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Chin. Phys. B, 2023, Vol. 32(1): 017701    DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/ac70be

Prediction of flexoelectricity in BaTiO3 using molecular dynamics simulations

Long Zhou(周龙)1, Xu-Long Zhang(张旭龙)1, Yu-Ying Cao(曹玉莹)1, Fu Zheng(郑富)1, Hua Gao(高华)1, Hong-Fei Liu(刘红飞)1, and Zhi Ma(马治)1,2,†
1 School of Physics and Electronic-Electrical Engineering, Ningxia University, Yinchuan 750021, China;
2 State Key Laboratory of High-Efficiency Utilization of Coal and Green Chemical Engineering, Ningxia University, Yinchuan 750021, China
Abstract  Flexoelectric effect, referring to the strain gradient induced polarization, widely exists in dielectric materials, but its molecular dynamics has not been studied so much so far. In this work, the radial distribution function of BaTiO3 and the phase transition temperatures have been investigated, and the results show that the core-shell potential model is effective and the structure of BaTiO3 is stable in a temperature range of 10 K-150 K. Molecular dynamics simulated hysteresis loops of BaTiO3 show that anisotropy can play an important role in the coercive field. Based on the rational simulation process, the effects of cantilever beam bent angle and fixed length on the polarization are analyzed. It is found that the small bent angle of the curved cantilever beam can give a proportional relationship with a fixed end length and a non-linear relationship is presented when the bent angle is much larger. The prediction of flexoelectric coefficient in BaTiO3 is 18.5 nC/m. This work provides a computational framework for the study of flexoelectric effect by using molecular dynamics.
Keywords:  flexoelectric effect      molecular dynamics      phase transition      hysteresis loop  
Received:  09 February 2022      Revised:  05 April 2022      Accepted manuscript online:  18 May 2022
PACS:  77.65.Ly (Strain-induced piezoelectric fields)  
  02.70.Ns (Molecular dynamics and particle methods)  
  05.70.Fh (Phase transitions: general studies)  
  75.60.Ej (Magnetization curves, hysteresis, Barkhausen and related effects)  
Fund: Project supported by the Natural Science Funds of Ningxia, China (Grant No. ZR1221) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11964027).
Corresponding Authors:  Zhi Ma     E-mail:

Cite this article: 

Long Zhou(周龙), Xu-Long Zhang(张旭龙), Yu-Ying Cao(曹玉莹), Fu Zheng(郑富), Hua Gao(高华), Hong-Fei Liu(刘红飞), and Zhi Ma(马治) Prediction of flexoelectricity in BaTiO3 using molecular dynamics simulations 2023 Chin. Phys. B 32 017701

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