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    Suppression of Coriolis error in weak equivalence principle test using 85Rb-87Rb dual-species atom interferometer
    Wei-Tao Duan(段维涛), Chuan He(何川), Si-Tong Yan(闫思彤), Yu-Hang Ji(冀宇航), Lin Zhou(周林), Xi Chen(陈曦), Jin Wang(王谨), Ming-Sheng Zhan(詹明生)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2020, 29 (7): 070305.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/ab969a
    Abstract189)   HTML    PDF (746KB)(98)      
    Coriolis effect is an important error source in the weak equivalence principle (WEP) test using atom interferometer. In this paper, the problem of Coriolis error in WEP test is studied theoretically and experimentally. In theoretical simulation, the Coriolis effect is analyzed by establishing an error model. The measurement errors of Eötvös coefficient (η) in WEP test related to experimental parameters, such as horizontal-velocity difference and horizontal-position difference of atomic clouds, horizontal-position difference of detectors, and rotation compensation of Raman laser's mirror are calculated. In experimental investigation, the position difference between 85Rb and 87Rb atomic clouds is reduced to 0.1 mm by optimizing the experimental parameters, an alternating detection method is used to suppress the error caused by detection position difference, thus the Coriolis error related to the atomic clouds and detectors is reduced to 1.1×10-9. This Coriolis error is further corrected by compensating the rotation of Raman laser's mirror, and the total uncertainty of η measurement related to the Coriolis effect is reduced as δη=4.4×10 -11.
    A transportable optical lattice clock at the National Time Service Center
    De-Huan Kong(孔德欢), Zhi-Hui Wang(王志辉), Feng Guo(郭峰), Qiang Zhang(张强), Xiao-Tong Lu(卢晓同), Ye-Bing Wang(王叶兵), Hong Chang(常宏)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2020, 29 (7): 070602.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/ab9290
    Abstract242)   HTML    PDF (2701KB)(173)      
    We report a transportable one-dimensional optical lattice clock based on 87Sr at the National Time Service Center. The transportable apparatus consists of a compact vacuum system and compact optical subsystems. The vacuum system with a size of 90 cm×20 cm×42 cm and the beam distributors are assembled on a double-layer optical breadboard. The modularized optical subsystems are integrated on independent optical breadboards. By using a 230 ms clock laser pulse, spin-polarized spectroscopy with a linewidth of 4.8 Hz is obtained which is close to the 3.9 Hz Fourier-limit linewidth. The time interleaved self-comparison frequency instability is determined to be 6.3×10-17 at an averaging time of 2000 s.
    Michelson laser interferometer-based vibration noise contribution measurement method for cold atom interferometry gravimeter
    Ning Zhang(张宁), Qingqing Hu(胡青青), Qian Wang(王倩), Qingchen Ji(姬清晨), Weijing Zhao(赵伟靖), Rong Wei(魏荣), Yuzhu Wang(王育竹)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2020, 29 (7): 070601.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/ab8885
    Abstract188)   HTML    PDF (2010KB)(141)      
    The measurement performance of the atom interferometry absolute gravimeter is strongly affected by the ground vibration noise. We propose a vibration noise evaluation scheme using a Michelson laser interferometer constructed by the intrinsic Raman laser of the atomic gravimeter. Theoretical analysis shows that the vibration phase measurement accuracy is better than 4 mrad, which corresponds to about 10-10 g accuracy for a single shot gravity measurement. Compared with the commercial seismometer or accelerometer, this method is a simple, low cost, direct, and fully synchronized measurement of the vibration phase which should benefit the development of the atomic gravimeter. On the other side, limited by equivalence principle, the result of the laser interferometer is not absolute but relative vibration measurement. Triangular cap method could be used to evaluation the noise contribution of vibration, which is a different method from others and should benefit the development of the atomic gravimeter.
    Progress on the 40Ca+ ion optical clock
    Baolin Zhang(张宝林), Yao Huang(黄垚), Huaqing Zhang(张华青), Yanmei Hao(郝艳梅), Mengyan Zeng(曾孟彦), Hua Guan(管桦), Kelin Gao(高克林)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2020, 29 (7): 074209.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/ab9432
    Abstract262)   HTML    PDF (1696KB)(173)      
    Progress of the 40Ca+ ion optical clock based on the 42S1/2-3d 2D5/2 electric quadrupole transition is reported. By setting the drive frequency to the “magic” frequency Ω0, the frequency uncertainty caused by the scalar Stark shift and second-order Doppler shift induced by micromotion is reduced to the 10-19 level. By precisely measuring the differential static scalar polarizability △α0, the uncertainty due to the blackbody radiation (BBR) shift (coefficient) is reduced to the 10-19 level. With the help of a second-order integrating servo algorithm, the uncertainty due to the servo error is reduced to the 10-18 level. The total fractional uncertainty of the 40Ca+ ion optical clock is then improved to 2.2×10-17, whereas this value is mainly restricted by the uncertainty of the BBR shift due to temperature fluctuations. The state preparation is introduced together with improvements in the pulse sequence, and furthermore, a better signal to noise ratio (SNR) and less dead time are achieved. The clock stability of a single clock is improved to 4.8×10-15/√τ (in seconds).
