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Chin. Phys. B, 2021, Vol. 30(8): 080501    DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/abe119
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Nonequilibrium free energy and information flow of a double quantum-dot system with Coulomb coupling

Zhiyuan Lin(林智远), Tong Fu(付彤), Juying Xiao(肖菊英), Shanhe Su(苏山河), Jincan Chen(陈金灿), and Yanchao Zhang(张艳超)
1 Department of Physics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China;
2 School of Science, Guangxi University of Science and Technology, Liuzhou 545006, China
Abstract  We build a double quantum-dot system with Coulomb coupling and aim at studying connections among the entropy production, free energy, and information flow. By utilizing concepts in stochastic thermodynamics and graph theory analysis, Clausius and nonequilibrium free energy inequalities are built to interpret local second law of thermodynamics for subsystems. A fundamental set of cycle fluxes and affinities is identified to decompose two inequalities by using Schnakenberg's network theory. Results show that the thermodynamic irreversibility has energy-related and information-related contributions. A global cycle associated with the feedback-induced information flow would pump electrons against the bias voltage, which implements a Maxwell demon.
Keywords:  quantum dot      nonequilibrium free energy      information      graph theory analysis  
Received:  30 December 2020      Revised:  20 January 2021      Accepted manuscript online:  29 January 2021
PACS:  05.70.Ln (Nonequilibrium and irreversible thermodynamics)  
  05.70.-a (Thermodynamics)  
  05.60.Gg (Quantum transport)  
  05.90.+m (Other topics in statistical physics, thermodynamics, and nonlinear dynamical systems)  
Fund: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 11805159), the First Batch of National First-class Undergraduate Courses of China (2020), the Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province, China (Grant No. 2019J05003), and Teaching Research Program of Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics in the Institution of Higher Education of China (2019).
Corresponding Authors:  Shanhe Su, Yanchao Zhang     E-mail:;

Cite this article: 

Zhiyuan Lin(林智远), Tong Fu(付彤), Juying Xiao(肖菊英), Shanhe Su(苏山河), Jincan Chen(陈金灿), and Yanchao Zhang(张艳超) Nonequilibrium free energy and information flow of a double quantum-dot system with Coulomb coupling 2021 Chin. Phys. B 30 080501

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