zhang(张静), Xiaolei Wang(王晓磊), Shuhua Wei(魏淑华), Chao Zhao(赵超), Wenwu Wang(王文武)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  108201.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/108201
    Abstract ( 526 )   HTML   PDF (447KB) ( 215 )  
    The growth process of GeOx films formed by plasma post-oxidation (PPO) at room temperature (RT) is investigated using angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AR-XPS). The experimental results show that the distributions of the Ge4+ states, a mixture of the Ge2+ and Ge3+ states, and the Ge1+ states are localized from the GeOx surface to the GeOx/Ge interface. Moreover, the Ge1+ states are predominant when the two outermost layers of Ge atoms are oxidized. These findings are helpful for establishing in-depth knowledge of the growth mechanism of the GeOx layer and valuable for the optimization of Ge-based gate stacks for future complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) field-effect transistor (CMOSFET) devices.
    High resolution inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging of three-axis-stabilized space target by exploiting orbital and sparse priors
    Jun-Tao Ma(马俊涛), Mei-Guo Gao(高梅国), Bao-Feng Guo(郭宝锋), Jian Dong(董健), Di Xiong(熊娣), Qi Feng(冯祺)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  108401.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/108401
    Abstract ( 620 )   HTML   PDF (829KB) ( 180 )  
    The development of inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging techniques is of notable significance for monitoring, tracking and identifying space targets in orbit. Usually, a well-focused ISAR image of a space target can be obtained in a deliberately selected imaging segment in which the target moves with only uniform planar rotation. However, in some imaging segments, the nonlinear range migration through resolution cells (MTRCs) and time-varying Doppler caused by the three-dimensional rotation of the target would degrade the ISAR imaging performance, and it is troublesome to realize accurate motion compensation with conventional methods. Especially in the case of low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the estimation of motion parameters is more difficult. In this paper, a novel algorithm for high-resolution ISAR imaging of a space target by using its precise ephemeris and orbital motion model is proposed. The innovative contributions are as follows. 1) The change of a scatterer projection position is described with the spatial-variant angles of imaging plane calculated based on the orbital motion model of the three-axis-stabilized space target. 2) A correction method of MTRC in slant-and cross-range dimensions for arbitrarily imaging segment is proposed. 3) Coarse compensation for translational motion using the precise ephemeris and the fine compensation for residual phase errors by using sparsity-driven autofocus method are introduced to achieve a high-resolution ISAR image. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method.
    Superconducting tunable filter with constant bandwidth using coplanar waveguide resonators
    Ying Jiang(蒋莹), Bo Li(李博), Bin Wei(魏斌), Xu-Bo Guo(郭旭波), Bi-Song Cao(曹必松), Li-Nan Jiang(姜立楠)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  108501.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/108501
    Abstract ( 627 )   HTML   PDF (1078KB) ( 238 )  
    In this paper we propose a two-pole varactor-tuned superconducting filter using coplanar waveguide (CPW) spiral-in-spiral-out (SISO) resonators. Novel internal and external coupling structures are introduced to meet the requirements for a tunable filter with a constant absolute bandwidth. The fabricated device has a frequency tuning range of 14.4% at frequencies ranging from 274.1 MHz to 317.7 MHz, a 3-dB bandwidth of 5.14 ±0.06 MHz, and an insertion loss of 0.08 dB-0.70 dB. The simulated and measured results are in excellent agreement with each other.
    High-temperature superconducting filter using self-embedding asymmetric stepped impedance resonator with wide stopband performance and miniaturized size
    Dan Wang(王丹), Bin Wei(魏斌), Yong Heng(衡勇), Bi-Song Cao(曹必松)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  108502.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/108502
    Abstract ( 599 )   HTML   PDF (954KB) ( 178 )  
    In this study, a novel self-embedding asymmetric stepped impedance resonator (SE-ASIR) topology is proposed. By embedding asymmetric stepped impedance resonators in themselves, circuit sizes of ASIRs can be reduced effectively, while the ability to control spurious modes of ASIRs remains. Therefore, SE-ASIRs are suitable for being used to design filters with wide stopbands and miniaturized sizes. Furthermore, the construction process of the SE-ASIR is described in detail, and an equivalent model of the SE-ASIR is proposed. For demonstration, a high-temperature superconducting bandpass filter centered at 1112 MHz is designed and fabricated. The measured result agrees well with the simulation result and shows that the out-of-band rejection is better than 60 dB up to 4088 MHz, which is about 3.7 times the center frequency. The filter circuit size is 31 mm×13 mm or 0.28 λg×0.12 λg, where λg is the guided wavelength at 1112 MHz.
    Detailed study of NBTI characterization in 40-nm CMOS process using comprehensive models
