Please wait a minute...
Chin. Phys. B, 2021, Vol. 30(5): 058702    DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/abe0c4
Special Issue: SPECIAL TOPIC — Physics in neuromorphic devices
TOPICAL REVIEW—Physics in neuromorphic devices Prev   Next  

Resistive switching memory for high density storage and computing

Xiao-Xin Xu(许晓欣), Qing Luo(罗庆), Tian-Cheng Gong(龚天成), Hang-Bing Lv(吕杭炳), Qi Liu(刘琦), and Ming Liu(刘明)
Key Laboratory of Microelectronics Devices and Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
Abstract  The resistive random access memory (RRAM) has stimulated a variety of promising applications including programmable analog circuit, massive data storage, neuromorphic computing, etc. These new emerging applications have huge demands on high integration density and low power consumption. The cross-point configuration or passive array, which offers the smallest footprint of cell size and feasible capability of multi-layer stacking, has received broad attention from the research community. In such array, correct operation of reading and writing on a cell relies on effective elimination of the sneaking current coming from the neighboring cells. This target requires nonlinear I-V characteristics of the memory cell, which can be realized by either adding separate selector or developing implicit build-in nonlinear cells. The performance of a passive array largely depends on the cell nonlinearity, reliability, on/off ratio, line resistance, thermal coupling, etc. This article provides a comprehensive review on the progress achieved concerning 3D RRAM integration. First, the authors start with a brief overview of the associative problems in passive array and the category of 3D architectures. Next, the state of the arts on the development of various selector devices and self-selective cells are presented. Key parameters that influence the device nonlinearity and current density are outlined according to the corresponding working principles. Then, the reliability issues in 3D array are summarized in terms of uniformity, endurance, retention, and disturbance. Subsequently, scaling issue and thermal crosstalk in 3D memory array are thoroughly discussed, and applications of 3D RRAM beyond storage, such as neuromorphic computing and CMOL circuit are discussed later. Summary and outlooks are given in the final.
Keywords:  resistive switching memory (RRAM)      three-dimensional (3D) integration      reliability      computing  
Received:  26 May 2020      Revised:  11 January 2021      Accepted manuscript online:  28 January 2021
PACS:  85.25.Hv (Superconducting logic elements and memory devices; microelectronic circuits)  
  87.19.lv (Learning and memory)  
  73.40.Rw (Metal-insulator-metal structures)  
Fund: Project supported in part by the National Key R&D Program of China (Grant Nos. 2018YFB0407501 and 2016YFA0201800), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61804173, 61922083, 61804167, 61904200, and 61821091), and the fourth China Association for Science and Technology Youth Talent Support Project (Grant No. 2019QNRC001).
Corresponding Authors:  Hang-Bing Lv     E-mail:  lvhangbing@ime.ac.cn

Cite this article: 

Xiao-Xin Xu(许晓欣), Qing Luo(罗庆), Tian-Cheng Gong(龚天成), Hang-Bing Lv(吕杭炳), Qi Liu(刘琦), and Ming Liu(刘明) Resistive switching memory for high density storage and computing 2021 Chin. Phys. B 30 058702

[1] Taur Y 1999 IEEE Spectrum 36 25
[2] Tanaka H, Kido M, Yahashi K, Oomura M, Katsumata R and Kito M 2007 Symposium on VLSI Technology, June 12–14, 2007, Kyoto, Japan, p. 14
[3] Katsumata R, Kito M, Fukuzumi Y, Kido M, Tanaka H and Komori Y 2009 Symposium on VLSI Technology, June 15–17, 2009, Kyoto, Japan, p. 136
[4] Jang J, Kim H S, Cho W, Cho H, Kim J and Shim S I 2009 Symposium on VLSI Technology, June 15–17, 2009, Kyoto, Japan, p. 136
[5] Whang S, Lee K, Shin D, Kim B, Kim M and Bin J 2010 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), December 6–8, 2010, San Francisco, CA, USA, p. 29.7.1
[6] Waser R, Dittmann R, Staikov G and Szot K 2009 Adv. Mater. 21 2632
[7] Marchewka A, Roesgen B, Skaja K, Du H, Jia C L, Mayer J, Rana V, Waser R and Menzel S 2016 Advanced Electronic Materials 2 1500233
[8] Niraula D and Karpovb V 2018 J. Appl. Phys. 124 174502
