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CN 11-5639/O4
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Structural phase transition, precursory electronic anomaly, and strong-coupling superconductivity in quasi-skutterudite (Sr1-xCax)3Ir4Sn13 and Ca3Rh4Sn13 Hot!

Jun Luo(罗军), Jie Yang(杨杰), S Maeda, Zheng Li(李政), Guo-Qing Zheng(郑国庆)
Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7): 077401 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/077401
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The interplay between superconductivity and structural phase transition has attracted enormous interest in recent years. For example, in Fe-pnictide high temperature superconductors, quantum fluctuations in association with structural phase transition have been proposed to lead to many novel physical properties and even the superconductivity itself. Here we report a finding that the quasi-skutterudite superconductors (Sr1-xCax)3Ir4Sn13 (x=0, 0.5, 1) and Ca3Rh4Sn13 show some unusual properties similar to the Fe-pnictides, through 119Sn nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements. In (Sr1-xCax)3Ir4Sn13, the NMR linewidth increases below a temperature T* that is higher than the structural phase transition temperature Ts. The spin-lattice relaxation rate (1/T1) divided by temperature (T), 1/T1T and the Knight shift K increase with decreasing T down to T*, but start to decrease below T*, and followed by more distinct changes at Ts. In contrast, none of the anomalies is observed in Ca3Rh4Sn13 that does not undergo a structural phase transition. The precursory phenomenon above the structural phase transition resembles that occurring in Fe-pnictides. In the superconducting state of Ca3Ir4Sn13, 1/T1 decays as exp(-/kBT) with a large gap =2.21 kBTc, yet without a Hebel-Slichter coherence peak, which indicates strong-coupling superconductivity. Our results provide new insight into the relationship between superconductivity and the electronic-structure change associated with structural phase transition.

A high-performance rechargeable Li-O2 battery with quasi-solid-state electrolyte Hot!

Jia-Yue Peng(彭佳悦), Jie Huang(黄杰), Wen-Jun Li(李文俊), Yi Wang(王怡), Xiqian Yu(禹习谦), Yongsheng Hu(胡勇胜), Liquan Chen(陈立泉), Hong Li(李泓)
Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7): 078201 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/078201
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A novel transparent and soft quasi-solid-state electrolyte (QSSE) was proposed and fabricated, which consists of ionic liquid (PYR14TFSI) and nano-fumed silica. The QSSE demonstrates high ionic conductivity of 4.6×10-4 S/cm at room temperature and wide electrochemical stability window of over 5 V. The Li-O2 battery using such quasi-solid-state electrolyte exhibits a low charge-discharge overpotential at the first cycle and excellent long-term cyclability over 500 cycles.

Image charge effect on the light emission of rutile TiO2(110) induced by a scanning tunneling microscope Hot!

Chaoyu Guo(郭钞宇), Xiangzhi Meng(孟祥志), Qin Wang(王钦), Ying Jiang(江颖)
Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7): 077301 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/077301
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The plasmon-enhanced light emission of rutile TiO2(110) surface has been investigated by a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM). We found that the photon emission arises from the inelastic electron tunneling between the STM tip and the conduction band or defect states of TiO2(110). In contrast to the Au(111) surface, the maximum photon energy as a function of the bias voltage clearly deviates from the linear scaling behavior, suggesting the non-negligible effect of the STM tip on the band structure of TiO2. By performing differential conductance (dI/dV) measurements, it was revealed that such a deviation is not related to the tip-induced band bending, but is attributed to the image charge effect of the metal tip, which significantly shifts the band edges of the TiO2(110) towards the Femi level (EF) during the tunneling process. This work not only sheds new lights onto the understanding of plasmon-enhanced light emission of semiconductor surfaces, but also opens up a new avenue for engineering the plasmon-mediated interfacial charge transfer in molecular and semiconducting materials.

Momentum distribution and non-local high order correlation functions of 1D strongly interacting Bose gas Hot!

EJKP Nandani, Xi-Wen Guan(管习文)
Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7): 070306 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/070306
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The Lieb-Liniger model is a prototypical integrable model and has been turned into the benchmark physics in theoretical and numerical investigations of low-dimensional quantum systems. In this note, we present various methods for calculating local and nonlocal M-particle correlation functions, momentum distribution, and static structure factor. In particular, using the Bethe ansatz wave function of the strong coupling Lieb-Liniger model, we analytically calculate the two-point correlation function, the large moment tail of the momentum distribution, and the static structure factor of the model in terms of the fractional statistical parameter α=1-2/γ, where γ is the dimensionless interaction strength. We also discuss the Tan's adiabatic relation and other universal relations for the strongly repulsive Lieb-Liniger model in terms of the fractional statistical parameter.