    Study of optical clocks based on ultracold 171Yb atoms
    Di Ai(艾迪), Hao Qiao(谯皓), Shuang Zhang(张爽), Li-Meng Luo(骆莉梦), Chang-Yue Sun(孙常越), Sheng Zhang(张胜), Cheng-Quan Peng(彭成权), Qi-Chao Qi(齐启超), Tao-Yun Jin(金涛韫), Min Zhou(周敏), Xin-Ye Xu(徐信业)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2020, 29 (9): 090601.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/aba099
    Abstract271)   HTML    PDF (3113KB)(166)      
    The optical atomic clocks have the potential to transform global timekeeping, relying on the state-of-the-art accuracy and stability, and greatly improve the measurement precision for a wide range of scientific and technological applications. Herein we report on the development of the optical clock based on 171Yb atoms confined in an optical lattice. A minimum width of 1.92-Hz Rabi spectra has been obtained with a new 578-nm clock interrogation laser. The in-loop fractional instability of the 171Yb clock reaches 9.1×10-18 after an averaging over a time of 2.0×104 s. By synchronous comparison between two clocks, we demonstrate that our 171Yb optical lattice clock achieves a fractional instability of 4.60×10-16/√τ.
    Precision measurements with cold atoms and trapped ions
    Qiuxin Zhang(张球新), Yirong Wang(王艺蓉), Chenhao Zhu(朱晨昊), Yuxin Wang(王玉欣), Xiang Zhang(张翔), Kuiyi Gao(高奎意), Wei Zhang(张威)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2020, 29 (9): 093203.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/aba9c6
    Abstract240)   HTML    PDF (3016KB)(162)      
    Recent progresses on quantum control of cold atoms and trapped ions in both the scientific and technological aspects greatly advance the applications in precision measurement. Thanks to the exceptional controllability and versatility of these massive quantum systems, unprecedented sensitivity has been achieved in clocks, magnetometers, and interferometers based on cold atoms and ions. Besides, these systems also feature many characteristics that can be employed to facilitate the applications in different scenarios. In this review, we briefly introduce the principles of optical clocks, cold atom magnetometers, and atom interferometers used for precision measurement of time, magnetic field, and inertial forces. The main content is then devoted to summarize some recent experimental and theoretical progresses in these three applications, with special attention being paid to the new designs and possibilities towards better performance. The purpose of this review is by no means to give a complete overview of all important works in this fast developing field, but to draw a rough sketch about the frontiers and show the fascinating future lying ahead.
    Calibration of a compact absolute atomic gravimeter
    Hong-Tai Xie(谢宏泰), Bin Chen(陈斌), Jin-Bao Long(龙金宝), Chun Xue(薛春), Luo-Kan Chen(陈泺侃), Shuai Chen(陈帅)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2020, 29 (9): 093701.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/aba27b
    Abstract331)   HTML    PDF (702KB)(117)      
    Compact atomic gravimeters are the potential next generation precision instruments for gravity survey from fundamental research to broad field applications. We report the calibration results of our home build compact absolute atomic gravimeter USTC-AG02 at Changping Campus, the National Institute of Metrology (NIM), China in January 2019. The sensitivity of the atomic gravimeter reaches 35.5 μGal/√Hz (1 μGal=1×10-8 m/s2) and its long-term stability reaches 0.8 μGal for averaging over 4000 seconds. Considering the statistical uncertainty, the dominant instrumental systematic errors and environmental effects are evaluated and corrected within a total uncertainty (2σ) of 15.3 μGal. After compared with the reference g value given by the corner cube gravimeter NIM-3A, the atomic gravimeter USTC-AG02 reaches the degree of equivalence of 3.7 μGal.
    Movable precision gravimeters based on cold atom interferometry
    Jiong-Yang Zhang(张炯阳), Le-Le Chen(陈乐乐), Yuan Cheng(程源), Qin Luo(罗覃), Yu-Biao Shu(舒玉彪), Xiao-Chun Duan(段小春), Min-Kang Zhou(周敏康), Zhong-Kun Hu(胡忠坤)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2020, 29 (9): 093702.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/aba9bc
    Abstract198)   HTML    PDF (2115KB)(178)      
    High precision atom interferometers have shown attractive prospects in laboratory for testing fundamental physics and inertial sensing. Efforts on applying this innovative technology to field applications are also being made intensively. As the manipulation of cold atoms and related matching technologies mature, inertial sensors based on atom interferometry can be adapted to various indoor or mobile platforms. A series of experiments have been conducted and high performance has been achieved. In this paper, we will introduce the principles, the key technologies, and the applications of atom interferometers, and mainly review the recent progress of movable atom gravimeters.
