Please wait a minute...
Chin. Phys. B, 2015, Vol. 24(6): 068105    DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/24/6/068105
Special Issue: TOPICAL REVIEW — III-nitride optoelectronic materials and devices
TOPICAL REVIEW—III-nitride optoelectronic materials and devices Prev   Next  

Transient thermal analysis as measurement method for IC package structural integrity

Alexander Hanß, Maximilian Schmid, E Liu, Gordon Elger
Technische Hochschule Ingolstadt, Esplanade 10, 85049 Ingolstadt, Germany
Abstract  

Practices of IC package reliability testing are reviewed briefly, and the application of transient thermal analysis is examined in great depth. For the design of light sources based on light emitting diode (LED) efficient and accurate reliability testing is required to realize the potential lifetimes of 10^5 h. Transient thermal analysis is a standard method to determine the transient thermal impedance of semiconductor devices, e.g. power electronics and LEDs. The temperature of the semiconductor junctions is assessed by time-resolved measurement of their forward voltage (Vf). The thermal path in the IC package is resolved by the transient technique in the time domain. This enables analyzing the structural integrity of the semiconductor package. However, to evaluate thermal resistance, one must also measure the dissipated energy of the device (i.e., the thermal load) and the k-factor. This is time consuming, and measurement errors reduce the accuracy. To overcome these limitations, an innovative approach, the relative thermal resistance method, was developed to reduce the measurement effort, increase accuracy and enable automatic data evaluation. This new way of evaluating data simplifies the thermal transient analysis by eliminating measurement of the k-factor and thermal load, i.e. measurement of the lumen flux for LEDs, by normalizing the transient Vf data. This is especially advantageous for reliability testing where changes in the thermal path, like cracks and delaminations, can be determined without measuring the k-factor and thermal load. Different failure modes can be separated in the time domain. The sensitivity of the method is demonstrated by its application to high-power white InGaN LEDs. For detailed analysis and identification of the failure mode of the LED packages, the transient signals are simulated by time-resolved finite element (FE) simulations. Using the new approach, the transient thermal analysis is enhanced to a powerful tool for reliability investigation of semiconductor packages in accelerated lifetime tests and for inline inspection. This enables automatic data analysis of the transient thermal data required for processing a large amount of data in production and reliability testing. Based on the method, the integrity of LED packages can be tested by inline, outgoing inspection and the lifetime prediction of the products is improved.

Keywords:  transient thermal analysis      thermal resistance      reliability      light emitting diode  
Received:  09 January 2015      Revised:  28 March 2015      Accepted manuscript online: 
PACS:  81.70.Pg (Thermal analysis, differential thermal analysis (DTA), differential thermogravimetric analysis)  
  81.05.Ea (III-V semiconductors)  
  44.10.+i (Heat conduction)  
  85.60.Bt (Optoelectronic device characterization, design, and modeling)  
Corresponding Authors:  Gordon Elger     E-mail:  Gordon.Elger@thi.de
About author:  81.70.Pg; 81.05.Ea; 44.10.+i; 85.60.Bt

Cite this article: 

Alexander Hanß, Maximilian Schmid, E Liu, Gordon Elger Transient thermal analysis as measurement method for IC package structural integrity 2015 Chin. Phys. B 24 068105