[9] Yang J J, Strukov D B and Stewart D R 2013 Nature Nanotechnology 8 13
[10] Jacobs-Gedrim R B, Hughart D R, Agarwal S, Vizkelethy G and Marinella M J 2019 IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science 66 54
[11] Lv H B, Wan H and Tang T 2010 IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31 978
[12] Liu Q, Sun J, Lv H B, Long S B, Yin K B and Wan N 2012 Adv. Mater. 24 1844
[13] Chen H Y, Brivio S, Chang C C, Frascaroli J, Hou T H, Hudec B, Liu M, Lv H B, Molas G, Sohn J, Spiga S, Teja V M, Vianello E and Philip Wong H S 2017 Journal of Electroceramics 39 21
[14] http://www.itrs.net/Links/2013ITRS/Home2013.htm
[15] Chen C B, Xu X X, Li X Y and Li Y T 2018 Semiconductor Technology 5 1
[16] Pang Y, Wu H Q, Gao B, Ning D, Dong W, Rui L, Yu S M, Chen A and Qian H 2017 IEEE Electron Device Lett. 38 168
[17] Wang M, Luo W, Wang Y, Yang L, Zhu W and Zhou P 2010 Symposium on VLSI Technology (VLSIT), June 15–17, 2010, Honolulu, HI, USA, p. 89
[18] Zheng H X, Chen M C, Chang T C, Su Y T and Sze S M 2019 IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 66 4706
[19] Mei C Y, Shen W C, Wu C H, Chih Y D, King Y C and Lin C J 2013 IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34 1253
[20] Rahaman S Z, Lee H Y, Chen Y S, Lin Y D, Chen P S, Chen W S, Chen W S and Wang P H 2017 Appl. Phys. Lett. 110 213501
[21] Zhang J, Ding Y Q, Xue X Y, Gang J, Wu Y X and Xie Y F 2010 IEICE Transactions on Electronics 93 1692
[22] Zhang Q, Cui X, Xu X, Wang X A and Zhou S 2016 IEEE International Conference on Electron Devices and Solid-State Circuits (EDSSC), August 3–5, 2016, Hong Kong, China, p. 226
[23] Yu S M, Gao B, Fang Z, Yu H, Kang J and Wong H S P 2012 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), December 10–13, 2012, San Francisco, CA, USA, p. 10.4.1
[24] Madhavan A, Sherwood T and Strukov D B 2018 IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, vol. 26, p. 2759
[25] Kim G H, Kim K M, Seok J Y, Lee H J, Cho D Y and Han J H 2010 Nanotechnology 21 385202
[26] Shrestha P R, Nminibapiel D M, Campbell J P, Ryan, J T, Veksler D, Baumgart H and Cheung K P 2018 IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 65 108
[27] Saraswat V, Prasad S, Khanna A, Wagh A and Ganguly U 2020 IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 67 3610
[28] Chand U, Huang K C, Huang C Y and Tseng T Y 2015 IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 62 3665
[29] Kim S, Zhou J, and Lu W D 2014 IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 61 2820
[30] Jin Y J, Xu Z, Yoon S F, Chia C K, Wang S J and Chi D Z 2016 Electronic Materials Letters 12 365
[31] Kim T W, Zeigler D F, Acton O, Yip H L, Ma H and Jen A K Y 2012 Adv. Mater. 24 828
[32] Lee M J, Seo S, Kim D C, Ahn S E, Seo D H and Yoo I K 2007 Adv. Mater. 19 73
[33] Wang G, Lauchner A C, Lin J, Natelson D, Palem K V and Tour J M 2013 Adv. Mater. 25 4789
[34] Luo Q, Xu X, Lv H, Gong T, Long S, Liu Q, Sun H, Li L, Lu N and Liu M 2016 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, December 3–6, 2016, San Francisco, CA, USA 2016, p. 11.7.1
[35] Seok J Y, Song S J, Yoon J H, Yoon K J, Park T H and Kwon D E 2014 Advanced Functional Materials 24 5316
[36] Zhang L, Cosemans S, Wouters D J, Groeseneken G, Jurczak M and Govoreanu B 2014 IEEE 6th International Memory Workshop (IMW), May 18–21, 2014, Taipei, Taiwan, China, p. 1
[37] Chen A 2013 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), December 9–11, 2013, Washington, DC, USA, p. 30.3.1
[38] Deng Y, Chen H Y, Gao B, Yu S, Wu S C and Zhao L 2013 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), December 9–11, 2013, Washington, DC, USA, p. 25.7.1
[39] Sun R, Chen H, Wang G R, Wang C and Hao L 2019 Semiconductor Science and Technology 34 115023
[40] Burr G W, Shenoy R S, Virwani K, Narayanan P, Padilla A and Kurdi B 2014 Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B 32 040802
[41] Russo U, Ielmini D, Cagli C and Lacaita A L 2009 IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 56 193
[42] Mickel P R, Lohn A J, James C D and Marinella M J 2014 Adv. Mater. 26 4486
[43] Sun P X, Li L, Lu N D, Li Y T, Wang M and Xie H W 2014 Journal of Computational Electronics 13 432
[44] Ielmini D 2011 IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 58 4309
