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Chin. Phys. B, 2023, Vol. 32(2): 020507    DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/ac7550
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Simulation based on a modified social force model for sensitivity to emergency signs in subway station

Zheng-Yu Cai(蔡征宇)1, Ru Zhou(周汝)1,†, Yin-Kai Cui(崔银锴)1, Yan Wang(王妍)2, and Jun-Cheng Jiang(蒋军成)1
1 Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Hazardous Chemicals Safety and Control, College of Safety Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, China;
2 Department of Public Administration, School of Law, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, China
Abstract  The subway is the primary travel tool for urban residents in China. Due to the complex structure of the subway and high personnel density in rush hours, subway evacuation capacity is critical. The subway evacuation model is explored in this work by combining the improved social force model with the view radius using the Vicsek model. The pedestrians are divided into two categories based on different force models. The first category is sensitive pedestrians who have normal responses to emergency signs. The second category is insensitive pedestrians. By simulating different proportions of the insensitive pedestrians, we find that the escape time is directly proportional to the number of insensitive pedestrians and inversely proportional to the view radius. However, when the view radius is large enough, the escape time does not change significantly, and the evacuation of people in a small view radius environment tends to be integrated. With the improvement of view radius conditions, the escape time changes more obviously with the proportion of insensitive pedestrians. A new emergency sign layout is proposed, and the simulations show that the proposed layout can effectively reduce the escape time in a small view radius environment. However, the evacuation effect of the new escape sign layout on the large view radius environment is not apparent. In this case, the exit setting emerges as an additional factor affecting the escape time.
Keywords:  modified social force model      emergency evacuation      insensitive pedestrians      emergency signs layout  
Received:  14 April 2022      Revised:  19 May 2022      Accepted manuscript online:  02 June 2022
PACS:  05.65.+b (Self-organized systems)  
  89.40.-a (Transportation)  
  07.05.Tp (Computer modeling and simulation)  
  89.75.Fb (Structures and organization in complex systems)  
Fund: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51874183 and 51874182) and the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2018YFC0809300).
Corresponding Authors:  Ru Zhou     E-mail:

Cite this article: 

Zheng-Yu Cai(蔡征宇), Ru Zhou(周汝), Yin-Kai Cui(崔银锴), Yan Wang(王妍), and Jun-Cheng Jiang(蒋军成) Simulation based on a modified social force model for sensitivity to emergency signs in subway station 2023 Chin. Phys. B 32 020507

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