Not found TOPICAL REVIEW — Solid-state quantum information processing

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    Qubits based on semiconductor quantum dots
    Xin Zhang(张鑫), Hai-Ou Li(李海欧), Ke Wang(王柯), Gang Cao(曹刚), Ming Xiao(肖明), Guo-Ping Guo(郭国平)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (2): 020305.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/2/020305
    Abstract1191)   HTML    PDF (11357KB)(774)      

    Semiconductor quantum dots are promising hosts for qubits to build a quantum processor. In the last twenty years, intensive researches have been carried out and diverse kinds of qubits based on different types of semiconductor quantum dots were developed. Recent advances prove high fidelity single and two qubit gates, and even prototype quantum algorithms. These breakthroughs motivate further research on realizing a fault tolerant quantum computer. In this paper we review the main principles of various semiconductor quantum dot based qubits and the latest associated experimental results. Finally the future trends of those qubits will be discussed.

    Nuclear magnetic resonance for quantum computing: Techniques and recent achievements
    Tao Xin(辛涛), Bi-Xue Wang(王碧雪), Ke-Ren Li(李可仁), Xiang-Yu Kong(孔祥宇), Shi-Jie Wei(魏世杰), Tao Wang(王涛), Dong Ruan(阮东), Gui-Lu Long(龙桂鲁)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (2): 020308.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/2/020308
    Abstract1012)   HTML    PDF (1442KB)(998)      

    Rapid developments in quantum information processing have been made, and remarkable achievements have been obtained in recent years, both in theory and experiments. Coherent control of nuclear spin dynamics is a powerful tool for the experimental implementation of quantum schemes in liquid and solid nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) system, especially in liquid-state NMR. Compared with other quantum information processing systems, the NMR platform has the advantages such as the long coherence time, the precise manipulation, and well-developed quantum control techniques, which make it possible to accurately control a quantum system with up to 12-qubits. Extensive applications of liquid-state NMR spectroscopy in quantum information processing such as quantum communication, quantum computing, and quantum simulation have been thoroughly studied over half a century. This article introduces the general principles of NMR quantum information processing, and reviews the new-developed techniques. The review will also include the recent achievements of the experimental realization of quantum algorithms for machine learning, quantum simulations for high energy physics, and topological order in NMR. We also discuss the limitation and prospect of liquid-state NMR spectroscopy and the solid-state NMR systems as quantum computing in the article.

    Cavity optomechanics: Manipulating photons and phonons towards the single-photon strong coupling
    Yu-long Liu(刘玉龙), Chong Wang(王冲), Jing Zhang(张靖), Yu-xi Liu(刘玉玺)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (2): 024204.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/2/024204
    Abstract992)   HTML    PDF (600KB)(1033)      

    Cavity optomechanical systems provide powerful platforms to manipulate photons and phonons, open potential applications for modern optical communications and precise measurements. With the refrigeration and ground-state cooling technologies, studies of cavity optomechanics are making significant progress towards the quantum regime including nonclassical state preparation, quantum state tomography, quantum information processing, and future quantum internet. With further research, it is found that abundant physical phenomena and important applications in both classical and quantum regimes appeal as they have a strong optomechanical nonlinearity, which essentially depends on the single-photon optomechanical coupling strength. Thus, engineering the optomechanical interactions and improving the single-photon optomechanical coupling strength become very important subjects. In this article, we first review several mechanisms, theoretically proposed for enhancing optomechanical coupling. Then, we review the experimental progresses on enhancing optomechanical coupling by optimizing its structure and fabrication process. Finally, we review how to use novel structures and materials to enhance the optomechanical coupling strength. The manipulations of the photons and phonons at the level of strong optomechanical coupling are also summarized.

    Superconducting quantum bits
    Wei-Yang Liu(刘伟洋), Dong-Ning Zheng(郑东宁), Shi-Ping Zhao(赵士平)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (2): 027401.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/2/027401
    Abstract954)   HTML    PDF (2772KB)(765)      

    Superconducting quantum bits (qubits) and circuits are the leading candidate for the implementation of solid-state quantum computation. They have also been widely used in a variety of studies of quantum physics, atomic physics, quantum optics, and quantum simulation. In this article, we will present an overview of the basic principles of the superconducting qubits, including the phase, flux, charge, and transmon (Xmon) qubits, and the progress achieved so far concerning the improvements of the device design and quantum coherence property. Experimental studies in various research fields using the superconducting qubits and circuits will be briefly reviewed.

