Please wait a minute...
Chin. Phys. B, 2013, Vol. 22(11): 116803    DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/22/11/116803
Special Issue: TOPICAL REVIEW — Magnetism, magnetic materials, and interdisciplinary research
TOPICAL REVIEW—Magnetism, magnetic materials, and interdisciplinary research Prev   Next  

High-mobility two-dimensional electron gases at oxide interfaces:Origin and opportunities

Chen Yun-Zhong (陈允忠)a, Nini Prydsa, Sun Ji-Rong (孙继荣)b, Shen Bao-Gen (沈保根)b, Søren Linderotha
a Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Risø Campus, Roskilde 4000, Denmark;
b Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, State Key Laboratory for Magnetism, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
Abstract  Our recent experimental work on metallic and insulating interfaces controlled by interfacial redox reactions in SrTiO3-based heterostructures is reviewed along with a more general background of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at oxide interfaces. Due to the presence of oxygen vacancies at the SrTiO3 surface, metallic conduction can be created at room temperature in perovskite-type interfaces when the overlayer oxide ABO3 has Al, Ti, Zr, or Hf elements at the B sites. Furthermore, relying on interface-stabilized oxygen vacancies, we have created a new type of 2DEG at the heterointerface between SrTiO3 and a spinel γ-Al2O3 epitaxial film with compatible oxygen ion sublattices. This 2DEG exhibits an electron mobility exceeding 100000 cm2·V-1·s-1, more than one order of magnitude higher than those of hitherto investigated perovskite-type interfaces. Our findings pave the way for the design of high-mobility all-oxide electronic devices and open a route toward the studies of mesoscopic physics with complex oxides.
Keywords:  oxide interfaces      two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG)      SrTiO3      oxygen vacancies  
Received:  02 September 2013      Accepted manuscript online: 
PACS:  68.47.Gh (Oxide surfaces)  
  73.20.-r (Electron states at surfaces and interfaces)  
  81.15.Fg (Pulsed laser ablation deposition)  
Corresponding Authors:  Chen Yun-Zhong     E-mail:

Cite this article: 

Chen Yun-Zhong (陈允忠), Nini Pryds, Sun Ji-Rong (孙继荣), Shen Bao-Gen (沈保根), Søren Linderoth High-mobility two-dimensional electron gases at oxide interfaces:Origin and opportunities 2013 Chin. Phys. B 22 116803

[1] Mannhart J and Schlom D G 2010 Science 327 1607
[2] Mannhart J, Blank D H A, Hwang H Y, Millis A J and Triscone J M 2008 MRS Bull. 33 1027
[3] Kawasaki M, Takahashi K, Maeda T, Tsuchiya R, Shinohara M, Ishiyama O, Yonezawa T, Yoshimoto M and Koinuma H 1994 Science 266 1540
[4] Koster G, Kropman B L, Rijnders G J H M, Blank D H A and Rogalla H 1998 Appl. Phys. Lett. 73 2920
[5] Rijnders G J H M, Koster G, Blank D H A and Rogalla H 1997 Appl. Phys. Lett. 70 1888
[6] Chen Y Z and Pryds N 2011 Thin Solid Films 519 6330
[7] Schlom D G, Chen L Q, Pan X Q, Schmehl A and Zurbuchen M A 2008 J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 91 2429
[8] Son J W, Moetakef P, Jalan B, Bierwagen O, Wright N J, Engel-Herbert R and Stemmer S 2010 Nat. Mater. 9 482
[9] Ohtomo A and Hwang H Y 2004 Nature 427 423
[10] Biscaras J, Bergeal N, Kushwaha A, Wolf T, Rastogi A, Budhani R C and Lesueur J 2010 Nat. Commun. 1 89