Observation of geometric phase in a dispersively coupled resonator-qutrit system Hot!

Libo Zhang(张礼博), Chao Song(宋超), H Wang(王浩华), Shi-Biao Zheng(郑仕标)
Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7): 070303 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/070303
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We present an experiment of observing the geometric phase in a superconducting circuit where the resonator and the qutrit energy levels are dispersively coupled. The drive applied to the resonator displaces its state components associated with the qutrit's ground state and first-excited state along different circular trajectories in phase space. We identify the resonator's phase-space trajectories by Wigner tomography using an ancilla qubit, following which we observe the difference between the geometric phases associated with these trajectories using Ramsey interferometry. This geometric phase is further used to construct the single-qubit π-phase gate with a process fidelity of 0.851±0.001.

Machine learning technique for prediction of magnetocaloric effect in La(Fe, Si/Al)13-based materials Hot!

Bo Zhang(张博), Xin-Qi Zheng(郑新奇), Tong-Yun Zhao(赵同云), Feng-Xia Hu(胡凤霞), Ji-Rong Sun(孙继荣), Bao-Gen Shen(沈保根)
Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (6): 067503 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/6/067503
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Data-mining techniques using machine learning are powerful and efficient for materials design, possessing great potential for discovering new materials with good characteristics. Here, this technique has been used on composition design for La(Fe,Si/Al)13-based materials, which are regarded as one of the most promising magnetic refrigerants in practice. Three prediction models are built by using a machine learning algorithm called gradient boosting regression tree (GBRT) to essentially find the correlation between the Curie temperature (TC), maximum value of magnetic entropy change ((Δ SM)max), and chemical composition, all of which yield high accuracy in the prediction of TC and (Δ SM)max. The performance metric coefficient scores of determination (R2) for the three models are 0.96, 0.87, and 0.91. These results suggest that all of the models are well-developed predictive models on the challenging issue of generalization ability for untrained data, which can not only provide us with suggestions for real experiments but also help us gain physical insights to find proper composition for further magnetic refrigeration applications.

Nodeless superconductivity in a quasi-two-dimensional superconductor AuTe2Se4/3 Hot!

Xiao-Yu Jia(贾小雨), Yun-Jie Yu(俞云杰), Xu Chen(陈旭), Jian-Gang Guo(郭建刚), Tian-Ping Ying(应天平), Lan-Po He(何兰坡), Xiao-Long Chen(陈小龙), Shi-Yan Li(李世燕)
Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (6): 067401 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/6/067401
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We performed ultra-low temperature thermal conductivity measurements on the single crystal of a new gold-based quasi-two-dimensional superconductor AuTe2Se4/3, which has a superconducting transition temperature Tc=2.70 K. A negligible residual linear term κ0/T in zero magnetic field is observed, which suggests fully gapped superconducting state. Furthermore, the field dependence of κ0/T is similar to that of the multi-band s-wave superconductor BaFe1.9Ni0.1As2 at low field. These results reveal multiple nodeless superconducting gaps in this interesting quasi-two-dimensional superconductor with Berezinsky-Kosterlitz-Thouless topological transition.

Electronic transport properties of Co cluster-decorated graphene Hot!

Chao-Yi Cai(蔡超逸), Jian-Hao Chen(陈剑豪)
Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (6): 067304 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/6/067304
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Interactions of magnetic elements with graphene may lead to various electronic states that have potential applications. We report an in-situ experiment in which the quantum transport properties of graphene are measured with increasing cobalt coverage in continuous ultra-high vacuum environment. The results show that e-beam deposited cobalt forms clusters on the surface of graphene, even at low sample temperatures. Scattering of charge carriers by the absorbed cobalt clusters results in the disappearance of the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations and the appearance of negative magnetoresistance (MR) which shows no sign of saturation up to an applied magnetic field of 9 T. We propose that these observations could originate from quantum interference driven by cobalt disorder and can be explained by the weak localization theory.

Tuning hybrid liquid/solid electrolytes by lowering Li salt concentration for lithium batteries Hot!

