Please wait a minute...
Chin. Phys. B, 2023, Vol. 32(3): 034501    DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/aca5ff

Resistance law of a rod penetrating a multilayer granular raft

Zonglin Li(李宗霖), Qiang Tian(田强), and Haiyan Hu(胡海岩)
MOE Key Laboratory of Dynamics and Control of Flight Vehicle, School of Aerospace Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
Abstract  This paper presents an experimental study on the resistance law of a rod vertically penetrating different kinds of multilayer granular rafts with a constant velocity so as to reveal the mechanical properties of the multilayer granular rafts. The resistance was quasi-static under the chosen velocity. Experiments were conducted with different granular thicknesses, rod diameters and combinations of particles and liquids. The study shows that the resistance-displacement relation of the rod has three smooth stages. In the first stage, the resistance rapidly increased. In the second stage, the resistance curve maintained an almost constant slope. In the third stage, the resistance smoothly changed with its slope continuously increasing. Based on the corresponding physical models for each stage, the study reveals the exponential dependence of the load-bearing capacity of the multilayer granular raft on its thickness, and clarifies the capillary effects on the resistance law. The study extends the knowledge of the granular raft from monolayer to multilayer structure.
Keywords:  granular matter      wet particles      saturated particles      capillary effects  
Received:  16 August 2022      Revised:  28 October 2022      Accepted manuscript online:  25 November 2022
PACS:  45.70.-n (Granular systems)  
  47.55.nb (Capillary and thermocapillary flows)  
  89.75.-k (Complex systems)  
Fund: Project supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 12125201 and 11832005).
Corresponding Authors:  Qiang Tian     E-mail:

Cite this article: 

Zonglin Li(李宗霖), Qiang Tian(田强), and Haiyan Hu(胡海岩) Resistance law of a rod penetrating a multilayer granular raft 2023 Chin. Phys. B 32 034501