[45] Raghavan N 2016 Microelectronics Reliability 64 54
[46] Baek I, Kim D, Lee M, Kim H J, Yim E and Lee M 2005 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting Technical Digest., December 5–7, 2013, Washington, DC, USA, p. 750
[47] Sharath S U, Vogel S, Molina-Luna L, Hildebrandt E, Wenger C, Kurian J, Duerrschnabel M, Niermann T, Niu G, Calka P, Lehmann M, Kleebe H J, Schroeder T and Alff L 2017 Advanced Functional Materials 27 1700432
[48] Park S G, Yang M K, H Ju, Seong D J, Lee J M and Kim E 2012 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), December 10– 13 2012, San Francisco, CA, USA, p. 20.8.1
[49] Banerjee W and Hwang H 2020 Advanced Electronic Materials 6 9
[50] Chai Z, Shao W, Zhang W D, Brown J, Degraeve R, Salim F D, Clima S, Hatem F, Zhang J F, Freitas P, Marsland J, Fantini A, Garbin D, Goux L and Kar G S 2020 IEEE Electron Device Lett. 41 228
[51] Xu X X, Luo Q, Gong T C, Lv H B and Liu M 2016 Symposium on VLSI Technology (VLSIT), June 12–14, 2013, Honolulu, HI, USA, p. 1
[52] Gong T C, Luo Q, Lv H B, Xu X X, Yu, J, Yuan P, Dong D N, Chen C B, Yin J H, Tai L, Zhu X, Liu Q, Long S B and Liu M 2018 IEEE Electron Device Lett. 39 1152
[53] Son M, Lee J, Park J, Shin J, Choi G and Jung S 2011 IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32 1579
[54] Cha E, Woo J, Lee D, Lee S, Song J and Koo Y 2013 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), December 9–11, 2013, Washington, DC, USA, p. 10.5.1
[55] Lee W, Park J, Shin J, Woo J, Kim S and Choi G 2012 Symposium on VLSI Technology (VLSIT), June 12–14, 2012, Honolulu, HI, USA, p. 37
[56] Lee W, Park J, Kim S, Woo J, Shin J and Choi G 2012 ACS Nano 6 8166
[57] Song Y H, Park S Y, Lee J M, Yang H J and Kil G H 2011 IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32 1023
[58] Kil G H, Yang H J, Lee G H, Lee S H and Song Y H 2012 Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51 04DJ02
[59] Lashkare S, Karkare P, Bafna P, Raju M, Srinivasan V and Lodha S 2013 IEEE International Memory Workshop (IMW), May 26–29, Monterey, CA, USA, p. 178
[60] Lee M, Kao C Y, Yang C L, Chen Y, Lee H and Chen F 2011 69th Annual Device Research Conference (DRC), June 20–11, 2011, Santa Barbara, CA, USA, p. 89
[61] Lee M J, Park Y, Kang B S, Ahn S E, Lee C and Kim K 2007 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting(IEDM), December 10–12, 2007, Washington, DC, USA, p. 771
[62] Kang B S, Ahn S E, Lee M J, Stefanovich G, Kim K H and Xian W X 2008 Adv. Mater. 20 3066
[63] Fu L P, Chen S K, Wu Z W, Li X Y, You M Y, Fan X L, Gao X P and Li Y T 2020 Mod. Phys. Lett. B 34 12
[64] Anbarasu M, Wimmer M, Bruns G, Salinga M and Wuttig M 2012 Appl. Phys. Lett. 100 143505
[65] Lopez J M, Robayo D A, Grenouillet L, Carabasse C and Molas G 2020 IEEE International Memory Workshop (IMW), 17–20 May 2020, Dresden, Germany, p. 1
[66] Shenoy R, Gopalakrishnan K, Jackson B, Virwani K, Burr G and Rettner C 2011 Symposium on VLSI Technology (VLSIT), June 14–15, 2011, Kyoto, Japan, p. 94
[67] Virwani K, Burr G W, Shenoy R S, Rettner C T, Padilla A and Topuria T 2012 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), December 10–13, 2012, San Francisco, CA, USA, p. 2.7.1
[68] Burr G W, Virwani K, Shenoy R S, Fraczak G, Rettner C T and Padilla A 2013 Symposium on VLSI Technology (VLSIT), June 11–13 Kyoto, Japan, p. T66
[69] Jo S H, Kumar T, Narayanan S, Lu W D and Nazarian H 2014 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), December 15–17, 2014, San Francisco, CA, USA, p. 6.7.1
[70] Lee, Lee D, Woo J, Cha E, Park J and Hwang H 2014 IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35 1022
[71] Luo Q, Xu X X, Liu H T, Lv H B, Gong T C, Long S B and Liu Q 2015 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), December 7–9, 2015, Washington, DC, USA, p. 10.4.1
[72] Zhao X L, Ma J, Xiao X H, Liu Q Shao L, Chen D, Liu S, Niu J B, Zhang X M, Wang Y, Cao R R, Wang W, Di Z F, Lv H B, Long S B and Liu M 2018 Adv. Mater. 30 1705193
[73] Kim S, Liu X J, Park J, Jung S, Lee W and Woo J 2012 Symposium on VLSI Technology (VLSIT), June 12–14, 2012, Honolulu, HI, USA, p. 155
[74] Luo Q, Xu X X, Liu H T, Lv H B, Gong T C, Long S B and Liu Q 2015 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), December 7–9, 2015, Washington, DC, USA, p. 10.2.1
