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Chin. Phys. B, 2013, Vol. 22(6): 060307    DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/22/6/060307
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Steganalysis and improvement of a quantum steganography protocol via GHZ4 state

Xu Shu-Jianga b c, Chen Xiu-Boa c, Niu Xin-Xina, Yang Yi-Xiana
a Information Security Center, State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876, China;
b Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Computer Network, Shandong Computer Science Center, Jinan 250014, China;
c State Key Laboratory of Information Security, (Institute of Information Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences), Beijing 100093, China
Abstract  Quantum steganography that utilizes quantum mechanical effect to achieve the purpose of information hiding is a popular topic of quantum information. Recently, El Allati et al. proposed a new quantum steganography using GHZ4 state. Since all of the 8 groups of unitary transformations used in the secret message encoding rule change the GHZ4 state into 6 instead of 8 different quantum states when the global phase is not considered, we point out that a 2-bit instead of a 3-bit secret message can be encoded by one group of the given unitary transformations. To encode a 3-bit secret message by performing a group of unitary transformations on the GHZ4 state, we give another 8 groups of unitary transformations that can change the GHZ4 state into 8 different quantum states. Due to the symmetry of the GHZ4 state, all the possible 16 groups of unitary transformations change the GHZ4 state into 8 different quantum states, so the improved protocol achieves a high efficiency.
Keywords:  quantum steganography      GHZ4 entangled state      quantum cryptography      quantum communication  
Received:  07 November 2012      Revised:  24 December 2012      Accepted manuscript online: 
PACS:  03.67.Dd (Quantum cryptography and communication security)  
  03.67.-a (Quantum information)  
  03.65.-w (Quantum mechanics)  
  03.67.Hk (Quantum communication)  
Fund: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61170272, 61272514, 61003287, and 61070163), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20100005120002), the Fok Ying Tong Education Foundation (Grant No. 131067), the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. ZR2011FM023), the Outstanding Research Award Fund for Young Scientists of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. BS2011DX034), and the Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities of China (Grant No. BUPT2012RC0221).
Corresponding Authors:  Chen Xiu-Bo     E-mail:

Cite this article: 

Xu Shu-Jiang, Chen Xiu-Bo, Niu Xin-Xin, Yang Yi-Xian Steganalysis and improvement of a quantum steganography protocol via GHZ4 state 2013 Chin. Phys. B 22 060307

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