Wei Yang(杨伟), Qi-Di Wang(王启迪), Yu Lei(雷宇), Zi-Pei Wan(万子裴), Lei Qin(秦磊), Wei Yu(余唯), Ru-Liang Liu(刘如亮), Deng-Yun Zhai(翟登云), Hong Li(李泓), Bao-Hua Li(李宝华), Fei-Yu Kang(康飞宇)
Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (6): 068201 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/6/068201
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Hybrid liquid/solid electrolytes (HLSEs) consisting of conventional organic liquid electrolyte (LE), polyacrylonitrile (PAN), and ceramic lithium ion conductor Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3 (LAGP) are proposed and investigated. The HLSE has a high ionic conductivity of over 2.25×10-3 S/cm at 25℃, and an extended electrochemical window of up to 4.8 V versus Li/Li+. The Li|HLSE|Li symmetric cells and Li|HLSE|LiFePO4 cells exhibit small interfacial area specific resistances (ASRs) comparable to that of LE while much smaller than that of ceramic LAGP electrolyte, and excellent performance at room temperature. Bis(trifluoromethane sulfonimide) salt in HLSE significantly affects the properties and electrochemical behaviors. Side reactions can be effectively suppressed by lowering the concentration of Li salt. It is a feasible strategy for pursuing the high energy density batteries with higher safety.

Demonstration of quantum permutation parity determine algorithm in a superconducting qutrit Hot!

Kunzhe Dai(戴坤哲), Peng Zhao(赵鹏), Mengmeng Li(李蒙蒙), Xinsheng Tan(谭新生), Haifeng Yu(于海峰), Yang Yu(于扬)
Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (6): 060305 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/6/060305
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A quantum algorithm provides a new way in solving certain computing problems and usually faster than classical algorithms. Here we report an implementation of a quantum algorithm to determine the parity of permutation in a single three-dimensional (3D) superconducting transmon qutrit system. The experiment shows the capacity to speed up in a qutrit, which can also be extended to a multi-level system for solving high-dimensional permutation parity determination problem.

Spin-current pump in silicene Hot!

John Tombe Jada Marcellino, Mei-Juan Wang(王美娟), Sa-Ke Wang(汪萨克), Jun Wang(汪军)
Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (5): 057801 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/5/057801
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We report a theoretical study of pumped spin currents in a silicene-based pump device, where two time-dependent staggered potentials are introduced through the perpendicular electric fields and a magnetic insulator is considered in between the two pumping potentials to magnetize the Dirac electrons. It is shown that giant spin currents can be generated in the pump device because the pumping can be optimal for each transport mode, the pumping current is quantized. By controlling the relevant parameters of the device, both pure spin currents and fully spin-polarized currents can be obtained. Our results may shed a new light on the generation of pumped spin currents in Dirac-electron systems.

Compression behavior and spectroscopic properties of insensitive explosive 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene from dispersion-corrected density functional theory Hot!

Yan Su(苏艳), Junyu Fan(范俊宇), Zhaoyang Zheng(郑朝阳), Jijun Zhao(赵纪军), Huajie Song(宋华杰)
Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (5): 056401 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/5/056401
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Using dispersion corrected density functional theory, we systematically examined the pressure effect on crystal structure, cell volume, and band gap of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) to understand its extraordinary chemical stability. Analysis of the Mulliken population and the electron density of states implied a possible charge transfer in TATB with increasing pressure. Raman and infrared spectra of TATB under hydrostatic pressure up to 30 GPa were simulated. The observed strong coupling between NH2 groups and NO2 groups with increasing pressure, which is considered to have a tendency of energy transfer with these vibrational modes, was analyzed. The pressure-induced frequency shift of selected vibrational modes indicated minor changes of molecular conformation mainly by the rotation of NH2 groups. Compression behavior and spectroscopic property studies are expected to shed light on the physical and chemical properties of TATB on an atomistic scale.

Accurate quantification of hydration number for polyethylene glycol molecules Hot!

Wei Guo(郭伟), Lishan Zhao(赵立山), Xin Gao(高欣), Zexian Cao(曹则贤), Qiang Wang(王强)
Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (5): 055101 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/5/055101
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Hydration water can even decide the physicochemical properties of hydrated organic molecules. However, by far the most important hydration number for organic molecules, in particular polyethylene glycol which we are concerned with here, usually suffers from a large discrepancy. Here, we provide a scheme for accurate and unambiguous quantification of the hydration number based on the universal water-content dependence of glass transition temperature for aqueous solutions, testified by experimental results for polyethylene glycol molecules of a molar weight ranging from 200 to 20000. Moreover, we also clarify the fundamental misunderstanding lying in the definition and quantification of hydration water for PEG molecules in the literature, therein the hydration number for PEG in water-rich solutions has been determined at a critical concentration, across which the properties of the solution display obviously distinct water-content dependence.