[75] Liu W J, Tran X A, Yu H Y and Sun X W 2013 ECS Solid State Lett. 2 Q35
[76] Kim K H, Jo S H, Gaba S and Lu W 2010 Appl. Phys. Lett. 96 053106
[77] Lv H B, Li Y T, Liu Q, Long S B, Li L and Liu M 2013 IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34 229
[78] Subhechha S, Degraeve R, Roussel P, Goux L and Kar G S 2019 IEEE International Memory Workshop (IMW). IEEE, May 12–15, 2019, Monterey, CA, USA, p. 1
[79] Hsu C W, Wan C C, Wang I T, Chen M C, Lo C L and Lee Y J 2013 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, December 9–11, 2013, Washington, DC, USA, p. 10.4.1
[80] Tran X, Zhu W, Liu W, Yeo Y, Nguyen B and Yu H 2013 IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 60 391
[81] Linn E, Rosezin R, Kügeler C and Waser R 2010 Nat. Mater. 9 403
[82] Subhechha S, Degraeve R, Belmonte A, Goux L, Donadio G L, Roussel P, Meyer K D, Houdt J V and Kar G S 2018 IEEE International Memory Workshop (IMW) May 13–16 Kyoto, Japan, p. 1
[83] Schonhals A, Mohr J, Wouters D J, Waser R and Menzel S 2017 IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32 449
[84] Banerjee W, Zhang X M, Luo Q, Lv H B, Liu Qi, Long S B and Liu M 2018 Advanced Electronic Materials 4 1700561
[85] Jana D, Samanta S, Maikap S and Cheng H M 2016 Appl. Phys. Lett. 108 011605
[86] Lim D H, Kim G Y, Song J H, Jeong K S, Ko D H and Cho M H 2015 Scientific Reports 5 15374
[87] Yoon K J, Song S J, Seok J K, Yoon J H, Park T H and Kwon D E 2014 Nanoscale 6 2161
[88] Govoreanu B, Clima S, Radu I P, Chen Y Y, Wouters D J and Jurczak M 2013 IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 60 2471
[89] Dai L, Wu H Q, Gao B and Qian H 2016 International Symposium on VLSI Technology, Systems and Application (VLSI-TSA), Apirl 25–27, 2016, Hsinchu, Taiwan, p. 1
[90] Yu S, Guan X and Wong H S P 2012 IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 59 1183
[91] Wang Z W, Kang J, Fang Y C, Yu Z Z, Xue Y, Cai Y M, Wang Y Y and Huang R 2016 16th Non-Volatile Memory Technology Symposium (NVMTS), October 17–19, 2016, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, p. 1
[92] Grossi A, Nowak E, Zambelli C, Pellissier C, Bernasconi S, Cibrario G, Hajjam K E, Crochemore R, Nodin J F, Olivo P and Perniola L 2016 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), December 3–7, 2016, San Francisco, CA, USA, p. 4.7.1
[93] Chen H Y, Yu S, Gao B, Huang P, Kang J and Wong H S P 2012 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), December 10– 13, 2012, San Francisco, CA, USA, p. 20.7.1
[94] Yu S, Guan X and Wong H S P 2011 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), December 5–7,2011, Washington, DC, USA, p. 17.3.1
[95] Perez E, Grossi A, Zambelli C, Olivo P, Roelofs R and Wenger C 2016 IEEE Electron Device Lett. 38 175
[96] Luo Q, Xu X X, Gong T C, Lv H B, Dong D N, Ma H L, Yuan P, Gao J F, Liu J, Yu Z A, Li J F, Long S B, Liu Q and Liu M 2017 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), December 2–6, 2017, San Francisco, CA, USA, p. 2.7.1
[97] Li C, Han L, Jiang H, Jang M H, Lin P, Wu Q, Barnell M, Yang J J, Xin H L and Xia Q F 2017 Nat. Commun. 8 15666
[98] Jiang Z, Wang Z, Xin Z, Fong S, Qin S, Chen H Y, Ahn C Y, Cao J, Nishi Y and Wong H S Philip 2016 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), December 3–7, 2016, San Francisco, CA, USA, p. 21.3.1
[99] Jiang R, Han Z and Du X 2016 Microelectronics Reliability 63 37
[100] Yu S, Gao B, Dai H, Sun B, Liu L F and Liu X 2010 Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters 13 H36
[101] Bin G, Bing C and Rui L and Zhang F F 2014 IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 61 1377
[102] Lee J, Shin J, Lee D, Lee W, Jung S and Jo M 2010 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), December 6–8, 2010, San Francisco, CA, USA, p. 19.5.1
[103] Chen H Y, Tian H, Gao B, Yu S M, Liang J and Kang J F 2012 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), December 10–13, 2012, San Francisco, CA, USA, p. 20.5.1
[104] Song Y, Magyari-Kope B, Lin Y Y and Nishi Y 2017 IEEE International Memory Workshop May 14–17, 2017, Monterey, CA, USA, p. 1
[105] Chang W Y, Huang H W, Wang W T, Hou C H, Chueh Y L and He J H 2012 Journal of The Electrochemical Society 159 G29
