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Chin. Phys. B, 2020, Vol. 29(11): 114204    DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/abb229

Ultra wide sensing range plasmonic refractive index sensor based on nano-array with rhombus particles

Jiankai Zhu(朱剑凯)1, Xiangxian Wang(王向贤)1, †, Xiaoxiong Wu(吴枭雄)1, Yingwen Su(苏盈文)1, Yueqi Xu(徐月奇)1, Yunping Qi(祁云平)2, Liping Zhang(张丽萍)1, and Hua Yang(杨华)1$
1 School of Science, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050, China
2 College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China

We propose a two-dimensional metal grating with rhombus particles on a gold film structure for refractive index sensing due to its perfect absorption at near-infrared wavelength. Via two-dimensional metal grating coupling, the incident light energy is effectively transformed into the surface plasmons which propagate along the upper surface of the gold film and interact with the surrounding environment in a wide range. The plasmonic resonance mechanism of the structure is discussed in detail by theoretical analysis and finite-difference time-domain method. After optimizing the geometrical parameters, the designed structure shows the sensing performance with a refractive index sensitivity of 1006 nm/RIU. More importantly, this plasmonic refractive index sensor achieves an ultra wide refractive index sensing range from 1.0 to 2.4 with a stable sensing performance. The promising simulation results of the structure show that the sensor has a broad application prospect in the field of biology and chemistry.

Keywords:  plasmonic sensor      refractive index      sensitivity      figure of merit (FOM)  
Received:  11 June 2020      Revised:  29 June 2020      Accepted manuscript online:  25 August 2020
Fund: the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61865008 and 61505074) and the HongLiu First-Class Disciplines Development Program of Lanzhou University of Technology.
Corresponding Authors:  Corresponding author. E-mail:   

Cite this article: 

Jiankai Zhu(朱剑凯), Xiangxian Wang(王向贤), Xiaoxiong Wu(吴枭雄), Yingwen Su(苏盈文), Yueqi Xu(徐月奇), Yunping Qi(祁云平), Liping Zhang(张丽萍), and Hua Yang(杨华)$ Ultra wide sensing range plasmonic refractive index sensor based on nano-array with rhombus particles 2020 Chin. Phys. B 29 114204

Fig. 1.  

Schematic view of the proposed plasmonic structure. From top to bottom, the components consist of 2D gold periodic arrays, gold film, and glass substrate. The black and blue arrows represent the propagation direction and polarization direction of the incident light, respectively. Inside the dotted circle shows the enlarged view of the rhombus particles.

Fig. 2.  

The absorption spectrum of the structure in the near-infrared range, where w = 380 nm, h1 = 80 nm, and the period is 1000 nm.

Fig. 3.  

Electric field distribution at the resonance wavelength of (a) mode 1 and (b) mode 2 in the XZ plane along the center of the gold rhombus particles. Electric field distribution at the resonance wavelength of (c) mode 1 and (d) mode 2 on the upper surface of the gold film.

Fig. 4.  

(a) Absorption spectra of the structure with different 2D grating periods when w and h1 are 380 nm and 80 nm, respectively. (b) Comparison between simulation results and theoretical analysis about the resonance wavelengths of mode 2 for different 2D grating periods.

Fig. 5.  

(a) The absorption spectra of the structure when the period and w are 1000 nm and 380 nm, respectively, where h1 varies from 80 nm to 140 nm in step of 20 nm. (b) The absorption spectra of the structure when the period and h1 are 1000 nm and 80 nm, respectively, where w varies from 200 nm to 500 nm in step of 60 nm.

Fig. 6.  

(a) The absorption spectra of the structure with optimized geometrical parameters for different analyte RI. (b) Resonance wavelength and peak strength versus the RI of analyte.

Fig. 7.  

(a) The absorption spectra of the structure when the analyte RI varies from 1.0 to 2.4 in step interval of 0.2. (b) The FOM and FWHM of mode 2 in the ultra wide analyte RI range.

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