Please wait a minute...
Chin. Phys. B, 2013, Vol. 22(9): 096803    DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/22/09/096803
Special Issue: TOPICAL REVIEW — Low-dimensional nanostructures and devices
TOPICAL REVIEW—Low-dimensional nanostructures and devices Prev   Next  

Intercalation of metals and silicon at the interface of epitaxial graphene and its substrates

Huang Li (黄立)a b, Xu Wen-Yan (徐文焱)a, Que Yan-De (阙炎德)a, Mao Jin-Hai (毛金海)a, Meng Lei (孟蕾)a, Pan Li-Da (潘理达)a, Li Geng (李更)a, Wang Ye-Liang (王业亮)a, Du Shi-Xuan (杜世萱)a, Liu Yun-Qi (刘云圻)b, Gao Hong-Jun (高鸿钧)a
a Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China;
b Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
Abstract  Intercalations of metals and silicon between epitaxial graphene and its substrates are reviewed. For metal intercalation, seven different metals have been successfully intercalated at the interface of graphene/Ru(0001) and form different intercalated structures. Meanwhile, graphene maintains its original high quality after the intercalation and shows features of weakened interaction with the substrate. For silicon intercalation, two systems, graphene on Ru(0001) and on Ir(111), have been investigated. In both cases, graphene preserves its high quality and regains its original superlative properties after the silicon intercalation. More importantly, we demonstrate that thicker silicon layers can be intercalated at the interface, which allows the atomic control of the distance between graphene and the metal substrates. These results show the great potential of the intercalation method as a non-damaging approach to decouple epitaxial graphene from its substrates and even form a dielectric layer for future electronic applications.
Keywords:  graphene      metal intercalation      silicon intercalation      scanning tunneling microscopy  
Received:  30 July 2013      Accepted manuscript online: 
PACS:  68.65.Pq (Graphene films)  
  85.30.-z (Semiconductor devices)  
  68.37.Ef (Scanning tunneling microscopy (including chemistry induced with STM))  
Fund: Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2013CBA01600, 2011CB932700, 2009CB929103, and 2010CB923004), the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and the Chinese Acedemy of Sciences.
Corresponding Authors:  Gao Hong-Jun     E-mail:  hjgao@iphy.ac.cn

Cite this article: 

Huang Li (黄立), Xu Wen-Yan (徐文焱), Que Yan-De (阙炎德), Mao Jin-Hai (毛金海), Meng Lei (孟蕾), Pan Li-Da (潘理达), Li Geng (李更), Wang Ye-Liang (王业亮), Du Shi-Xuan (杜世萱), Liu Yun-Qi (刘云圻), Gao Hong-Jun (高鸿钧) Intercalation of metals and silicon at the interface of epitaxial graphene and its substrates 2013 Chin. Phys. B 22 096803