[106] Gao B, Zhang H, Yu S, Sun B, Liu L F, Liu X Y 2009 Symposium on VLSI Technology June 15–17, 2009, Kyoto, Japan, p. 30
[107] Zhang H, Liu L F, Gao B, Qiu Y, Liu X Y and Lu J 2011 Appl. Phys. Lett. 98 042105
[108] Liu L F, Chen B, Gao B, Zhang F F, Chen Y S and Liu X Y 2011 Appl. Phys. A 102 991
[109] Liu L F, Kang J F, Xu N, Sun X, Chen C, Sun B Wang Y, Liu X Y, Zhang X and Han R Q 2008 Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47 2701
[110] Chen L, Gou H Y, Sun Q Q, Zhou P, Lu H L and Wang P F 2011 IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32 794
[111] Chen G, Song C, Chen C, Gao S, Zeng F and Pan F 2012 Adv. Mater. 24 3515
[112] Liu Q, Long S B, Wang W, Tanachutiwat S, Li Y T and Wang Q 2010 IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31 1299
[113] Hsu C C, Lin Y S, Cheng C W and Jhang W C 2020 IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 67 3
[114] Liu H T, Lv H B, Yang B, Xu X X, Liu R Y and Liu Q 2014 IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35 1224
[115] Kim K M, Lee S R, Kim S, Chang M and Hwang C S 2015 Advanced Functional Materials 25 1527
[116] Fantini A, Goux L, Degraeve R, Wouters D, Raghavan N and Kar G 2013 IEEE International Memory Workshop (IMW), May 26–29, 2013, Monterey, CA, USA, p. 30
[117] Bai Y, Wu H, Wu R, Zhang Y, Deng N, Yu Z and Qian H 2014 Scientific Reports 4 5780
[118] Hsu C W, Wang Y F, Wan C C, Wang I T, Chou C T and Lai W L 2014 Nanotechnology 25 165202
[119] Raghavan N 2014 Microelectronics Reliability 54 2253
[120] Wiefels S, Bottger U, Menzel S, Wouters D J and Waser R 2020 IEEE International Memory Workshop (IMW), 17–20 May 2020, Dresden, Germany, p. 1
[121] Raghavan N, Pey K L, Frey D D and Bosman M 2014 IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium, June 1–5, 2014, Waikoloa, HI, USA, p. MY.9.1
[122] Lu Y, Chen B, Gao B, Fang Z, Fu Y H and Yang J Q 2012 IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS), Apirl 15–19, 2012, Anaheim, CA, USA, p. MY.4.1–MY.4.4
[123] Lv H B, Xu X X, Liu H T, Liu R Y, Liu Q, Banerjee W, Sun H, Long S, Li L and Liu M and Banerjee W 2015 Scientific Reports 5 7764
[124] Lin Y H, Ho Y H, Lee M H, Wang C H, Lin Y Y, Lee F M, Hsu K C, Tseng P H, Lee D Y, Chiang K H, Wang K C, Tseng T Y and Lu C Y 2017 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), December 2–6, 2017, San Francisco, CA, USA, p. 2.5.1
[125] Chen Y Y, Roelofs R, Redolfi A, Degraeve R, Crotti D and Fantini A 2014 Symposium on VLSI Technology (VLSI-Technology): Digest of Technical Papers, June 9–12, 2014, Honolulu, HI, USA, p. 1
[126] Lee H Y, Chen Y S, Chen P S, Gu P Y, Hsu Y Y and Wang S M 2010 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), December 6–8, 2010, San Francisco, CA, USA, p. 19.7.1
[127] Chen B, Lu, Gao B, Fu Y H, Zhang F F and Huang P 2011 International Electron Devices Meeting Technical Digest, December 5–7, 2011, Washington, DC, USA, p. 12.3.1
[128] Chang Y F, O’Donnell J A, Acosta T, Kotlyar R, Chen A, Quintero P A, Strutt N, Golonzka O, Connor C and Hicks J 2020 IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS), 28 April–30 May 2020, Dallas, TX, USA, USA, p. 1
[129] Gao B, Kang J F, Zhang H W, Sun B, Chen B and Liu L F 2010 Proceedings of the European Solid State Device Research Conference, September 14–16, 2010, Sevilla, Spain, p. 392
[130] Gao B, Zhang H W, Chen B, Liu L F, Liu X Y and Han R Q 2011 IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32 276
[131] Wei Z, Takagi T, Kanzawa Y, Katoh Y, Ninomiya T and Kawai K 2012 4th IEEE International Memory Workshop, May 20–23, 2012, Milan, Italy, p. 1
[132] Chen C Y, Fantini A, Degraeve R, Redolfi A, Groeseneken G, Goux L and Kar G S 2016 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), December 3–7, 2016, San Francisco, CA, USA, p. 4.6.1
[133] Zhao Y Q, Xu J, Yang J, Xue X Y, Lin Y Y and Sim J 2016 in IEEE International Symposium on Circuits & Systems, March 22–25, 2016, Montreal, QC, Canada, p. 2807
[134] Wang W, Yang H, Zhuo V Y, Li M, Chua E K and Yu J 2016 in International Symposium on VLSI Technology, Systems and Application, Apirl 25–27, 2016, Hsinchu, Taiwan, p. 1–2
[135] Xu X X, Lv H B, Liu H T, Gong T C, Wang G M and Zhang M Y 2015 IEEE Electron Device Lett. 36 129