Distinction between critical current effects and intrinsic anomalies in the point-contact Andreev reflection spectra of unconventional superconductors Hot!

Ge He(何格), Zhong-Xu Wei(魏忠旭), Jérémy Brisbois, Yan-Li Jia(贾艳丽), Yu-Long Huang(黄裕龙), Hua-Xue Zhou(周花雪), Shun-Li Ni(倪顺利), Alejandro V Silhanek, Lei Shan(单磊), Bei-Yi Zhu(朱北沂), Jie Yuan(袁洁), Xiao-Li Dong(董晓莉), Fang Zhou(周放), Zhong-Xian Zhao(赵忠贤), Kui Jin(金魁)
Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (4): 047403 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/4/047403
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In this work, we discuss the origin of several anomalies present in the point-contact Andreev reflection spectra of (Li1-xFex)OHFeSe, LiTi2O4, and La2-xCexCuO4. While these features are similar to those stemming from intrinsic superconducting properties, such as Andreev reflection, electron-boson coupling, multigap superconductivity, d-wave and p-wave pairing symmetry, they cannot be accounted for by the modified Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk (BTK) model, but require to consider critical current effects arising from the junction geometry. Our results point to the importance of tracking the evolution of the dips and peaks in the differential conductance as a function of the bias voltage, in order to correctly deduce the properties of the superconducting state.

Gap plasmon-enhanced photoluminescence of monolayer MoS2 in hybrid nanostructure Hot!

Le Yu(余乐), Di Liu(刘頔), Xiao-Zhuo Qi(祁晓卓), Xiao Xiong(熊霄), Lan-Tian Feng(冯兰天), Ming Li(李明), Guo-Ping Guo(郭国平), Guang-Can Guo(郭光灿), Xi-Feng Ren(任希锋)
Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (4): 047302 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/4/047302
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Monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted a lot of attention for their applications in optics and optoelectronics. Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), as one of those important materials, has been widely investigated due to its direct band gap and photoluminescence (PL) in visible range. Owing to the fact that the monolayer MoS2 suffers low light absorption and emission, surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are used to enhance both the excitation and emission efficiencies. Here, we demonstrate that the PL of MoS2 sandwiched between 200-nm-diameter gold nanoparticle (AuNP) and 150-nm-thick gold film is improved by more than 4 times compared with bare MoS2 sample. This study shows that gap plasmons can possess more optical and optoelectronic applications incorporating with many other emerging two-dimensional materials.

Superconductivity in electron-doped arsenene Hot!

Xin Kong(孔鑫), Miao Gao(高淼), Xun-Wang Yan(闫循旺), Zhong-Yi Lu(卢仲毅), Tao Xiang(向涛)
Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (4): 046301 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/4/046301
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Based on the first-principles density functional theory electronic structure calculation, we investigate the possible phonon-mediated superconductivity in arsenene, a two-dimensional buckled arsenic atomic sheet, under electron doping. We find that the strong superconducting pairing interaction results mainly from the pz-like electrons of arsenic atoms and the A1 phonon mode around the K point, and the superconducting transition temperature can be as high as 30.8 K in the arsenene with 0.2 doped electrons per unit cell and 12%-applied biaxial tensile strain. This transition temperature is about ten times higher than that in the bulk arsenic under high pressure. It is also the highest transition temperature that is predicted for electron-doped two-dimensional elemental superconductors, including graphene, silicene, phosphorene, and borophene.

Formation of unusual Cr5+ charge state in CaCr0.5Fe0.5O3 perovskite Hot!