    Yan Zeng(曾严), Xiao-Jin Li(李小进), Jian Qing(卿健), Ya-Bin Sun(孙亚宾), Yan-Ling Shi(石艳玲), Ao Guo(郭奥), Shao-Jian Hu(胡少坚)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  108503.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/108503
    Abstract ( 665 )   HTML   PDF (701KB) ( 270 )  
    The impact of negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) can be ascribed to three mutually uncorrelated factors, including hole trapping by pre-existing traps (△ VHT) in gate insulator, generated traps (△ VOT) in bulk insulator, and interface trap generation (△ VIT). In this paper, we have experimentally investigated the NBTI characteristic for a 40-nm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The power-law time dependence, temperature activation, and field acceleration have also been explored based on the physical reaction-diffusion model. Moreover, the end-of-life of stressed device dependent on the variation of stress field and temperature have been evaluated. With the consideration of locking effect, the recovery characteristics have been modelled and discussed.
    Micro-light-emitting-diode array with dual functions of visible light communication and illumination
    Yong Huang(黄涌), Zhi-You Guo(郭志友), Hui-Qing Sun(孙慧卿), Hong-Yong Huang(黄鸿勇)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  108504.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/108504
    Abstract ( 625 )   HTML   PDF (1324KB) ( 305 )  
    We demonstrate high-speed blue 4×4 micro-light-emitting-diode (LED) arrays with 14 light-emitting units (two light-emitting units are used as the positive and negative electrodes for power supply, respectively) comprising multiple quantum wells formed of GaN epitaxial layers grown on a sapphire substrate, and experimentally test their applicability for being used as VLC transmitters and illuminations. The micro-LED arrays provide a maximum -3-dB frequency response of 60.5 MHz with a smooth frequency curve from 1 MHz to 500 MHz for an optical output power of 165 mW at an injection current of 30 mA, which, to our knowledge, is the highest response frequency ever reported for blue GaN-based LEDs operating at that level of optical output power. The relationship between the frequency and size of the device single pixel diameter reveals the relationship between the response frequency and diffusion capacitance of the device.
    Injection modulation of p+–n emitter junction in 4H–SiC light triggered thyristor by double-deck thin n-base
    Xi Wang(王曦), Hongbin Pu(蒲红斌), Qing Liu(刘青), Chunlan Chen(陈春兰), Zhiming Chen(陈治明)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  108505.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/108505
    Abstract ( 672 )   HTML   PDF (374KB) ( 272 )  
    To overcome hole-injection limitation of p+-n emitter junction in 4H-SiC light triggered thyristor, a novel high-voltage 4H-SiC light triggered thyristor with double-deck thin n-base structure is proposed and demonstrated by two-dimensional numerical simulations. In this new structure, the conventional thin n-base is split to double-deck. The hole-injection of p+-n emitter junction is modulated by modulating the doping concentration and thickness of upper-deck thin n-base. With double-deck thin n-base, the current gain coefficient of the top pnp transistor in 4H-SiC light triggered thyristor is enhanced. As a result, the triggering light intensity and the turn-on delay time of 4H-SiC light triggered thyristor are both reduced. The simulation results show that the proposed 10-kV 4H-SiC light triggered thyristor is able to be triggered on by 500-mW/cm2 ultraviolet light pulse. Meanwhile, the turn-on delay time of the proposed thyristor is reduced to 337 ns.
    Single-shot grating-based x-ray differential phase contrast imaging with a modified analyzer grating
    Chen-Xi Wei(卫晨希), Zhao Wu(吴朝), Faiz Wali, Wen-Bin Wei(魏文彬), Yuan Bao(鲍园), Rong-Hui Luo(骆荣辉), Lei Wang(王磊), Gang Liu(刘刚), Yang-Chao Tian(田扬超)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  108701.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/108701
    Abstract ( 696 )   HTML   PDF (1464KB) ( 225 )  
    X-ray grating interferometer has attracted widely attention in the past years due to its capability in achieving x-ray phase contrast imaging with low brilliance source. However, the widely used phase stepping information extraction method reduces system stability and prolongs data acquisition time by several times compared with conventional x-ray absorption-based imaging. The mechanical stepping can be avoided by using a staggered grating, but at the cost of low vertical spatial resolution. In this paper, employing a modified staggered grating and the angular signal radiography, we proposed a single-shot grating-based x-ray differential phase contrast imaging with decent vertical spatial resolution. The theoretical framework was deduced and proved by numerical experiments. Absorption, phase, and scattering computed tomography can be performed without phase stepping. Therefore, we believe this fast and highly stable imaging method with decent resolution would be widely applied in x-ray grating-based phase contrast imaging.
    Improvement in IBC-silicon solar cell performance by insertion of highly doped crystalline layer at heterojunction interfaces
    Hadi Bashiri, Mohammad Azim Karami, Shahramm Mohammadnejad
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  108801.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/108801
    Abstract ( 618 )   HTML   PDF (389KB) ( 237 )  