[1] Jaeger H M, Nagel S R and Behringer R P 1996 Rev. Mod. Phys. 68 1259
[2] Hu M B, Jiang R and Wu Q S 2013 Chin. Phys. B 22 066301
[3] Zhang N, Zhang S, Tan J J and Zhang W 2022 Chin. Phys. B 31 024501
[4] Bester C S, Cox N, Zheng H and Behringer R P 2020 Granular Matter 22 51
[5] Hou M, Peng Z, Liu R, Lu K and Chan C K 2005 Phys. Rev. E 72 062301
[6] Katsuragi H and Durian D J 2007 Nat. Phys. 3 420
[7] Ma H P, Lv Y J, Zheng N, Li L S and Shi Q F 2014 Chin. Phys. Lett. 31 114501
[8] Constantino D J, Scheidemantal T J, Stone M B, Conger C, Klein K, Lohr M, Modig Z and Schiffer P 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 108001
[9] Albert R, Pfeifer M A, Barabasi A L and Schiffer P 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 205
[10] Pang Y and Liu C 2013 Sci. China-Phys. Mech. Astron. 56 1428
[11] Kang W, Feng Y, Liu C and Blumenfeld R 2018 Nat. Commun. 9 1101
[12] Herminghaus S 2005 Adv. Phys. 54 221
[13] Mitarai N and Nori F 2006 Adv. Phys. 55 1
[14] Marston J O, Vakarelski I U and Thoroddsen S T 2012 Phys. Rev. E 86 020301
[15] Takita H and Sumita I 2013 Phys. Rev. E 88 022203
[16] Artoni R, Loro G, Richard P, Gabrieli F and Santomaso A C 2019 Powder Tech. 356 231
[17] Allen B and Kudrolli A 2019 Phys. Rev. E 100 022901
[18] Nordstrom K N, Lim E, Harrington M and Losert W 2014 Phys. Rev. Lett. 112 228002
[19] Guzman I L, Iskander M, Bless S and Qi C 2014 Granular Matter 16 829
[20] Vella D 2015 Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 47 115
[21] Twardos M and Dennin M 2005 Granular Matter 7 91
[22] Zuo P, Liu J and Li S 2017 Soft Matter 13 2315
[23] He W, Sun Y and Dinsmore A D 2020 Soft Matter 16 2497
[24] Gallo Jr. A, Tavares F, Das R and Mishra H 2021 Soft Matter 17 7628
[25] Jambon-Puillet E, Josserand C, and Protiére S 2018 Langmuir 34 4437
[26] Cicuta P and Vella D 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 138302
[27] Petit P, Biance A, Lorenceau E and Planchette C 2016 Phys. Rev. E 93 042802
[28] Lagarde A, Josserand C and Protiére S 2019 Soft Matter 15 5695
[29] Jones S G, Abbasi N, Ahuja A, Truong V and Tsai S S H 2015 Phys. Fluids 27 072102
[30] Protiére S, Josserand C, Aristoff J M, Stone H A and Abkarian M 2017 Phys. Rev. Lett. 118 108001
[31] Ong X Y, Taylor S E and Ramaioli M 2019 Langmuir 35 11150
[32] Hossain T and Rognon P 2020 Phys. Rev. Fluids 5 054306
[33] Ozdemir O, Karakashev S I, Nguyen A V and Miller J D 2009 Miner. Eng. 22 263
[34] Zhao C F, Kruyt N P and Millet O 2020 Powder Technol. 360 622
[35] Keller J B 1998 Phys. Fluids 10 3009
[36] Murray E J and Geddes J D 1987 J. Geotech. Eng. 113 202
[37] Athani S and Rognon P 2021 Granular Matter 23 67
[38] Jalali P, Zhao Y and Socolar J E S 2021 Soft Matter 17 2832
[1] Correlation mechanism between force chains and friction mechanism during powder compaction
Ning Zhang(张宁), Shuai Zhang(张帅), Jian-Jun Tan(谈健君), and Wei Zhang(张炜). Chin. Phys. B, 2022, 31(2): 024501.
[2] Stabilizing effect of plasma discharge on bubbling fluidized granular bed
Hu Mao-Bin (胡茂彬), Dang Sai-Chao (党赛超), Ma Qiang (马强), Xia Wei-Dong (夏维东). Chin. Phys. B, 2015, 24(7): 074502.
[3] Experimental study and analysis on the rising motion of grains in a vertically-vibrated pipe
Liu Yu (刘煜), Zhao Jun-Hong (赵俊红). Chin. Phys. B, 2015, 24(3): 034502.
[4] Effect of size polydispersity on the structural and vibrational characteristics of two-dimensional granular assemblies
Zhang Guo-Hua (张国华), Sun Qi-Cheng (孙其诚), Shi Zhi-Ping (石志萍), Feng Xu (冯旭), Gu Qiang (顾强), Jin Feng (金峰). Chin. Phys. B, 2014, 23(7): 076301.
[5] Properties of surface waves in granular media under gravity
Zheng He-Peng (郑鹤鹏). Chin. Phys. B, 2014, 23(5): 054503.
[6] Stress distribution and surface instability of an inclined granular layer
Zheng He-Peng (郑鹤鹏), Jiang Yi-Min (蒋亦民), Peng Zheng (彭政). Chin. Phys. B, 2013, 22(4): 040511.
[7] Directed segregation in compartmentalized bi-disperse granular gas
Sajjad Hussain Shah, Li Yin-Chang(李寅阊), Cui Fei-Fei(崔非非), Zhang Qi(张祺), and Hou Mei-Ying(厚美瑛) . Chin. Phys. B, 2012, 21(1): 014501.
[8] Effect of number density on velocity distributions in a driven quasi-two-dimensional granular gas
Sajjad Hussain Shah, Li Yin-Chang(李寅阊), and Hou Mei-Ying (厚美瑛). Chin. Phys. B, 2010, 19(10): 108203.
No Suggested Reading articles found!