Jian-Hong Dai(戴建洪), Qing Zhao(赵庆), Qian Sun(孙倩), Shuo Zhang(张硕), Xiao Wang(王潇), Xu-Dong Shen(申旭东), Zhe-Hong Liu(刘哲宏), Xi Shen(沈希), Ri-Cheng Yu(禹日成), Ting-Shan Chan(詹丁山), Lun-Xiong Li(李论雄), Guang-Hui Zhou(周光辉), Yi-feng Yang(杨义峰), Chang-Qing Jin(靳常青), You-Wen Long(龙有文)
Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (3): 037503 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/3/037503
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A new oxide CaCr0.5Fe0.5O3 was prepared under high pressure and temperature conditions. It crystallizes in a B-site disordered Pbnm perovskite structure. The charge combination is determined to be Cr5+/Fe3+ with the presence of unusual Cr5+ state in octahedral coordination, although Cr4+ and Fe4+ occur in the related perovskites CaCrO3 and CaFeO3. The randomly distributed Cr5+ and Fe3+ spins lead to short-range ferromagnetic coupling, whereas an antiferromagnetic phase transition takes place near 50 K due to the Fe3+-O-Fe3+ interaction. In spite of the B-site Cr5+/Fe3+ disorder, the compound exhibits electrical insulating behavior. First-principles calculations further demonstrate the formation of CaCr0.55+Fe0.53+O3 charge combination, and the electron correlation effect of Fe3+ plays an important role for the insulting ground state. CaCr0.5Fe0.5O3 provides the first Cr5+ perovskite system with octahedral coordination, opening a new avenue to explore novel transition-metal oxides with exotic charge states.

NMR evidence of charge fluctuations in multiferroic CuBr2 Hot!

Rui-Qi Wang(王瑞琦), Jia-Cheng Zheng(郑家成), Tao Chen(陈涛), Peng-Shuai Wang(王朋帅), Jin-Shan Zhang(张金珊), Yi Cui(崔祎), Chong Wang(王冲), Yuan Li(李源), Sheng Xu(徐胜), Feng Yuan(袁峰), Wei-Qiang Yu(于伟强)
Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (3): 037502 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/3/037502
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We report combined magnetic susceptibility, dielectric constant, nuclear quadruple resonance (NQR), and zero-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements on single crystals of multiferroics CuBr2. High quality of the sample is demonstrated by the sharp magnetic and magnetic-driven ferroelectric transition at TN=TC≈ 74 K. The zero-field 79Br and 81Br NMR are resolved below TN. The spin-lattice relaxation rates reveal charge fluctuations when cooled below 60 K. Evidences of an increase of NMR linewidth, a reduction of dielectric constant, and an increase of magnetic susceptibility are also seen at low temperatures. These data suggest an emergent instability which competes with the spiral magnetic ordering and the ferroelectricity. Candidate mechanisms are discussed based on the quasi-one-dimensional nature of the magnetic system.

Phase diagram, correlations, and quantum critical point in the periodic Anderson model Hot!

Jian-Wei Yang(杨建伟), Qiao-Ni Chen(陈巧妮)
Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (3): 037101 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/3/037101
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Periodic Anderson model is one of the most important models in the field of strongly correlated electrons. With the recent developed numerical method density matrix embedding theory, we study the ground state properties of the periodic Anderson model on a two-dimensional square lattice. We systematically investigate the phase diagram away from half filling. We find three different phases in this region, which are distinguished by the local moment and the spin-spin correlation functions. The phase transition between the two antiferromagnetic phases is of first order. It is the so-called Lifshitz transition accompanied by a reconstruction of the Fermi surface. As the filling is close to half filling, there is no difference between the two antiferromagnetic phases. From the results of the spin-spin correlation, we find that the Kondo singlet is formed even in the antiferromagnetic phase.

4.3 THz quantum-well photodetectors with high detection sensitivity Hot!

Zhenzhen Zhang(张真真), Zhanglong Fu(符张龙), Xuguang Guo(郭旭光), Juncheng Cao(曹俊诚)
Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (3): 030701 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/3/030701
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We demonstrate a high performance GaAs/AlGaAs-based quantum-well photodetector (QWP) device with a peak response frequency of 4.3 THz. The negative differential resistance (NDR) phenomenon is found in the dark current-voltage (I-V) curve in the current sweeping measurement mode, from which the breakdown voltage is determined. The photocurrent spectra and blackbody current responsivities at different voltages are measured. Based on the experimental data, the peak responsivity of 0.3 A/W (at 0.15 V, 8 K) is derived, and the detection sensitivity is higher than 1011 Jones, which is in the similar level as that of the commercialized liquid-helium-cooled silicon bolometers. We attribute the high detection performance of the device to the small ohmic contact resistance of ~2Ω and the big breakdown bias.

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