[136] Cheng C H, Chin A and Yeh F S 2010 Symposium on VLSI Technology, June 15–17, 2010, Honolulu, HI, USA, p. 85
[137] Yu S, Chen H Y, Deng Y, Gao B, Jiang Z and Kang J 2013 Symposium on VLSI Technology (VLSIT), June 11–13, 2013, Kyoto, Japan, p. T158
[138] Sakamoto T, Tada M, Banno N, Tsuji Y, Saitoh Y and Yabe Y 2009 Symposium on VLSI Technology, June 15–17, 2009, Kyoto, Japan, p. 130
[139] Joo W, Lee J H, Choi S M, Kim H D and Kim S 2016 Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 16 11391
[140] Lee S R, Kim Y B, Chang M, Kim K M, Lee C B and Hur J H 2012 Symposium on VLSI Technology (VLSIT), June 12–14, 2012, Honolulu, HI, USA, p. 71
[141] Tsai C L, Xiong F, Pop E and Shim M 2013 ACS Nano 7 5360
[142] Li H, Chen H Y, Chen Z, Chen B, Liu R and Qiu G 2014 IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium, June 1–5, 2014,Waikoloa, HI, USA, p. MY.3.1
[143] Zhirnov V V, Meade R, Cavin R K and Sandhu G 2011 Nanotechnology 22 254027
[144] Govoreanu B, Kar G, Chen Y, Paraschiv V, Kubicek S and Fantini A 2011 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), December 5–7, 2011, Washington, DC, USA, p. 31.6.1
[145] Lee M J, Han S, Jeon S H, Park B H, Kang B S and Ahn S E 2009 Nano Lett. 9 1476
[146] Woźniak S, Pantazi A, Sidler S, Papandreou N, Leblebici Y and Eleftheriou E 2017 IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems Ⅱ: Express Briefs 64 1342
[147] Mead C 1990 Proc. IEEE 78 1629
[148] Suri M, Bichler O, Querlioz D, Cueto O, Perniola L and Sousa V 2011 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), December 5–7, 2011, Washington, DC, USA, p. 4.4.1
[149] Pickett M D, Medeiros-Ribeiro G and Williams R S 2013 Nat. Mater. 12 114
[150] Woo J, Moon K, Song J, Kwak M, Park J and Hwang H 2016 IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 63 5064
[151] Yu S M, Gao B, Fang Z, Yu H, Kang J and Wong H S P 2013 Adv. Mater. 25 1774
[152] Kuzum D, Yu S and Wong H S P 2013 Nanotechnology 24 382001
[153] Li Y, Zhong Y P, Zhang J J, Xu L, Wang Q, Sun H J, Tong H, Cheng X M and Miao X S 2014 Scientific Reports 4 4906
[154] Chen L, Wang T Y, Dai Y W, Cha M Y, Zhu H, Sun Q Q, Ding S J, Zhou P, Chua L and Zhang D W 2018 Nanoscale 10 15826
[155] Oh S, Kim T, Kwak M, Song J, Woo J, Jeon S, Yoo I K and Hwang H S 2017 IEEE Electron Device Lett. 38 732
[156] Zhao W, Agnus G, Derycke V, Filoramo A, Bourgoin J and Gamrat C 2010 Nanotechnology 21 175202
[157] Tanaka H, Akai-Kasaya M, TermehYousefi A, Hong L, Fu L X, Tamukoh H, Tanaka D, Asai T and Ogawa T 2018 Nat. Commun. 9 1
[158] Kim K, Chen C L, Truong Q, Shen A M and Chen Y 2013 Adv. Mater. 25 1693
[159] Chang T, Jo S H and Lu W 2011 ACS Nano 5 7669
[160] Ohno T, Hasegawa T, Tsuruoka T, Terabe K, Gimzewski J K and Aono M 2011 Nat. Mater. 10 591
[161] Woo J, Moon K, Song J, Lee S, Kwak M, Park J, Hwang H 2016 IEEE Electron Device Lett. 37 994
[162] Suri M, Bichler O, Querlioz D, Palma G, Vianello E and Vuillaume A 2012 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), December 10–13, 2012, San Francisco, CA, USA, p. 10.3.1
[163] Tosson A M, Yu S, Anis M H and Wei L 2017 IEEE Computer Society Annual Symposium on VLSI (ISVLSI), July 3–5, 2017, Bochum, Germany, p. 62
[164] Lee W, Park J, Kim S, Woo J, Shin J and Lee D 2012 Appl. Phys. Lett. 100 142106
[165] Abbott L F and Nelson S B 2000 Nature Neuroscience 3 1178
[166] Ambrogio S, Balatti S, Milo V, Carboni R, Wang Z Q, Calderon A, Ramaswamy N and Ielmini D 2016 IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 63 1508
[167] Padovani A, Woo J, Hwang H and Larcher L 2018 IEEE Electron Device Lett. 39 672
[168] Dan Y and Poo M M 2004 Neuron 44 23
[169] Bi G Q, Poo M M 1998 The Journal of Neuroscience 18 10464
[170] Jeong D S, Kim I, Ziegler M and Kohlstedt H 2013 RSC Advances 3 3169
[171] Yan X B, Zhao J H, Liu S, Zhou Z Y, Qi L, Chen J S and Liu X Y 2018 Advanced Functional Materials 28 1705320
[172] Yang X, Cai Y, Zhang Z X, Yu M X and Huang R 2015 15th NonVolatile Memory Technology Symposium (NVMTS), October 12–14, 2015, Beijng, China, p. 1
[173] Sung C, Lim S, Kim H, Kim T, Moon K, Song J, Kim J J and Hwang H 2018 Nanotechnology 29 115203
[174] Zeng F, Li S Z, Yang J, Pan F and Guo D 2014 RSC Advances 4 14822