    Quantum light storage in rare-earth-ion-doped solids
    Yi-Lin Hua(华怡林), Zong-Quan Zhou(周宗权), Chuan-Feng Li(李传锋), Guang-Can Guo(郭光灿)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (2): 020303.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/2/020303
    Abstract875)   HTML    PDF (3863KB)(442)      

    The reversible transfer of unknown quantum states between light and matter is essential for constructing large-scale quantum networks. Over the last decade, various physical systems have been proposed to realize such quantum memory for light. The solid-state quantum memory based on rare-earth-ion-doped solids has the advantages of a reduced setup complexity and high robustness for scalable application. We describe the methods used to spectrally prepare the quantum memory and release the photonic excitation on-demand. We will review the state of the art experiments and discuss the perspective applications of this particular system in both quantum information science and fundamental tests of quantum physics.

    Magneto-optical properties of self-assembled InAs quantum dots for quantum information processing
    Jing Tang(唐静), Xiu-Lai Xu(许秀来)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (2): 027804.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/2/027804
    Abstract863)   HTML    PDF (2991KB)(452)      

    Semiconductor quantum dots have been intensively investigated because of their fundamental role in solid-state quantum information processing. The energy levels of quantum dots are quantized and can be tuned by external field such as optical, electric, and magnetic field. In this review, we focus on the development of magneto-optical properties of single InAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs matrix, including charge injection, relaxation, tunneling, wavefunction distribution, and coupling between different dimensional materials. Finally, the perspective of coherent manipulation of quantum state of single self-assembled quantum dots by photocurrent spectroscopy with an applied magnetic field is discussed.

    Quantum information processing with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond
    Gang-Qin Liu(刘刚钦), Xin-Yu Pan(潘新宇)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (2): 020304.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/2/020304
    Abstract795)   HTML    PDF (3246KB)(1325)      

    Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond is one of the most promising candidates to implement room temperature quantum computing. In this review, we briefly discuss the working principles and recent experimental progresses of this spin qubit. These results focus on understanding and prolonging center spin coherence, steering and probing spin states with dedicated quantum control techniques, and exploiting the quantum nature of these multi-spin systems, such as superposition and entanglement, to demonstrate the superiority of quantum information processing. Those techniques also stimulate the fast development of NV-based quantum sensing, which is an interdisciplinary field with great potential applications.

    Entangled-photons generation with quantum dots
    Yuan Li(李远), Fei Ding(丁飞), Oliver G Schmidt
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (2): 020307.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/2/020307
    Abstract637)   HTML    PDF (7456KB)(313)      

    Entanglement between particles is a crucial resource in quantum information processing, an important example of which is the exploitation of entangled photons in quantum communication protocols. Among the different available sources of entangled photons, semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) excel owing to their deterministic emission properties, potential for electrical injections, and direct compatibility with semiconductor manufacturing techniques. Despite the great promises, QD-based sources are far from being ideal. In particular, such sources present several critical issues, which require the overcoming of challenges pertaining to spectral tunability, entanglement fidelity, photon indistinguishability and brightness. In this article, we will discuss the potential solutions to these problems and review the recent progress in the field.

    Quantum photonic network on chip
    Qun-Yong Zhang(张群永), Ping Xu(徐平), Shi-Ning Zhu(祝世宁)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (5): 054207.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/5/054207
    Abstract595)   HTML    PDF (2912KB)(676)      
    We provide an overview of quantum photonic network on chip. We begin from the discussion of the pros and cons of several material platforms for engineering quantum photonic chips. Then we introduce and analyze the basic building blocks and functional units of quantum photonic integrated circuits. In the main part of this review, we focus on the generation and manipulation of quantum states of light on chip and are particularly interested in some applications of advanced integrated circuits with different functionalities for quantum information processing, including quantum communication, quantum computing, and quantum simulation. We emphasize that developing fully integrated quantum photonic chip which contains sources of quantum light, integrate circuits, modulators, quantum storage, and detectors are promising approaches for future quantum photonic technologies. Recent achievements in the large scale photonic chips for linear optical computing are also included. Finally, we illustrate the challenges toward high performance quantum information processing devices and conclude with promising perspectives in this field.