[1] Schubert E 2006 Light Emitting Diodes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)
[2] Morkoç H 2008 "Light-Emitting Diodes and Lighting", in Handbook of Nitride Semiconductors and Devices: GaN-Based Optical and Electronic Devices, Vol. 3 (Weinheim: Wiley-VCH Verlag)
[3] Khanna V K 2014 Fundamentals of Solid State Lighting: LEDs, OLEDs, and Their Application in Illumination (Boca Raton: CRC Press)
[4] Siegel B S 1978 Electronics 5 1121
[5] Sofia W 1995 IEEE Trans. Comp. Pack. Manuf. 18 39
[6] Oettinger F F and Blackburn D I 1990 Thermal Resistance Measurements, NIST Special Publication 400-86 from Series on Semiconductor Measurement Technology
[7] Rencz M 2003 Microelectron. J. 34 171
[8] Shan Q, Dai Q, Chhajed S, Cho J and Schuberta E F 2010 J. Appl. Phys. 108 084504
[9] Department Of Defense Test Method Standard MIL-STD-750-3 (310 series) 2012 Transistor Electrical Test Methods for Semiconductor Devices
[10] JEDEC Solid State Technology Association (JEDEC Standard) 2010 JESD51-14 Transient Dual Interface Test Method
[11] Elger G, Lauterbach R, Dankwart K and Zilkens C 2011 Proc. IEEE Electronic Components and Technology Conference, May 31-June 3, USA, Lake Buena Vista, p. 1649
[12] Dannerbauer T and Zahner T 2013 Proceedings of the 19th International Workshop on Thermal Investigations of ICs and Systems, 25-27 September, Berlin, Germany, p. 172
[13] Elger G, Kandaswamy S V, Derix R and Wilde J 2014 J. Microelectron. Electron. Pack. 11 51
[14] Raut R, Bhatkal R, Bent W, Singh B, Chegudi S, Pandher R, Kolbe J and Misra S 2011 Proceedings of the Pan Pacific Microelectronic Symposium, January 18-20, Hawaii, USA, p. 213
[15] Lienhard J H IV and Lienhard J H V 2008 A Heat Transfer Textbook (Cambridge/Massachusetts: Phlogistron Press)
[16] Xi Y and Schubert E F 2004 Appl. Phys. Lett. 85 2163
[17] Xi Y, Xi J Q, Gessmann T, Shah J M, Kim J K, Schubert E F, Fischer A J, Crawford M H, K. Bogart K H and Allerman A A 2005 Appl. Phys. Lett. 86 031907
[18] Lee Y S, Senthil Kumar M, Cuong T V, Park J Y, Ryu J H, Chung S J, Hong C H and Suhy E K 2009 J. Korean Phys. Soc. 54 140
[19] Carslaw H S and Jaeger J C 1959 Conduction of Heat in Solids (Oxford: Clarendon Press)
[20] Taler J and Duda P 2006 Solving of Direct and Inverse Problem of Heat Conduction (Berlin: Springer-Verlag)
[21] Strickland P R 1959 IBM J. Res. Develop. p. 35
[22] Oliveti G, Piccirillo and Bagnoli P E 1997 Microelectron. J. 28 293
[23] Pascolia S, Bagnolia P E and Casarosa C 1999 Microelectron. J. 30 1129
[24] Bagnoli P E, Casarosa C, Ciampi M and Dallago E 1998 IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 13 1208
[25] Guillemin E A 1957 Synthesis of Passive Networks (New York: John Wiley)
[26] Protonotarios E A and Wing O 1967 IEEE Trans. Circ. Theory 14 2
[27] Schweitzer D 2010 Proceedings of the Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium, 26th IEEE SEMI-THERM Symposium, 21-25 February, 2010, Santa Clara, p. 151
[28] Sofia J W and Kaveh A (eds.) 1997 Thermal Measurements in Electronics Cooling (Boca Raton: CRC Press) p. 387
[29] Elger G, Willwohl H and Schugg J 2012 IEEE Electronic Netherlands System Technology Conference, 17-20 September, Amsterdam, Netherlands
[30] Vass-Varnai A, Sarkany Z, Szel A and Rencz M 2014 Prodeeding of the International Conference of Electronic Packaging, 23-25 April, 2014, Toyama, Japan
[31] Daiminger F C, Gruber M, Dendorfer C and Zahner T 2014 Proceedings of the 20th International Workshop on Thermal Investigations of ICs and Systems, 24-26 September, 2014, Greenwich, UK
[32] Kloss A and Käning M 2014 Proceedings of the 20th International Workshop on Thermal Investigations of ICs and Systems, 24-26 September, 2014, Greenwich, UK
[33] Elger G, Kandaswamy S V, van Kouwen M, Derix R and Conti F 2014 Proceedings of the IEEE Electronic Components and Technology Conference, 27-30 May 2014, Orlando, USA
[34] Zhao X J, Caers J F J M, Noijen S, Zhong Y, De Jong M, Gijsbers A, Elger G and Willwohl H J 2012 IEEE Electronic System Technology Conference, 17-20 September, 2012, Amsterdam, Netherlands
