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Chin. Phys. B, 2018, Vol. 27(8): 087401    DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/8/087401

Characterization of ion irradiated silicon surfaces ablated by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

T Iqbal1, M Abrar2, M B Tahir1, M Seemab1, A Majid1, S Rafique3
1 Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Gujrat, Hafiz Hayat Campus, 50700, Gujrat, Pakistan;
2 Department of Physics, Hazara University Mansehra, KP, 45300, Pakistan;
3 Department of Physics, University of Engineering and Technology(UET), Lahore, Pakistan
Abstract  Low energy metallic ions, generated by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064-nm wavelength, 10-mJ energy, 9-nm~12-ns-pulse width, 1011 W/cm2 intensity) irradiated on a silicon substrate to modify various properties, such as electrical, morphological, and structural modifications. Thomson parabola technique is used to calculate the energy of these metallic ions whereas the electrical conductivity is calculated with the help of Four-point probe. Interestingly circular tracks forming chain like damage trails are produced via these energetic ions which are carefully examined by optical microscopy. It is observed that excitation, ionization, and cascade collisions are responsible for surface modifications of irradiated samples. Four-point probe analysis revealed that the electrical conductivity of substrate has reduced with increasing trend of atomic number of irradiated metallic ions (Al, Ti, Cu, and Au). The x-ray diffraction analysis elucidated the crystallographic changes leading to reduction of grain size of N-type silicon substrate, which is also associated with the metallic ions used. The decreasing trend of conductivity and grain size is due to thermal stresses, scattering effect, structural imperfections, and non-uniform conduction of energy absorbed by substrate atoms after the ion irradiation.
Keywords:  ablation      Thomson parabola technique      four-point probe  
Received:  30 January 2018      Revised:  23 May 2018      Published:  05 August 2018
PACS:  74.25.Kc (Phonons)  
  61.80.Ba (Ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiation effects (including laser radiation))  
  61.80.Lj (Atom and molecule irradiation effects)  
  61.82.-d (Radiation effects on specific materials)  
Corresponding Authors:  T Iqbal, M Abrar     E-mail:;

Cite this article: 

T Iqbal, M Abrar, M B Tahir, M Seemab, A Majid, S Rafique Characterization of ion irradiated silicon surfaces ablated by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy 2018 Chin. Phys. B 27 087401

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