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 Chin. Phys. B, 2021, Vol. 30(11): 110202    DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/abff31
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# Analysis of the rogue waves in the blood based on the high-order NLS equations with variable coefficients

Ying Yang(杨颖)1, Yu-Xiao Gao(高玉晓)2, and Hong-Wei Yang(杨红卫)1,†
1 College of Mathematics and Systems Science, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, China;
2 Qingdao West Coast New Area Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Qingdao 266590, China
Abstract  The research of rogue waves is an advanced field which has important practical and theoretical significances in mathematics, physics, biological fluid mechanics, oceanography, etc. Using the reductive perturbation theory and long wave approximation, the equations governing the movement of blood vessel walls and the flow of blood are transformed into high-order nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equations with variable coefficients. The third-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation is degenerated into a completely integrable Sasa-Satsuma equation (SSE) whose solutions can be used to approximately simulate the real rogue waves in the vessels. For the first time, we discuss the conditions for generating rogue waves in the blood vessels and effects of some physiological parameters on the rogue waves. Based on the traveling wave solutions of the fourth-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we analyze the effects of the higher order terms and the initial deformations of the blood vessel on the wave propagation and the displacement of the tube wall. Our results reveal that the amplitude of the rogue waves are proportional to the initial stretching ratio of the tube. The high-order nonlinear and dispersion terms lead to the distortion of the wave, while the initial deformation of the tube wall will influence the wave amplitude and wave steepness.
Keywords:  rogue wave, variable-coefficients high-order nonlinear Schrö      dinger equation, deformable blood vessels, Sasa-Satsuma equation
Received:  17 March 2021      Revised:  07 April 2021      Accepted manuscript online:  08 May 2021
 PACS: 02.30.Jr (Partial differential equations) 03.65.Ge (Solutions of wave equations: bound states) 87.19.Yt
Fund: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11975143), Nature Science Foundation of Shandong Province of China (Grant No. ZR2018MA017), the Taishan Scholars Program of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. ts20190936), and the Shandong University of Science and Technology Research Fund (Grant No. 2015TDJH102).
Corresponding Authors:  Hong-Wei Yang     E-mail:  hwyang1979@163.com

#### Cite this article:

Ying Yang(杨颖), Yu-Xiao Gao(高玉晓), and Hong-Wei Yang(杨红卫) Analysis of the rogue waves in the blood based on the high-order NLS equations with variable coefficients 2021 Chin. Phys. B 30 110202

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