[11] Moetakef P, Cain T A, Ouellette D G, Zhang J Y, Klenov D O, Janotti A, Van de Walle C G, Rajan S, Allen S J and Stemmer S 2011 Appl. Phys. Lett. 99 232116
[12] Perna P, Maccariello D, Radovic M, Scotti di U, Pallecchi I, Codda M, Marré D, Cantoni C, Gazquez J, Varela M, Pennycook S J and Miletto Granozio F 2010 Appl. Phys. Lett. 97 152111
[13] Reyren N, Thiel S, Caviglia A D, Fitting Kourkoutis L, Hammerl G, Richter C, Schneider C W, Kopp T, Ruetschi A S, Jaccard D, Gabay M, Muller D A, Triscone J M and Mannhart J 2007 Science 317 1196
[14] Brinkman A, Huijben M, Van Zalk M, Huijben J, Zeitler U, Maan J C, Van der Wiel W G, Rijnders G, Blank D H A and Hilgenkamp H 2007 Nat. Mater. 6 493
[15] Thiel S, Hammerl G, Schmehl A, Schneider C and Mannhart J 2006 Science 313 1942
[16] Cen C, Thiel S, Hammerl G, Schneider C W, Andersen K E, Hellberg C S, Mannhart J and Levy J 2008 Nat. Mater. 7 298
[17] Chen Y Z, Zhao J L, Sun J R, Pryds N and Shen B G 2010 Appl. Phys. Lett. 97 123102
[18] Chambers S A 2011 Surface Science 605 1133
[19] Park J W, Bogorin D F, Cen C, Felker D A, Zhang Y, Nelson C T, Bark C W, Folkman C M, Pan X Q, Rzchowski M S, Levy J and Eom C B 2010 Nat. Commun. 1 94
[20] Pentcheva R, Arras R, Otte K, Ruiz V G and Pickett W E 2012 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 370 4904
[21] Pavlenko N, Kopp T, Tsymbal E Y, Mannhart J and Sawatzky G A 2012 Phys. Rev. B 86 064431
[22] Zhong Z C, Xu P X and Kelly P J 2010 Phys. Rev. B 82 165127
[23] Herranz G, Basletić M, Bibes M, Carrétéro C, Tafra E, Jacquet E, Bouzehouane K, Deranlot C, Hamzić A, Broto J M, Barthélémy A and Fert A 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 216803
[24] Kalabukhov A, Gunnarsson R, Borjesson J, Olsson E, Claeson T and Winkler D 2007 Phys. Rev. B 75 121404
[25] Caviglia A D, Gariglio S, Cancellieri C, Sacepe B, Fete A, Reyren N, Gabay M, Morpurgo A F and Triscone J M 2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 236802
[26] Reinle-Schmitt M L, Cancellieri C, Li D, Fontaine D, Medarde M, Pomjakushina E, Schneider C W, Gariglio S, Ghosez Ph, Triscone J M and Willmott P R 2012 Nat. Commun. 3 932
[27] Segal Y, Ngai J H, Reiner J W, Walker F J and Ahn C H 2009 Phys. Rev. B 80 241107
[28] Willmott P R, Pauli S A, Herger R, Schlepütz C M, Martoccia D, Patterson B D, Delley B, Clarke R, Kumah D, Cionca C and Yacoby Y 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 155502
[29] Chambers S A, Engelhard M H, Shutthanandan V, Zhu Z, Droubay T C, Qiao L, Sushko P V, Feng T, Lee H D, Gustafsson T, Garfunkel E, Shah A B, Zuo J M and Ramasse Q M 2010 Surf. Sci. Rep. 65 317
[30] Schneider C W, Esposito M, Marozau I, Conder K, Doebeli M, Hu Y, Mallepell M, Wokaun A and Lippert T 2010 Appl. Phys. Lett. 97 192107
[31] Uedono A, Shimayama K, Kiyohara M, Chen Z Q and Yamabe K 2002 J. Appl. Phys. 92 2697
[32] Scullin M L, Ravichandran J, Yu C, Huijben M, Seidel J, Majumdar A and Ramesh R 2010 Acta Mater. 58 457
[33] Chen Y Z, Pryds N, Kleibeuker J E, Sun J R, Stamate E, Koster G, Shen B G, Rijnders G and Linderoth S 2011 Nano. Lett. 11 3774
[34] Frederikse H P R and Hosler W R 1967 Phys. Rev. 161 822
[35] Huijben M, Koster G, Kruize M K, Wenderich S, Verbeeck J, Bals S, Slooten E, Shi B, Molegraaf H J A, Kleibeuker J E, Aert S V, Goedkoop J B, Brinkman A, Blank D H A, Golden M S, Tendeloo G V, Hilgenkamp H and Rijnders G 2013 Adv. Func. Mater.
