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Chin. Phys. B, 2010, Vol. 19(8): 084103    DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/19/8/084103

Microwave Doppler spectra of sea return at small incidence angles: specular point scattering contribution

Zhang Yan-Mina, Wang Yun-Huab, Zhao Chao-Fangb
a Department of Physics, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China; b Ocean Remote Sensing Institute, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China
Abstract  It is well known that the sea return echo contains contributions from at least two scattering mechanisms. In addition to the resonant Bragg scattering, the specular point scattering plays an important role as the incidence angle becomes smaller (≤20o). Here, in combination with the Kirchhoff integral equation of scattering field and the stationary phase approximation, analytical expressions for Doppler shift and spectral bandwidth of specular point scattering, which are insensitive to the polarization state, are derived theoretically. For comparison, the simulated results related to the two-scale method (TSM) and the method of moment (MOM) are also presented. It is found that the Doppler shift and the spectral bandwidth given by TSM are insufficient at small incidence angles. However, a comparison between the analytical results and the numerical simulations by MOM in the backscatter configuration shows that our proposed formulas are valid for the specular point scattering case. In this work, the dependences of the predicted results on incidence angle, radar frequency, and wind speed are also discussed. The obtained conclusions seem promising for a better understanding of the Doppler spectra of the specular point scattering fields from time-varying sea surfaces.
Keywords:  Kirchhoff approximation      Doppler spectrum      specular point scattering      sea surface  
Received:  20 December 2009      Revised:  25 January 2010      Published:  15 August 2010
PACS:  93.85.-q (Instruments and techniques for geophysical research: Exploration geophysics)  
  84.40.Xb (Telemetry: remote control, remote sensing; radar)  
  92.10.Fj (Upper ocean and mixed layer processes)  
  92.60.Gn (Winds and their effects)  
Fund: Project supported by the Young Scientists Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 40906088), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education, China (Grant No. 200804231021).

Cite this article: 

Zhang Yan-Min, Wang Yun-Hua, Zhao Chao-Fang Microwave Doppler spectra of sea return at small incidence angles: specular point scattering contribution 2010 Chin. Phys. B 19 084103

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