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Chin. Phys. B, 2014, Vol. 23(9): 098101    DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/23/9/098101

High quality sub-monolayer, monolayer, and bilayer graphene on Ru(0001)

Xu Wen-Yan (徐文焱)a b, Huang Li (黄立)a b, Que Yan-De (阙炎德)a b, Li En (李恩)a b, Zhang Hai-Gang (张海刚)a b, Lin Xiao (林晓)b a, Wang Ye-Liang (王业亮)a b, Du Shi-Xuan (杜世萱)a b, Gao Hong-Jun (高鸿钧)a b
a Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China;
b University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Abstract  High quality sub-monolayer, monolayer, and bilayer graphene were grown on Ru(0001). For the sub-monolayer graphene, the size of graphene islands with zigzag edges can be controlled by the dose of ethylene exposure. By increasing the dose of ethylene to 100 Langmuir at a high substrate temperature (800℃), high quality single-crystalline monolayer graphene was synthesized on Ru(0001). High quality bilayer graphene was formed by further increasing the dose of ethylene while reducing the cooling rate to 5℃/min. Raman spectroscopy revealed the vibrational states of graphene, G and 2D peaks appeared only in the bilayer graphene, which demonstrates that it behaves as the intrinsic graphene. Our present work affords methods to produce high quality sub-monolayer, monolayer, and bilayer graphene, both for basic research and applications.
Keywords:  graphene      Ru(0001)      scanning tunneling microscopy  
Received:  29 April 2014      Revised:  06 May 2014      Accepted manuscript online: 
PACS:  81.05.ue (Graphene)  
  68.65.Pq (Graphene films)  
  87.64.Dz (Scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopy)  
Fund: Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2013CBA01600 and 2011CB932700) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61222112 and 11334006).
Corresponding Authors:  Lin Xiao, Wang Ye-Liang, Gao Hong-Jun     E-mail:;;

Cite this article: 

Xu Wen-Yan (徐文焱), Huang Li (黄立), Que Yan-De (阙炎德), Li En (李恩), Zhang Hai-Gang (张海刚), Lin Xiao (林晓), Wang Ye-Liang (王业亮), Du Shi-Xuan (杜世萱), Gao Hong-Jun (高鸿钧) High quality sub-monolayer, monolayer, and bilayer graphene on Ru(0001) 2014 Chin. Phys. B 23 098101

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