[36] Klitzing K V, Dorda G and Peper M 1980 Phys. Rev. Lett. 45 494
[37] Tsui D C, Stormer H L and Gossard A C 1982 Phys. Rev. Lett. 48 1559
[38] Tsukazaki A, Ohtomo A, Kita T, Ohno Y, Ohno H and Kawasaki M 2007 Science 315 1388
[39] Tsukazaki A, Akasaka S, Nakahara K, Ohno Y, Ohno H, Maryenko D, Ohtomo A and Kawasaki M 2010 Nat. Mater. 9 889
[40] Chen Y Z, Bovet N, Trier F, Christensen D V, Qu F M, Andersen N H, Kasama T, Zhang W, Giraud R, Dufouleur J, Jespersen T S, Sun J R, Smith A, Nygård J, Lu L, Büchner B, Shen B G, Linderoth S and Pryds N 2013 Nat. Commun. 4 1371
[41] Kleibeuker J E 2012 (Ph. D. thesis) (The Netherlands: University of Twente)
[42] Chen Y Z, Christensen D V, Trier F, Pryds N, Smith A and Linderoth S 2012 Appl. Surf. Sci. 258 9242
[43] Liu Z Q, Li C J, Lü W M, Huang, X H, Huang Z, Zeng S W, Qiu X P, Huang L S, Annadi A, Chen J S, Coey J M D, Venkatesan T and Ariando 2013 Phys. Rev. X 3 021010
[44] Shibuya K, Ohnishi T, Lippmaa M and Oshima M 2007 Appl. Phys.Lett. 91 232106
[45] Siemons W, Koster G, Yamamoto H, Harrison W A, Lucovsky G, Geballe T H, Blank D H A and Beasley M R 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 196802
[46] Carrasco J, Illas F, Lopez N, Kotomin E A, Zhukovskii Yu F, Evarestov R A, Mastrikov Yu A, Piskunov S and Maier J 2006 Phys. Rev. B 73 064106
[47] Gupta A 1993 J. Appl. Phys. 73 7877
[48] Hill D M, Meyer H M and Weaver J H 1989 J. Appl. Phys. 65 4943
[49] Fu Q and Wagner T 2007 Surf. Sci. Rep. 62 431
[50] Eng H W, Barnes P W, Auer B M and Woodward P M 2003 J. Solid. Stat. Chem. 175 94
[51] Arima T, Tokura Y and Torrance J B 1993 Phys. Rev. B 48 17006
[52] Zaanen J, Sawatzky G A and Allen J W 1985 Phys. Rev. Lett. 55 418
[53] Chambers S A, Qiao L, Droubay T C, Kaspar T C, Arey B W and Sushko P V 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 206802
[54] Boikov Yu A, Serenkov I T, Sakharov V I, Kalabukhov A S, Aurino P P, Winkler D and Claeson T 2013 Europhys. Lett. 102 56003
[55] Chen Y Z, Sun J R, Wei A D, Liang S, Lv W M and Shen B G 2008 Appl. Phys. Lett. 93 152515
[56] Lee S W, Liu Y Q, Heo J and Gordon R G 2012 Nano. Lett. 12 4775
[57] Delahaye J and Grenet T 2012 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 45 315301
[58] Breckenfeld E, Bronn N, Karthik J, Damodaran A R, Lee S, Mason N and Martin L W 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 196804
[59] Sambri A, Christensen D V, Trier F, Chen Y Z, Amoruso S, Pryds N, Bruzzese R and Wang X 2012 Appl. Phys. Lett. 100 231605
[60] Chen Y Z, Stamate E, Pryds N, Sun J R, Shen B G and Linderoth S 2011 Appl. Phys. Lett. 98 232105
[61] Trier F, Amoruso S, Christensen D V, Sambri A, Chen Y Z, Wang X, Stamate E, Bruzzese R and Pryds N 2013 Appl. Phys. Lett. 103 031607
