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Chin. Phys. B, 2021, Vol. 30(2): 026103    DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/abd2a9

Characterization, spectroscopic investigation of defects by positron annihilation, and possible application of synthesized PbO nanoparticles

Sk Irsad Ali1, Anjan Das2, Apoorva Agrawal3, Shubharaj Mukherjee3, Maudud Ahmed3, P M G Nambissan3, Samiran Mandal4, and Atis Chandra Mandal1,
1 Department of Physics, University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan 713104, West Bengal, India; 2 Department of Physics, A.P.C. Roy Government College, Siliguri, Darjeeling 734010, West Bengal, India; 3 Applied Nuclear Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064, India; 4 Department of Physics, Government General Degree College at Pedong, Kalimpong 734311, West Bengal, India
Abstract  Nanocrystalline samples of highly pure lead oxide were prepared by the sol-gel route of synthesis. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopic techniques confirmed the nanocrystallinity of the samples, and the average sizes of the crystallites were found within 20 nm to 35 nm. The nanocrystallites exhibited specific anomalous properties, among which a prominent one is the increased lattice parameters and unit cell volumes. The optical band gaps also increased when the nanocrystallites became smaller in size. The latter aspect is attributable to the onset of quantum confinement effects, as seen in a few other metal oxide nanoparticles. Positron annihilation was employed to study the vacancy type defects, which were abundant in the samples and played crucial roles in modulating their properties. The defect concentrations were significantly larger in the samples of smaller crystallite sizes. The results suggested the feasibility of tailoring the properties of lead oxide nanocrystallites for technological applications, such as using lead oxide nanoparticles in batteries for better performance in discharge rate and resistance. It also provided the physical insight into the structural build-up process when crystallites were formed with a finite number of atoms, whose distributions were governed by the site stabilization energy.
Keywords:  lead oxide      nanocrystals      positron annihilation      sol-gel processes  
Received:  21 August 2020      Revised:  06 December 2020      Accepted manuscript online:  11 December 2020
PACS:  61.46.Df (Structure of nanocrystals and nanoparticles ("colloidal" quantum dots but not gate-isolated embedded quantum dots))  
  61.82.Fk (Semiconductors)  
  61.72.J- (Point defects and defect clusters)  
  78.70.Bj (Positron annihilation)  
Fund: Project supported by the University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi, India, for the departmental CAS scheme (No. F.530/5/CAS/2011(SAP-I)) and from the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Govt. of India under FIST (Fund for Improvement in Science & Technology) Program (Grant No. SR/FST/PS-II-001/2011).
Corresponding Authors:  Corresponding author. E-mail: mandal\textunderscore   

Cite this article: 

Sk Irsad Ali, Anjan Das, Apoorva Agrawal, Shubharaj Mukherjee, Maudud Ahmed, P M G Nambissan, Samiran Mandal, and Atis Chandra Mandal Characterization, spectroscopic investigation of defects by positron annihilation, and possible application of synthesized PbO nanoparticles 2021 Chin. Phys. B 30 026103

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