    Cold atom clocks and their applications in precision measurements
    Shao-Yang Dai(戴少阳), Fa-Song Zheng(郑发松), Kun Liu(刘昆), Wei-Liang Chen(陈伟亮), Yi-Ge Lin(林弋戈), Tian-Chu Li(李天初), and Fang Fang(房芳)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2021, 30 (1): 013701.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/abbbee
    Abstract194)   HTML4)    PDF (3844KB)(213)      
    Cold atom clocks have made remarkable progresses in the last two decades and played critical roles in precision measurements. Primary Cs fountain frequency standards have achieved a total uncertainty of a few parts in 1016, and the best optical clock has reached a type B uncertainty below 10-18. Besides applications in the metrology, navigation, etc., ultra-stable and ultra-accurate atomic clocks have also become powerful tools in the basic scientific investigations. In this paper, we focus on the recent developments in the high-performance cold atomic clocks which can be used as frequency standards to calibrate atomic time scales. The basic principles, performances, and limitations of fountain clocks and optical clocks based on signal trapped ion or neutral atoms are summarized. Their applications in metrology and other areas are briefly introduced.
    Improve the performance of interferometer with ultra-cold atoms
    Xiangyu Dong(董翔宇), Shengjie Jin(金圣杰), Hongmian Shui(税鸿冕), Peng Peng(彭鹏), and Xiaoji Zhou(周小计)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2021, 30 (1): 014210.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/abcf33
    Abstract153)   HTML2)    PDF (3289KB)(191)      
    Ultra-cold atoms provide ideal platforms for interferometry. The macroscopic matter-wave property of ultra-cold atoms leads to large coherent length and long coherent time, which enable high accuracy and sensitivity to measurement. Here, we review our efforts to improve the performance of the interferometer. We demonstrate a shortcut method for manipulating ultra-cold atoms in an optical lattice. Compared with traditional ones, this shortcut method can reduce the manipulation time by up to three orders of magnitude. We construct a matter-wave Ramsey interferometer for trapped motional quantum states and significantly increase its coherence time by one order of magnitude with an echo technique based on this method. Efforts have also been made to enhance the resolution by multimode scheme. Application of a noise-resilient multi-component interferometer shows that increasing the number of paths could sharpen the peaks in the time-domain interference fringes, which leads to a resolution nearly twice compared with that of a conventional double-path two-mode interferometer. With the shortcut method mentioned above, improvement of the momentum resolution could also be fulfilled, which leads to atomic momentum patterns less than 0.6 \(\hbar k_L\). To identify and remove systematic noises, we introduce the methods based on the principal component analysis (PCA) that reduce the noise in detection close to the \(1/\sqrt2\) of the photon-shot noise and separate and identify or even eliminate noises. Furthermore, we give a proposal to measure precisely the local gravity acceleration within a few centimeters based on our study of ultracold atoms in precision measurements.
    Ultradilute self-bound quantum droplets in Bose-Bose mixtures at finite temperature
    Jia Wang(王佳), Xia-Ji Liu(刘夏姬), and Hui Hu(胡辉)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2021, 30 (1): 010306.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/abd2ad
    Abstract114)   HTML2)    PDF (819KB)(63)      
    We theoretically investigate the finite-temperature structure and collective excitations of a self-bound ultradilute Bose droplet in a flat space realized in a binary Bose mixture with attractive inter-species interactions on the verge of mean-field collapse. As the droplet formation relies critically on the repulsive force provided by Lee-Huang-Yang quantum fluctuations, which can be easily compensated by thermal fluctuations, we find a significant temperature effect in the density distribution and collective excitation spectrum of the Bose droplet. A finite-temperature phase diagram as a function of the number of particles is determined. We show that the critical number of particles at the droplet-to-gas transition increases dramatically with increasing temperature. Towards the bulk threshold temperature for thermally destabilizing an infinitely large droplet, we find that the excitation-forbidden, self-evaporation region in the excitation spectrum, predicted earlier by Petrov using a zero-temperature theory, shrinks and eventually disappears. All the collective excitations, including both surface modes and compressional bulk modes, become softened at the droplet-to-gas transition. The predicted temperature effects of a self-bound Bose droplet in this work could be difficult to measure experimentally due to the lack of efficient thermometry at low temperatures. However, these effects may already present in the current cold-atom experiments.
    Theoretical study of the hyperfine interaction constants, Landé g-factors, and electric quadrupole moments for the low-lying states of the 61Ni q+ ( q= 11, 12, 14 , and 15) ions
    Ting-Xian Zhang(张婷贤), Yong-Hui Zhang(张永慧), Cheng-Bin Li(李承斌), and Ting-Yun Shi(史庭云)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2021, 30 (1): 013101.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/abc7a3
    Abstract101)   HTML2)    PDF (645KB)(63)      
    Highly charged nickel ions have been suggested as candidates for the ultra-precise optical clock, meanwhile the relevant experiment has been carried out. In the framework of the multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock (MCDHF) method, we calculated the hyperfine interaction constants, the Landé g-factors, and the electric quadrupole moments for the low-lying states in the 61Ni11+, 61Ni12+, 61Ni14+, and 61Ni15+ ions. These states are clock states of the selected clock transitions in highly charged nickel ions (see Fig. \fref1 1). Based on discussing the effects of the electron correlations, the Breit interaction, and quantum electrodynamics (QED) effect on these physical quantities, reasonable uncertainties were obtained for our calculated results. In addition, the electric quadrupole frequency shifts and the Zeeman frequency shifts of the clock transitions concerned were analyzed.