[1] Geim A K and Novoselov K S 2007 Nat. Mater. 6 183
[2] Tombros N, Jozsa C, Popinciuc M, Jonkman H T and van Wees B J 2007 Nature 448 571
[3] Novoselov K S, Jiang Z, Zhang Y, Morozov S V, Stormer H L, Zeitler U, Maan J C, Boebinger G S, Kim P and Geim A K 2007 Science 315 1379
[4] Wang F, Zhang Y B, Tian C S, Girit C, Zettl A, Crommie M and Shen Y R 2008 Science 320 206
[5] Li X S, Cai W W, An J H, Kim S, Nah J, Yang D X, Piner R, Velamakanni A, Jung I, Tutuc E, Banerjee S K, Colombo L and Ruoff R S 2009 Science 324 1312
[6] Sutter P, Hybertsen M S, Sadowski J T and Sutter E 2009 Nano Lett. 9 2654
[7] Pan Y, Shi D X and Gao H J 2007 Chin. Phys. 16 3151
[8] Pan Y, Zhang H G, Shi D X, Sun J T, Du S X, Liu F and Gao H J 2009 Adv. Mater. 21 2777
[9] Marchini S, Günther S and Wintterlin J 2007 Phys. Rev. B 76 075429
[10] Sutter P W, Flege J I and Sutter E A 2008 Nat. Mater. 7 406
[11] Vázquez de Parga A L, Calleja F, Borca B, Passeggi M C G, Hinarejos J J, Guinea F and Miranda R 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 056807
[12] Dedkov Y S, Fonin M, Rudiger U and Laubschat C 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 107602
[13] N’Diaye A T, Coraux J, Plasa T N, Busse C and Michely T 2008 New J. Phys. 10 043033
[14] Gao L, Guest J R and Guisinger N P 2010 Nano Lett. 10 3512
[15] Sutter P W, Albrecht P M and Sutter E A 2010 Appl. Phys. Lett. 97 213101
[16] Shikin A M, Prudnikova G V, Adamchuk V K, Moresco F and Rieder K H 2000 Phys. Rev. B 62 13202
[17] Varykhalov A, Sánchez-Barriga J, Shikin A M, Biswas C, Vescovo E, Rybkin A, Marchenko D and Rader O 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 157601
[18] Enderlein C, Kim Y S, Bostwick A, Rotenberg E and Horn K 2010 New J. Phys. 12 033014
[19] Farías D, Shikin A M, Rieder K H and Dedkov Y S 1999 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 11 8453
[20] Starodubov A G, Medvetski M A, Shikin A M and Adamchuk V K 2004 Physics of the Solid State 46 1340
[21] Dedkov Y, Shikin A, Adamchuk V, Molodtsov S, Laubschat C, Bauer A and Kaindl G 2001 Phys. Rev. B 64 035405
[22] Sutter P, Sadowski J T and Sutter E A 2010 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132 8175
[23] Zhang H, Fu Q, Cui Y, Tan D L and Bao X H 2009 J. Phys. Chem. C 113 8296
[24] Premlal B, Cranney M, Vonau F, Aubel D, Casterman D, De Souza M M and Simon L 2009 Appl. Phys. Lett. 94 263115
[25] Huang L, Pan Y, Pan L D, Gao M, XuWY, Que Y D, Zhou H T,Wang Y L, Du S X and Gao H J 2011 Appl. Phys. Lett. 99 163107
[26] Mao J H, Huang L, Pan Y, Gao M, He J, Zhou H, Guo H, Tian Y, Zou Q, Zhang L, Zhang H, Wang Y, Du S, Zhou X, Neto A H C and Gao H J 2012 Appl. Phys. Lett. 100 093101
[27] Meng L, Wu R, Zhou H, Li G, Zhang Y, Li L, Wang Y and Gao H J 2012 Appl. Phys. Lett. 100 083101
[28] Sutter E, Acharya D P, Sadowski J T and Sutter P 2009 Appl. Phys. Lett. 94 133101
[29] Corso M, Auwarter W, Muntwiler M, Tamai A, Greber T and Osterwalder J 2004 Science 303 217
[30] Zhou S Y, Gweon G H, Fedorov A V, First P N, De Heer W A, Lee D H, Guinea F, Neto A H C and Lanzara A 2007 Nat. Mater. 6 770
[31] Bostwick A, Ohta T, Seyller T, Horn K and Rotenberg E 2007 Nat. Phys. 3 36
[32] Rutter G M, Crain J N, Guisinger N P, Li T, First P N and Stroscio J A 2007 Science 317 219
[33] Peres N M R, Klironomos F D, Tsai S W, Santos J R, dos Santos J M B L and Neto A H C 2007 Europhys. Lett. 80 67007
[34] Zhang Y, Brar V W, Wang F, Girit C, Yayon Y, Panlasigui M, Zettl A and Crommie M F 2008 Nat. Phys. 4 627
[35] Hattab H, N’Diaye A T, Wall D, Jnawali G, Coraux J, Busse C, van Gastel R, Poelsema B, Michely T, Meyer zu Heringdorf F J and Hornvon Hoegen M 2011 Appl. Phys. Lett. 98 141903
[36] Vanderveen J F, Himpsel F J and Eastman D E 1980 Phys. Rev. B 22 4226
[37] Starodub E, Bostwick A, Moreschini L, Nie S, Gabaly F, McCarty K and Rotenberg E 2011 Phys. Rev. B 83 125428
[38] Malard L M, Pimenta M A, Dresselhaus G and Dresselhaus M S 2009 Phys. Rep. 473 51
