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Chin. Phys. B, 2017, Vol. 26(12): 127309    DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/26/12/127309

Evaluation of threading dislocation density of strained Ge epitaxial layer by high resolution x-ray diffraction

Yuan-Hao Miao(苗渊浩), Hui-Yong Hu(胡辉勇), Xin Li(李鑫), Jian-Jun Song(宋建军), Rong-Xi Xuan(宣荣喜), He-Ming Zhang(张鹤鸣)
Key Laboratory of Wide Band-Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi'an 710071, China
Abstract  The analysis of threading dislocation density (TDD) in Ge-on-Si layer is critical for developing lasers, light emitting diodes (LEDs), photodetectors (PDs), modulators, waveguides, metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs), and also the integration of Si-based monolithic photonics. The TDD of Ge epitaxial layer is analyzed by etching or transmission electron microscope (TEM). However, high-resolution x-ray diffraction (HR-XRD) rocking curve provides an optional method to analyze the TDD in Ge layer. The theory model of TDD measurement from rocking curves was first used in zinc-blende semiconductors. In this paper, this method is extended to the case of strained Ge-on-Si layers. The HR-XRD 2θ/ω scan is measured and Ge (004) single crystal rocking curve is utilized to calculate the TDD in strained Ge epitaxial layer. The rocking curve full width at half maximum (FWHM) broadening by incident beam divergence of the instrument, crystal size, and curvature of the crystal specimen is subtracted. The TDDs of samples A and B are calculated to be 1.41×108 cm-2 and 6.47×108 cm-2, respectively. In addition, we believe the TDDs calculated by this method to be the averaged dislocation density in the Ge epitaxial layer.
Keywords:  HR-XRD      RPCVD      threading dislocation density (TDD)      etching pit density (EPD)  
Received:  24 April 2017      Revised:  05 September 2017      Accepted manuscript online: 
PACS:  73.61.At (Metal and metallic alloys)  
Fund: Project supported by the Research Plan in Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2016GY-085), the Opening Project of Key Laboratory of Microelectronic Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. 90109162905), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant No. 17-H863-04-ZT-001-019-01), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61704130 and 61474085).
Corresponding Authors:  Yuan-Hao Miao, Hui-Yong Hu     E-mail:;

Cite this article: 

Yuan-Hao Miao(苗渊浩), Hui-Yong Hu(胡辉勇), Xin Li(李鑫), Jian-Jun Song(宋建军), Rong-Xi Xuan(宣荣喜), He-Ming Zhang(张鹤鸣) Evaluation of threading dislocation density of strained Ge epitaxial layer by high resolution x-ray diffraction 2017 Chin. Phys. B 26 127309

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