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Chin. Phys. B, 2022, Vol. 31(11): 114303    DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/ac7a18

Amplitude modulation excitation for cancellous bone evaluation using a portable ultrasonic backscatter instrumentation

Boyi Li(李博艺)1, Chengcheng Liu(刘成成)1,†, Xin Liu(刘欣)1, Tho N. H. T. Tran1, Ying Li(李颖)2, Dan Li(李旦)2, Dongsheng Bi(毕东生)2, Duwei Liu(刘度为)2, and Dean Ta(他得安)1,2,3,‡
1 Academy for Engineering and Technology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China;
2 The Center for Biomedical Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China;
3 The State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
Abstract  The ultrasonic backscatter (UB) has the advantage of non-invasively obtaining bone density and structure, expected to be an assessment tool for early diagnosis osteoporosis. All former UB measurements were based on exciting a short single-pulse and analyzing the ultrasonic signals backscattered in bone. This study aims to examine amplitude modulation (AM) ultrasonic excitation with UB measurements for predicting bone characteristics. The AM multiple lengths excitation and backscatter measurement (AM-UB) functions were integrated into a portable ultrasonic instrument for bone characterization. The apparent integrated backscatter coefficient in the AM excitation (AIBAM) was evaluated on the AM-UB instrumentation. The correlation coefficients of the AIBAM estimating volume fraction (BV/TV), structure model index (SMI), and bone mineral density (BMD) were then analyzed. Significant correlations (|R| = 0.82-0.93, p < 0.05) were observed between the AIBAM, BV/TV, SMI, and BMD. By growing the AM excitation length, the AIBAM values exhibit more stability both in 1.0-MHz and 3.5-MHz measurements. The recommendations in AM-UB measurement were that the avoided length (T1) should be lower than AM excitation length, and the analysis length (T2) should be enough long but not more than AM excitation length. The authors conducted an AM-UB measurement for cancellous bone characterization. Increasing the AM excitation length could substantially enhance AIBAM values stability with varying analyzed signals. The study suggests the portable AM-UB instrument with the integration of real-time analytics software that might provide a potential tool for osteoporosis early screening.
Keywords:  ultrasonic backscatter measurement      amplitude modulation      osteoporosis      bone diagnosis  
Received:  28 April 2022      Revised:  08 June 2022      Accepted manuscript online:  18 June 2022
PACS:  43.35.Cg (Ultrasonic velocity, dispersion, scattering, diffraction, and Attenuation in solids; elastic constants)  
  43.35.Yb (Ultrasonic instrumentation and measurement techniques)  
  87.63.St (Bone densitometry)  
Fund: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 12104096, 12004079, 82127803, 11827808, and 61871263), the Shanghai Science and Technology Innovation Plan (Grant Nos. 20S31901300 and 19441903400), the Shanghai Rising-Star Program (Grant No. 21QC1400100), and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2021M690709).
Corresponding Authors:  Chengcheng Liu, Dean Ta     E-mail:;

Cite this article: 

Boyi Li(李博艺), Chengcheng Liu(刘成成), Xin Liu(刘欣), Tho N. H. T. Tran, Ying Li(李颖), Dan Li(李旦), Dongsheng Bi(毕东生), Duwei Liu(刘度为), and Dean Ta(他得安) Amplitude modulation excitation for cancellous bone evaluation using a portable ultrasonic backscatter instrumentation 2022 Chin. Phys. B 31 114303

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