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Chin. Phys. B, 2022, Vol. 31(11): 110303    DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/ac6b1f
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Analysis of atmospheric effects on the continuous variable quantum key distribution

Tao Liu(刘涛)1,2,3,†, Shuo Zhao(赵硕)1, Ivan B. Djordjevic4, Shuyu Liu(刘舒宇)1, Sijia Wang(王思佳)1, Tong Wu(吴彤)1, Bin Li(李斌)1, Pingping Wang(王平平)1, and Rongxiang Zhang(张荣香)5
1 Department of Electronic and Communication Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Baoding 071003, China;
2 Hebei Key Laboratory of Power Internet of Things Technology, North China Electric Power University, Baoding 071003, China;
3 Baoding Key Laboratory of Optical Fiber Sensing and Optical Communication Technology, North China Electric Power University, Baoding 071003, China;
4 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Arizona, 1230 E Speedway Blvd., Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA;
5 College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002, China
Abstract  Atmospheric effects have significant influence on the performance of a free-space optical continuous variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) system. In this paper, we investigate how the transmittance, excess noise and interruption probability caused by atmospheric effects affect the secret-key rate (SKR) of the CVQKD. Three signal wavelengths, two weather conditions, two detection schemes, and two types of attacks are considered in our investigation. An expression aims at calculating the interruption probability is proposed based on the Kolmogorov spectrum model. The results show that a signal using long working wavelength can propagate much further than that of using short wavelength. Moreover, as the wavelength increases, the influence of interruption probability on the SKR becomes more significant, especially within a certain transmission distance. Therefore, interruption probability must be considered for CVQKD by using long-signal wavelengths. Furthermore, different detection schemes used by the receiver will result in different transmission distances when subjected to individual attacks and collective attacks, respectively.
Keywords:  atmospheric effect      continuous variable key distribution      free space quantum communication      secret-key rate  
Received:  03 January 2022      Revised:  10 April 2022      Accepted manuscript online:  28 April 2022
PACS:  03.67.Hk (Quantum communication)  
  42.68.Bz (Atmospheric turbulence effects)  
Fund: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 62071180) and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 2020MS099).
Corresponding Authors:  Tao Liu     E-mail:

Cite this article: 

Tao Liu(刘涛), Shuo Zhao(赵硕), Ivan B. Djordjevic, Shuyu Liu(刘舒宇), Sijia Wang(王思佳), Tong Wu(吴彤), Bin Li(李斌), Pingping Wang(王平平), and Rongxiang Zhang(张荣香) Analysis of atmospheric effects on the continuous variable quantum key distribution 2022 Chin. Phys. B 31 110303

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