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Chin. Phys. B, 2021, Vol. 30(6): 068103    DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/abdb1f

Understanding the synergistic effect of mixed solvent annealing on perovskite film formation

Kun Qian(钱昆)1, Yu Li(李渝)1,†, Jingnan Song(宋静楠)2, Jazib Ali1, Ming Zhang(张明)2, Lei Zhu(朱磊)2, Hong Ding(丁虹)2, Junzhe Zhan(詹俊哲)1, and Wei Feng(冯威)3
1 School of Physics and Astronomy and Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA(CICIFSA), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China;
2 Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China;
3 State Key Laboratory of Fluorinated Materials, Zibo 256401, China
Abstract  Morphology control of perovskite films is of critical importance for high-performance photovoltaic devices. Although solvent vapor annealing (SVA) treatment has been widely used to improve the film quality efficiently, the detailed mechanism of film growth is still under construction, and there is still no consensus on the selection of solvents and volume for further optimization. Here, a series of solvents (DMF, DMSO, mixed DMF/DMSO) were opted for exploring their impact on fundamental structural and physical properties of perovskite films and the performance of corresponding devices. Mixed solvent SVA treatment resulted in unique benefits that integrated the advantages of each solvent, generating a champion device efficiency of 19.76% with improved humidity and thermal stability. The crystallization mechanism was constructed by conducting grazing-incidence wide-angle x-ray diffraction (GIWAXS) characterizations, showing that dissolution and recrystallization dominated the film formation. A proper choice of solvent and its volume balancing the two processes thus afforded the desired perovskite film. This study reveals the underlying process of film formation, paving the way to producing energy-harvesting materials in a controlled manner towards energy-efficient and stable perovskite-based devices.
Keywords:  perovskite solar cell      solvent vapor annealing      dissolution      recrystallization  
Received:  10 December 2020      Revised:  07 January 2021      Accepted manuscript online:  13 January 2021
PACS:  81.15.-z (Methods of deposition of films and coatings; film growth and epitaxy)  
  81.10.-h (Methods of crystal growth; physics and chemistry of crystal growth, crystal morphology, and orientation)  
  81.15.Aa (Theory and models of film growth)  
  81.15.Aa (Theory and models of film growth)  
Fund: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 21734009, 51473009, 21225209, 91427303, and 61805138). Portions of this research were carried out at beamline 7.3.3 at the Advanced Light Source, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, which was supported by the DOE, Office of Science, and Office of Basic Energy Sciences.
Corresponding Authors:  Yu Li     E-mail:

Cite this article: 

Kun Qian(钱昆), Yu Li(李渝), Jingnan Song(宋静楠), Jazib Ali, Ming Zhang(张明), Lei Zhu(朱磊), Hong Ding(丁虹), Junzhe Zhan(詹俊哲), and Wei Feng(冯威) Understanding the synergistic effect of mixed solvent annealing on perovskite film formation 2021 Chin. Phys. B 30 068103

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