[62] Denk I, Claus J and Maier J 1997 J. Electrochem. Soc. 144 3526
[63] Vollmann M, Hagenbeck R and Waser R 1997 J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80 2301
[64] Zhou R S and Snyder R L 1991 Acta Cryst. B 47 617
[65] KnapW, Fal’ko V I Frayssinet E, P Lorenzini P, Grandjean N, Maude D, Karczewski G, Brandt B L, Lusakowski J, Grzegory I, Leszczyński M, Prystawko P, Skierbiszewski C, Porowski S, Hu X, Simin G, Khan M A and Shur M S 2004 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 16 3421
[66] Ben Shalom M, Ron A, Palevski A and Dagan Y 2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 206401
[67] Moetakef P, Ouellette D G, Williams J R, James Allen S, Balents L, Goldhaber-Gordon D and Stemmer S 2012 Appl. Phys. Lett. 101 151604
[68] Sing M, Berner G, Gob K, Müller A, Ruff A, Wetscherek A, Thiel S, Mannhart J, Pauli S A, Schneider C W, Willmott P R, Gorgoi M, Schäfers F and Claessen R 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 176805
[69] Dingle R, Stőrmer H L, Gossard A C and Wiegmann W 1978 Appl. Phys. Lett. 33 665
[70] Jia C L and Urban K 2004 Science 303 2001
[71] Tufte O N and Chapman P W 1967 Phys. Rev. 155 796
[72] Cristensen D V, Trier F, Chen Y Z, Smith A, Nygård J and Pryds N 2013 Appl. Phys. Lett. 102 021602
[1] Gate tunable Rashba spin-orbit coupling at CaZrO3/SrTiO3 heterointerface
Wei-Min Jiang(姜伟民), Qiang Zhao(赵强), Jing-Zhuo Ling(凌靖卓), Ting-Na Shao(邵婷娜), Zi-Tao Zhang(张子涛), Ming-Rui Liu(刘明睿), Chun-Li Yao(姚春丽), Yu-Jie Qiao(乔宇杰), Mei-Hui Chen(陈美慧), Xing-Yu Chen(陈星宇), Rui-Fen Dou(窦瑞芬), Chang-Min Xiong(熊昌民), and Jia-Cai Nie(聂家财). Chin. Phys. B, 2022, 31(6): 066801.
[2] Accelerated oxygen evolution kinetics on Ir-doped SrTiO3 perovskite by NH3 plasma treatment
Li-Li Deng(邓丽丽), Xiao-Ping Ma(马晓萍), Man-Ting Lu(卢曼婷), Yi He(何弈), Rong-Lei Fan(范荣磊), and Yu Xin(辛煜). Chin. Phys. B, 2022, 31(11): 118201.
[3] Sign reversal of anisotropic magnetoresistance and anomalous thickness-dependent resistivity in Sr2CrWO6/SrTiO3 films
Chunli Yao(姚春丽), Tingna Shao(邵婷娜), Mingrui Liu(刘明睿), Zitao Zhang(张子涛), Weimin Jiang(姜伟民), Qiang Zhao(赵强), Yujie Qiao(乔宇杰), Meihui Chen(陈美慧), Xingyu Chen(陈星宇), Ruifen Dou(窦瑞芬), Changmin Xiong(熊昌民), and Jiacai Nie(聂家财). Chin. Phys. B, 2022, 31(10): 107302.
[4] Low temperature ferromagnetism in CaCu3Ti4O12
Song Yang(杨松), Xiao-Jing Luo(罗晓婧), Zhi-Ming Shen(申志明), Tian Gao(高湉), Yong-Sheng Liu(刘永生), and Shao-Long Tang(唐少龙). Chin. Phys. B, 2021, 30(9): 098103.
[5] Thermodynamic criterion for searching high mobility two-dimensional electron gas at KTaO3 interface
Wen-Xiao Shi(时文潇), Hui Zhang(张慧), Shao-Jin Qi(齐少锦), Jin-E Zhang(张金娥), Hai-Lin Huang(黄海林), Bao-Gen Shen(沈保根), Yuan-Sha Chen(陈沅沙), and Ji-Rong Sun(孙继荣). Chin. Phys. B, 2021, 30(7): 077302.
