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Chin. Phys. B, 2020, Vol. 29(11): 110304    DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/abaedd
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New semi-quantum key agreement protocol based on high-dimensional single-particle states

Huan-Huan Li(李欢欢), Li-Hua Gong(龚黎华), and Nan-Run Zhou(周南润)
Department of Electronic Information Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, China
Abstract  

A new efficient two-party semi-quantum key agreement protocol is proposed with high-dimensional single-particle states. Different from the previous semi-quantum key agreement protocols based on the two-level quantum system, the propounded protocol makes use of the advantage of the high-dimensional quantum system, which possesses higher efficiency and better robustness against eavesdropping. Besides, the protocol allows the classical participant to encode the secret key with qudit shifting operations without involving any quantum measurement abilities. The designed semi-quantum key agreement protocol could resist both participant attacks and outsider attacks. Meanwhile, the conjoint analysis of security and efficiency provides an appropriate choice for reference on the dimension of single-particle states and the number of decoy states.

Keywords:  semi-quantum key agreement protocol      high-dimensional quantum state      quantum cryptography      quantum communication  
Received:  14 July 2020      Revised:  05 August 2020      Accepted manuscript online:  13 August 2020
Fund: the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61871205 and 61561033) and the Major Academic Discipline and Technical Leader of Jiangxi Province, China (Grant No. 20162BCB22011).
Corresponding Authors:  Corresponding author. E-mail: nrzhou@ncu.edu.cn   

Cite this article: 

Huan-Huan Li(李欢欢), Li-Hua Gong(龚黎华), and Nan-Run Zhou(周南润) New semi-quantum key agreement protocol based on high-dimensional single-particle states 2020 Chin. Phys. B 29 110304

Measurement result Encoding result
|0〉 0
|1〉 1
|d – 1〉 d – 1
Table 1.  

Encoding rule.

Fig. 1.  

Probability of detected eavesdropping.

Fig. 2.  

Relationship between efficiency and dimension.

QR QC QPNQO CPNO Efficiency/%
Ref. [3] single photon 1 SPUO+SPM None 16.67
Ref. [28] Bell state 2 SPUO+BM CBM+PO+RO+PP 9.09
Ref. [29] Bell state 4 SPM+BM CBM+PO+RO 6.7
Ref. [30] cluster state 4 SPM+BM+FPOM CBM+RO+PP 2.08
Ours single photon 3 SPM QSO+PO+RO $\displaystyle \frac{100{\mathrm{log}}_{2}d}{4+{\mathrm{log}}_{2}d}$
Table 2.  

Comparisons of some typical protocols and our protocol.

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