[175] Rubin D C, Hinton S and Wenzel A 1999 Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 25 1161
[176] Park S, Sheri A, Kim J, Noh J, Jang J and Jeon M 2013 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) Technical Digest, December 9–11, 2013, Washington, DC, USA, p. 25.6.1
[177] Lim S, Kwak M and Hwang H 2019 Nanotechnology 30 455201
[178] Sakellaropoulos D, Bousoulas P, Nikas G, Arvanitis C and Tsoukalas D 2020 Microelectronic Engineering 229 111358
[179] Ryu H and Kim S 2020 Nanomaterials 10 1550
[180] Pan W Q, Chen J, Kuang R, Li Y, He Y H, Feng G R, Duan N, Chang T C and Miao X S 2020 IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 67 895
[181] Yu S M, Li Z W, Chen P Y, Wu H Q, Gao B, Wang D L, Wu W and Qian H 2016 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), December 3–7, 2016, San Francisco, CA, USA, p. 16.2.1
[182] Zamarreño-Ramos C, Camuñas-Mesa L A, Pérez-Carrasco J A, Masquelier T, Serrano-Gotarredona T and Linares-Barranco B 2011 Frontiers in Neuroscience 5 26
[183] Bayat F M, Prezioso M, Chakrabarti B Nili H, Kataeva I and Strukov D 2018 Nat. Commun. 9 2331
[184] Yao P, Wu H Q, Gao B, Tang J S, Zhang Q T, Zhang W Q, Yang J J and Qian H 2020 Nature 577 641
[185] Wang I T, Lin Y C, Wang Y F, Hsu C W and Hou T H 2014 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), December 15–17, 2014, San Francisco, CA, USA, p. 28.5.1
[186] Wang I T, Chang C C, Chiu L W, Chou T and Hou T H 2016 Nanotechnology 27 36
[187] Wang T Y, Meng J L, Chen L, Zhu H, Sun Q Q, Ding S J, Bao W Z and Zhang D W 2020 InfoMat 1
[188] Li Z W, Chen P Y, Xu H and Yu S M 2017 IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 64 6
[189] Li H T, Li K S, Lin C H, Hsu J L, Chiu W C, Chen M C, Wu T T, Sohn J, Eryilmaz S B, Shieh J M, Yeh W K and Philip Wong H S 2016 IEEE Symposium on VLSI Technology, June 14–16, 2016, Honolulu, HI, USA, 2016, p. 1
[190] An H Y, Ehsan M A, Zhou Z and Yi Y 2017 International Symposium on Quality Electronic Design, March 14–15, 2017, Santa Clara, CA, USA, 2017, p. 1
[191] Kim B and Li H 2020 IEEE Computer Society Annual Symposium on VLSI (ISVLSI), July 6–8, 2020, Limassol, Cyprus, Cyprus, 2020, p. 258
[192] Prezioso M, Merrikh-Bayat F, Hoskins B, Adam G, Likharev K K and Strukov D B 2015 Nature 521 61
[193] Likharev K K and Strukov D B 2005 Introducing Molecular Electronics (Springer) p. 447
[194] DeHon A and Likharev K K 2005 Proceedings of the IEEE/ACM International conference on Computer-aided design, November 6–10, 2005, San Jose, CA, USA, p. 375
[195] Likharev K K 2007 Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B 25 2531
[196] Borghetti J, Li Z, Straznicky J, Li X, Ohlberg D A and Wu W 2009 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106 1699
[197] Tu D, Liu M, Wang W and Haruehanroengra S 2007 Micro & Nano Lett. 2 40
[198] Strukov D B and Likharev K K 2005 Nanotechnology 16 137
[199] Strukov D B and Likharev K K 2006 Proceedings of the ACM/SIGDA 14th International Symposium on Field Programmable Gate Arrays, p. 131–140
[200] Zhong Z, Wang D, Cui Y, Bockrath M W and Lieber C M 2003 Science 302 1377
[201] Chen Y, Jung G Y, Ohlberg D A, Li X, Stewart D R and Jeppesen J O 2003 Nanotechnology 14 462
[202] Choudhury A and Sikdar B K 2017 in International Symposium on VLSI Design and Test June 29–July 2, 2017, Roorkee, India, p. 217
[203] Strukov D B and Likharev K K 2007 Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 7 151
[204] Xia Q, Robinett W, Cumbie M W, Banerjee N, Cardinali T J and Yang J J 2009 Nano Lett. 9 3640
[205] Madhavan A, Sherwood T and Strukov D B 2018 IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems 26 2759
[206] Cheng K T T and Strukov D B 2012 Proceedings of the ACM International Symposium on International Symposium on Physical Design, p. 33
[207] Prezioso M, Zhong Y, Gavrilov D, Merrikh-Bayat F, Hoskins B, Adam G, Likharev K and Strukov D 2016 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), May 22–25, 2016, Montreal, QC, Canada, p. 177
[208] Likharev K K 2009 AAAI Fall Symposium Series p. 90
[1] Complex network perspective on modelling chaotic systems via machine learning
Tong-Feng Weng(翁同峰), Xin-Xin Cao(曹欣欣), and Hui-Jie Yang(杨会杰). Chin. Phys. B, 2021, 30(6): 060506.