[1] Resistive switching memory for high density storage and computing
Xiao-Xin Xu(许晓欣), Qing Luo(罗庆), Tian-Cheng Gong(龚天成), Hang-Bing Lv(吕杭炳), Qi Liu(刘琦), and Ming Liu(刘明). Chin. Phys. B, 2021, 30(5): 058702.
[2] Degradation of β-Ga2O3 Schottky barrier diode under swift heavy ion irradiation
Wen-Si Ai(艾文思), Jie Liu(刘杰), Qian Feng(冯倩), Peng-Fei Zhai(翟鹏飞), Pei-Pei Hu(胡培培), Jian Zeng(曾健), Sheng-Xia Zhang(张胜霞), Zong-Zhen Li(李宗臻), Li Liu(刘丽), Xiao-Yu Yan(闫晓宇), and You-Mei Sun(孙友梅). Chin. Phys. B, 2021, 30(5): 056110.
[3] Effect of AlGaN interlayer on luminous efficiency and reliability of GaN-based green LEDs on silicon substrate
Jiao-Xin Guo(郭娇欣), Jie Ding(丁杰), Chun-Lan Mo(莫春兰), Chang-Da Zheng(郑畅达), Shuan Pan(潘拴), Feng-Yi Jiang(江风益). Chin. Phys. B, 2020, 29(4): 047303.
[4] Investigation of gate oxide traps effect on NAND flash memory by TCAD simulation
He-Kun Zhang(章合坤), Xuan Tian(田璇), Jun-Peng He(何俊鹏), Zhe Song(宋哲), Qian-Qian Yu(蔚倩倩), Liang Li(李靓), Ming Li(李明), Lian-Cheng Zhao(赵连城), Li-Ming Gao(高立明). Chin. Phys. B, 2020, 29(3): 038501.
[5] Reliability of organic light-emitting diodes in low-temperature environment
Saihu Pan(潘赛虎), Zhiqiang Zhu(朱志强), Kangping Liu(刘康平), Hang Yu(于航), Yingjie Liao(廖英杰), Bin Wei(魏斌), Redouane Borsali, and Kunping Guo(郭坤平). Chin. Phys. B, 2020, 29(12): 128503.
[6] Thermal resistance matrix representation of thermal effects and thermal design of microwave power HBTs with two-dimensional array layout
Rui Chen(陈蕊), Dong-Yue Jin(金冬月), Wan-Rong Zhang(张万荣), Li-Fan Wang(王利凡), Bin Guo(郭斌), Hu Chen(陈虎), Ling-Han Yin(殷凌寒), Xiao-Xue Jia(贾晓雪). Chin. Phys. B, 2019, 28(9): 098502.
[7] Near-infrared lead chalcogenide quantum dots: Synthesis and applications in light emitting diodes
Haochen Liu(刘皓宸), Huaying Zhong(钟华英), Fankai Zheng(郑凡凯), Yue Xie(谢阅), Depeng Li(李德鹏), Dan Wu(吴丹), Ziming Zhou(周子明), Xiao-Wei Sun(孙小卫), Kai Wang(王恺). Chin. Phys. B, 2019, 28(12): 128504.
[8] Current diffusion and efficiency droop in vertical light emitting diodes
R Q Wan(万荣桥), T Li(李滔), Z Q Liu(刘志强), X Y Yi(伊晓燕), J X Wang(王军喜), J H Li(李军辉), W H Zhu(朱文辉), J M Li(李晋闽), L C Wang(汪炼成). Chin. Phys. B, 2019, 28(1): 017203.
[9] Characteristic improvements of thin film AlGaInP red light emitting diodes on a metallic substrate
Bin Zhao(赵斌), Wei Hu(胡巍), Xian-Sheng Tang(唐先胜), Wen-Xue Huo(霍雯雪), Li-Li Han(韩丽丽), Ming-Long Zhao(赵明龙), Zi-Guang Ma(马紫光), Wen-Xin Wang(王文新), Hai-Qiang Jia(贾海强), Hong Chen(陈弘). Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27(4): 047803.
[10] Thermal transport in phosphorene and phosphorene-based materials: A review on numerical studies
Yang Hong(洪扬), Jingchao Zhang(张景超), Xiao Cheng Zeng(曾晓成). Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27(3): 036501.
[11] Accomplishment and challenge of materials database toward big data
Yibin Xu(徐一斌). Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27(11): 118901.
[12] Improvement of electro-optic performances in white organic light emitting diodes with color stability by buffer layer and multiple dopants structure
Zhi-Qi Kou(寇志起), Yu Tang(唐宇), Li-Ping Yang(杨丽萍), Fei-Yu Yang(杨飞宇), Wen-Jun Guo(郭文军). Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27(10): 107801.
[13] Optical properties of wavelength-tunable green-emitting color conversion glass ceramics
Yang Li(李杨), Li-Li Hu(胡丽丽), Bo-Bo Yang(杨波波), Ming-Ming Shi(石明明), Jun Zou(邹军). Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26(12): 128103.
[14] Low power fluorine plasma effects on electrical reliability of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor
Ling Yang(杨凌), Xiao-Wei Zhou(周小伟), Xiao-Hua Ma(马晓华), Ling Lv(吕玲), Yan-Rong Cao(曹艳荣), Jin-Cheng Zhang(张进成), Yue Hao(郝跃). Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26(1): 017304.
[15] Two-color light-emitting diodes with polarization-sensitive high extraction efficiency based on graphene
H Sattarian, S Shojaei, E Darabi. Chin. Phys. B, 2016, 25(5): 058504.
No Suggested Reading articles found!