    By inserting a thin highly doped crystalline silicon layer between the base region and amorphous silicon layer in an interdigitated back-contact (IBC) silicon solar cell, a new passivation layer is investigated. The passivation layer performance is characterized by numerical simulations. Moreover, the dependence of the output parameters of the solar cell on the additional layer parameters (doping concentration and thickness) is studied. By optimizing the additional passivation layer in terms of doping concentration and thickness, the power conversion efficiency could be improved by a factor of 2.5%, open circuit voltage is increased by 30 mV and the fill factor of the solar cell by 7.4%. The performance enhancement is achieved due to the decrease of recombination rate, a decrease in solar cell resistivity and improvement of field effect passivation at heterojunction interface. The above-mentioned results are compared with reported results of the same conventional interdigitated back-contact silicon solar cell structure. Furthermore, the effect of a-Si:H/c-Si interface defect density on IBC silicon solar cell parameters with a new passivation layer is studied. The additional passivation layer also reduces the sensitivity of output parameter of solar cell to interface defect density.

    Effects of rainy weather on traffic accidents of a freeway using cellular automata model
    Ming-Bao Pang(庞明宝), Bo-Ning Ren(任泊宁)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  108901.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/108901
    Abstract ( 696 )   HTML   PDF (610KB) ( 421 )  

    The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of rainy weather on traffic accidents of a freeway. The micro-scale driving behaviors in rainy weather and possible vehicle rear-end and sideslip accidents are analyzed. An improved CA model of two lanes one-way freeway is presented, where some vehicle accidents will occur when the necessary conditions are simultaneously satisfied. The characteristics of traffic flow under different rainfall intensities are discussed and the accident probabilities are analyzed via the simulation experiments by using variable speed limit (VSL) and incoming flow control. The results indicate that the measures are effective especially during heavy rainstorms or short-time heavy rainfall. According to different rainfall intensities, an appropriate strategy should be adopted in order to reduce the probability of vehicle accidents and enhance traffic flux as well.

    Time-varying networks based on activation and deactivation mechanisms
    Xue-Wen Wang(王学文), Yue-E Luo(罗月娥), Li-Jie Zhang(张丽杰), Xin-Jian Xu(许新建)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  108902.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/108902
    Abstract ( 634 )   HTML   PDF (6663KB) ( 190 )  

    A class of models for activity-driven networks is proposed in which nodes vary in two states:active and inactive. Only active nodes can receive links from others which represent instantaneous dynamical interactions. The evolution of the network couples the addition of new nodes and state transitions of old ones. The active group changes with activated nodes entering and deactivated ones leaving. A general differential equation framework is developed to study the degree distribution of nodes of integrated networks where four different schemes are formulated.

    Quadratic interaction effect on the dark energy density in the universe
    Derya G Deveci, Ekrem Aydiner
    Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26 (10):  109501.  DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/10/109501
    Abstract ( 670 )   HTML   PDF (1595KB) ( 192 )  
    In this study, we deal with the holographic model of interacting dark components of dark energy and dark matter quadratic case of the equation of state parameter (EoS). The effective equations of states for the interacting holographic energy density are derived and the results are analyzed and compared with the solution of the linear form in the literature. The result of our work shows that the value of interaction term between dark components affects the fixed points at far future in the DE-dominated universe in the case of quadratic EoS parameter; it is a different result from the linear case in the theoretical results in the literature, and as the Quintom scenario the equations of state had coincidence at the cosmological constant boundary of -1 from above to below.
ISSN 1674-1056   CN 11-5639/O4
, Vol. 26, No. 10

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