[39] Ferrari A C, Meyer J C, Scardaci V, Casiraghi C, Lazzeri M, Mauri F, Piscanec S, Jiang D, Novoselov K S, Roth S and Geim A K 2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 187401
[40] Casiraghi C, Pisana S, Novoselov K S, Geim A K and Ferrari A C 2007 Appl. Phys. Lett. 91 233108
[41] Rohrl J, Hundhausen M, Emtsev K V, Seyller T, Graupner R and Ley L 2008 Appl. Phys. Lett. 92 201918
[1] Selective formation of ultrathin PbSe on Ag(111)
Jing Wang(王静), Meysam Bagheri Tagani, Li Zhang(张力), Yu Xia(夏雨), Qilong Wu(吴奇龙), Bo Li(黎博), Qiwei Tian(田麒玮), Yuan Tian(田园), Long-Jing Yin(殷隆晶), Lijie Zhang(张利杰), and Zhihui Qin(秦志辉). Chin. Phys. B, 2022, 31(9): 096801.
[2] Dual-channel tunable near-infrared absorption enhancement with graphene induced by coupled modes of topological interface states
Zeng-Ping Su(苏增平), Tong-Tong Wei(魏彤彤), and Yue-Ke Wang(王跃科). Chin. Phys. B, 2022, 31(8): 087804.
[3] Recent advances of defect-induced spin and valley polarized states in graphene
Yu Zhang(张钰), Liangguang Jia(贾亮广), Yaoyao Chen(陈瑶瑶), Lin He(何林), and Yeliang Wang(王业亮). Chin. Phys. B, 2022, 31(8): 087301.
[4] Precisely controlling the twist angle of epitaxial MoS2/graphene heterostructure by AFM tip manipulation
Jiahao Yuan(袁嘉浩), Mengzhou Liao(廖梦舟), Zhiheng Huang(黄智恒), Jinpeng Tian(田金朋), Yanbang Chu(褚衍邦), Luojun Du(杜罗军), Wei Yang(杨威), Dongxia Shi(时东霞), Rong Yang(杨蓉), and Guangyu Zhang(张广宇). Chin. Phys. B, 2022, 31(8): 087302.
[5] Longitudinal conductivity in ABC-stacked trilayer graphene under irradiating of linearly polarized light
Guo-Bao Zhu(朱国宝), Hui-Min Yang(杨慧敏), and Jie Yang(杨杰). Chin. Phys. B, 2022, 31(8): 088102.
[6] Dynamically tunable multiband plasmon-induced transparency effect based on graphene nanoribbon waveguide coupled with rectangle cavities system
Zi-Hao Zhu(朱子豪), Bo-Yun Wang(王波云), Xiang Yan(闫香), Yang Liu(刘洋), Qing-Dong Zeng(曾庆栋), Tao Wang(王涛), and Hua-Qing Yu(余华清). Chin. Phys. B, 2022, 31(8): 084210.
[7] Exploring Majorana zero modes in iron-based superconductors
Geng Li(李更), Shiyu Zhu(朱诗雨), Peng Fan(范朋), Lu Cao(曹路), and Hong-Jun Gao(高鸿钧). Chin. Phys. B, 2022, 31(8): 080301.
[8] Valley-dependent transport in strain engineering graphene heterojunctions
Fei Wan(万飞), X R Wang(王新茹), L H Liao(廖烈鸿), J Y Zhang(张嘉颜),M N Chen(陈梦南), G H Zhou(周光辉), Z B Siu(萧卓彬), Mansoor B. A. Jalil, and Yuan Li(李源). Chin. Phys. B, 2022, 31(7): 077302.
[9] Surface electron doping induced double gap opening in Td-WTe2
Qi-Yuan Li(李启远), Yang-Yang Lv(吕洋洋), Yong-Jie Xu(徐永杰), Li Zhu(朱立), Wei-Min Zhao(赵伟民), Yanbin Chen(陈延彬), and Shao-Chun Li(李绍春). Chin. Phys. B, 2022, 31(6): 066802.
[10] Thermionic electron emission in the 1D edge-to-edge limit
Tongyao Zhang(张桐耀), Hanwen Wang(王汉文), Xiuxin Xia(夏秀鑫), Chengbing Qin(秦成兵), and Xiaoxi Li(李小茜). Chin. Phys. B, 2022, 31(5): 058504.
[11] Robustness of the unidirectional stripe order in the kagome superconductor CsV3Sb5
Bin Hu(胡彬), Yuhan Ye(耶郁晗), Zihao Huang(黄子豪), Xianghe Han(韩相和), Zhen Zhao(赵振),Haitao Yang(杨海涛), Hui Chen(陈辉), and Hong-Jun Gao(高鸿钧). Chin. Phys. B, 2022, 31(5): 058102.
[12] Photoelectrochemical activity of ZnO:Ag/rGO photo-anodes synthesized by two-steps sol-gel method
D Ben Jemia, M Karyaoui, M A Wederni, A Bardaoui, M V Martinez-Huerta, M Amlouk, and R Chtourou. Chin. Phys. B, 2022, 31(5): 058201.
[13] Light-modulated electron retroreflection and Klein tunneling in a graphene-based n-p-n junction
Xingfei Zhou(周兴飞), Ziying Wu(吴子瀛), Yuchen Bai(白宇晨), Qicheng Wang(王起程), Zhentao Zhu(朱震涛), Wei Yan(闫巍), and Yafang Xu(许亚芳). Chin. Phys. B, 2022, 31(4): 047301.
[14] TiS2-graphene heterostructures enabling polysulfide anchoring and fast electrocatalyst for lithium-sulfur batteries: A first-principles calculation
Wenyang Zhao(赵文阳), Li-Chun Xu(徐利春), Yuhong Guo(郭宇宏), Zhi Yang(杨致), Ruiping Liu(刘瑞萍), and Xiuyan Li(李秀燕). Chin. Phys. B, 2022, 31(4): 047101.
[15] Graphene-based heterojunction for enhanced photodetectors
Haiting Yao(姚海婷), Xin Guo(郭鑫), Aida Bao(鲍爱达), Haiyang Mao(毛海央),Youchun Ma(马游春), and Xuechao Li(李学超). Chin. Phys. B, 2022, 31(3): 038501.
No Suggested Reading articles found!