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Chin. Phys. B, 2023, Vol. 32(2): 024211    DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/ac7860

Asymmetrical spiral spectra and orbital angular momentum density of non-uniformly polarized vortex beams in uniaxial crystals

Ling-Yun Shu(舒凌云), Ke Cheng(程科), Sai Liao(廖赛), Meng-Ting Liang(梁梦婷), and Ceng-Hao Yang(杨嶒浩)
College of Optoelectronic Technology, Chengdu University of Information Technology, Chengdu 610225, China
Abstract  To explore the effect of non-uniform polarization on orbital angular momentum (OAM) in anisotropic medium, in this work investigated are the evolution of the spiral spectra and OAM densities of non-uniformly polarized vortex (NUPV) beams in uniaxial crystals propagating orthogonal to the optical axis, and also the case of uniformly polarized vortex (UPV) beams with left-handed elliptical polarization. In the input plane, the NUPV beams present their spiral spectra of $m$-mode concentrated at $m=l\pm 1$ modes rather than $m=l$ mode, and reveal the relation among topological charge $l$, mode of spiral spectra $m$ and the power weight value $R_{m}$ expressed by $l=\sum_{m=-\infty }^\infty {mR_{m} } $. The relation $l=\sum_{m=-\infty }^\infty {mR_{m} } $ is still satisfied for UPV beams in uniaxially anisotropic crystals, whereas for NUPV beams their relations are no longer valid owing to non-uniform polarization. Furthermore, the analysis indicates that the asymmetrical distribution of power weight of spiral spectra and the non-zero value in the sum of longitudinal OAM densities originate from the initial non-uniform polarization and anisotropy in uniaxial crystals rather than topological charges. In addition, the relation between spiral spectrum and longitudinal OAM density is numerically discussed. This work may provide an avenue for OAM-based communications, optical metrology, and imaging by varying the initial non-uniform polarization.
Keywords:  non-uniformly polarized beams      spiral spectrum      spin angular momentum      orbital angular momentum      vortex  
Received:  17 March 2022      Revised:  18 May 2022      Accepted manuscript online:  14 June 2022
PACS:  42.55.-f (Lasers)  
  42.81.Gs (Birefringence, polarization)  
  42.68.Ay (Propagation, transmission, attenuation, and radiative transfer)  
  42.50.Tx (Optical angular momentum and its quantum aspects)  
Fund: Project supported by the Science and Technology Program of Sichuan Province, China (Grant No. 23NSFSC1097).
Corresponding Authors:  Ke Cheng     E-mail:

Cite this article: 

Ling-Yun Shu(舒凌云), Ke Cheng(程科), Sai Liao(廖赛), Meng-Ting Liang(梁梦婷), and Ceng-Hao Yang(杨嶒浩) Asymmetrical spiral spectra and orbital angular momentum density of non-uniformly polarized vortex beams in uniaxial crystals 2023 Chin. Phys. B 32 024211

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