[2] Degradation of β-Ga2O3 Schottky barrier diode under swift heavy ion irradiation
Wen-Si Ai(艾文思), Jie Liu(刘杰), Qian Feng(冯倩), Peng-Fei Zhai(翟鹏飞), Pei-Pei Hu(胡培培), Jian Zeng(曾健), Sheng-Xia Zhang(张胜霞), Zong-Zhen Li(李宗臻), Li Liu(刘丽), Xiao-Yu Yan(闫晓宇), and You-Mei Sun(孙友梅). Chin. Phys. B, 2021, 30(5): 056110.
[3] Digital and analog memory devices based on 2D layered MPS3 ( M=Mn, Co, Ni) materials
Guihua Zhao(赵贵华), Li Wang(王力), Xi Ke(柯曦), and Zhiyi Yu(虞志益). Chin. Phys. B, 2021, 30(4): 047303.
[4] A proposal for preparation of cluster states with linear optics
Le Ju(鞠乐), Ming Yang(杨名), and Peng Xue(薛鹏). Chin. Phys. B, 2021, 30(3): 030306.
[5] Selected topics of quantum computing for nuclear physics
Dan-Bo Zhang(张旦波), Hongxi Xing(邢宏喜), Hui Yan(颜辉), Enke Wang(王恩科), and Shi-Liang Zhu(朱诗亮). Chin. Phys. B, 2021, 30(2): 020306.
[6] Fabrication of Josephson parameter amplifier and its applicationin squeezing vacuum fluctuations
Pengtao Song(宋鹏涛), Xueyi Guo(郭学仪), Kai Xu(许凯), Xiaohui Song(宋小会), Zhan Wang(王战), Zhongcheng Xiang(相忠诚), Hekang Li(李贺康), Luhong Su(苏鹭红), Yirong Jin(金贻荣), and Dongning Zheng(郑东宁). Chin. Phys. B, 2021, 30(12): 128502.
[7] Realizing Majorana fermion modes in the Kitaev model
Lu Yang(杨露), Jia-Xing Zhang(张佳星), Shuang Liang(梁爽), Wei Chen(陈薇), and Qiang-Hua Wang(王强华). Chin. Phys. B, 2021, 30(11): 117504.
[8] Fabrication and characterization of superconducting multiqubit device with niobium base layer
Feifan Su(宿非凡), Zhaohua Yang(杨钊华), Shoukuan Zhao(赵寿宽), Haisheng Yan(严海生), Ziting Wang(王子婷), Xiaohui Song(宋小会), Ye Tian(田野), and Shiping Zhao(赵士平). Chin. Phys. B, 2021, 30(10): 100304.
[9] Review of resistive switching mechanisms for memristive neuromorphic devices
Rui Yang(杨蕊). Chin. Phys. B, 2020, 29(9): 097305.
[10] Silicon-based optoelectronic synaptic devices
Lei Yin(尹蕾), Xiaodong Pi(皮孝东), Deren Yang(杨德仁). Chin. Phys. B, 2020, 29(7): 070703.
[11] In-memory computing to break the memory wall
Xiaohe Huang(黄晓合), Chunsen Liu(刘春森), Yu-Gang Jiang(姜育刚), Peng Zhou(周鹏). Chin. Phys. B, 2020, 29(7): 078504.
[12] Effect of AlGaN interlayer on luminous efficiency and reliability of GaN-based green LEDs on silicon substrate
Jiao-Xin Guo(郭娇欣), Jie Ding(丁杰), Chun-Lan Mo(莫春兰), Chang-Da Zheng(郑畅达), Shuan Pan(潘拴), Feng-Yi Jiang(江风益). Chin. Phys. B, 2020, 29(4): 047303.
[13] Optoelectronic memristor for neuromorphic computing
Wuhong Xue(薛武红), Wenjuan Ci(次文娟), Xiao-Hong Xu(许小红), Gang Liu(刘钢). Chin. Phys. B, 2020, 29(4): 048401.
[14] Investigation of gate oxide traps effect on NAND flash memory by TCAD simulation
He-Kun Zhang(章合坤), Xuan Tian(田璇), Jun-Peng He(何俊鹏), Zhe Song(宋哲), Qian-Qian Yu(蔚倩倩), Liang Li(李靓), Ming Li(李明), Lian-Cheng Zhao(赵连城), Li-Ming Gao(高立明). Chin. Phys. B, 2020, 29(3): 038501.
[15] Reliability of organic light-emitting diodes in low-temperature environment
Saihu Pan(潘赛虎), Zhiqiang Zhu(朱志强), Kangping Liu(刘康平), Hang Yu(于航), Yingjie Liao(廖英杰), Bin Wei(魏斌), Redouane Borsali, and Kunping Guo(郭坤平). Chin. Phys. B, 2020, 29(12): 128503.
No Suggested Reading articles found!