Abstract From transition-rate-equations and transmission-equations the formulas of threshold power are deduced for an end-pumped laser, in which the probability of cross-relaxation cannot be ignored and the nonradiative transition-probability of the excited state is the same order as the radiative transition-probability of upper level of the lasing transition. The lasing performance of Tm:YVO4 at $\lambda$=1.9 and 1.5μm is discussed by dint of these equations of threshold power.
Received: 19 March 1999
Revised: 10 May 1999
Accepted manuscript online:
Altmetric calculates a score based on the online attention an article receives. Each coloured thread in the circle represents a different type of online attention. The number in the centre is the Altmetric score. Social media and mainstream news media are the main sources that calculate the score. Reference managers such as Mendeley are also tracked but do not contribute to the score. Older articles often score higher because they have had more time to get noticed. To account for this, Altmetric has included the context data for other articles of a similar age.