[6] Abnormal phenomenon of source-drain current of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure device under UV/visible light irradiation
Yue-Bo Liu(柳月波), Jun-Yu Shen(沈俊宇), Jie-Ying Xing(邢洁莹), Wan-Qing Yao(姚婉青), Hong-Hui Liu(刘红辉), Ya-Qiong Dai(戴雅琼), Long-Kun Yang(杨隆坤), Feng-Ge Wang(王风格), Yuan Ren(任远), Min-Jie Zhang(张敏杰), Zhi-Sheng Wu(吴志盛), Yang Liu(刘扬), and Bai-Jun Zhang(张佰君). Chin. Phys. B, 2021, 30(11): 117302.
[7] Negative thermal expansion of Ca2RuO4 with oxygen vacancies
Sen Xu(徐森), Yangming Hu(胡杨明), Yuan Liang(梁源), Chenfei Shi(史晨飞), Yuling Su(苏玉玲), Juan Guo(郭娟), Qilong Gao(高其龙), Mingju Chao(晁明举), Erjun Liang(梁二军). Chin. Phys. B, 2020, 29(8): 086501.
[8] Investigation of the magnetoresistance in EuS/Nb:SrTiO3 junction
Jia Lu(芦佳), Yu-Lin Gan(甘渝林), Yun-Lin Lei(雷蕴麟), Lei Yan(颜雷), and Hong Ding(丁洪)$. Chin. Phys. B, 2020, 29(11): 117503.
[9] Conductivity and band alignment of LaCrO3/SrTiO3 (111) heterostructure
Yan-Peng Hong(洪彦鹏), Xin-Xin Wang(王欣欣), Guo-Liang Qu(曲国良), Cheng-Jian Li(厉承剑), Hong-Xia Xue(薛红霞), Ke-Jian Liu(刘科践), Yong-Chun Li(李永春), Chang-Min Xiong(熊昌民), Rui-Fen Dou(窦瑞芬), Lin He(何林), Jia-Cai Nie(聂家财). Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27(4): 047301.
[10] Bias polarity-dependent unipolar switching behavior in NiO/SrTiO3 stacked layer
Xian-Wen Sun(孙献文), Cai-Hong Jia(贾彩虹), Xian-Sheng Liu(刘献省), Guo-Qiang Li(李国强), Wei-Feng Zhang(张伟风). Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27(4): 047304.
[11] Enhancement of thermoelectric properties of SrTiO3/LaNb-SrTiO3 composite by different doping levels
Ke-Xian Wang(王柯鲜), Jun Wang(王俊), Yan Li(李艳), Tao Zou(邹涛), Xiao-Huan Wang(王晓欢), Jian-Bo Li(李建波), Zheng Cao(曹正), Wen-Jing Shi(师文静), Xinba Yaer(新巴雅尔). Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27(4): 048401.
[12] Effect of Nb doping on microstructures and thermoelectric properties of SrTiO3 ceramics
Da-Quan Liu(刘达权), Yu-Wei Zhang(张玉伟), Hui-Jun Kang(康慧君), Jin-Ling Li(李金玲), Xiong Yang(杨雄), Tong-Min Wang(王同敏). Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27(4): 047205.
[13] Review of photoresponsive properties at SrTiO3-based heterointerfaces
Hong Yan(闫虹), Zhaoting Zhang(张兆亭), Shuanhu Wang(王拴虎), Kexin Jin(金克新). Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27(11): 117804.
[14] Electrical analysis of inter-growth structured Bi4Ti3O12–Na0.5Bi4.5Ti4O15 ceramics
Xiangping Jiang(江向平), Yalin Jiang(江亚林), Xingan Jiang(江兴安), Chao Chen(陈超), Na Tu(涂娜), Yunjing Chen(陈云婧). Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26(7): 077701.
[15] Electrical property effect of oxygen vacancies in the heterojunction of LaGaO3/SrTiO3
Fu-Ning Wang(王芙凝), Ji-Chao Li(李吉超), Xin-Miao Zhang(张鑫淼), Han-Zhang Liu(刘汉璋), Jian Liu(刘剑), Chun-Lei Wang(王春雷), Ming-Lei Zhao(赵明磊), Wen-Bin Su(苏文斌), Liang-Mo Mei(梅良模). Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26(3): 037101.
No Suggested Reading articles found!