Not found TOPICAL REVIEW — SECUF: Breakthroughs and opportunities for the research of physical science
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    Solid-state quantum computation station
    Fanming Qu(屈凡明), Zhongqing Ji(姬忠庆), Ye Tian(田野), Shiping Zhao(赵士平)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7): 070301.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/070301
    Abstract955)   HTML    PDF (281KB)(441)      
    Solid-state quantum computation station belongs to the group 2 of manipulation of quantum state in the Synergetic Extreme Condition User Facility. Here we will first outline the research background, aspects, and objectives of the station, followed by a discussion of the recent scientific as well as technological progress in this field based on similar experimental facilities to be constructed in the station. Finally, a brief summary and research perspective will be presented.
    High-pressure synergetic measurement station (HP-SymS)
    Xiaohui Yu(于晓辉), Fangfei Li(李芳菲), Yonghao Han(韩永昊), Fang Hong(洪芳), Changqing Jin(靳常青), Zhi He(何志), Qiang Zhou(周强)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7): 070701.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/070701
    Abstract640)   HTML    PDF (2999KB)(297)      
    In the High-Pressure Synergetic Measurements Station (HP-SymS) of the Synergic Extreme Condition User Facility (SECUF), we will develop ultrahigh-pressure devices based on diamond-anvil cell (DAC) techniques, with a target pressure up to 300 GPa. With the use of cryostat and magnet, we will reach 300 GPa-4.2 K-9 T and conduct simultaneous measurements of the electrical-transport property and Raman/Brillouin spectrascopy. With resistance heating and laser heating, we will reach temperatures of at least 1000 and 3000 K, respectively, coupled with Raman/Brillouin spectroscopy measurements. Some designs of supporting devices, such as a femtosecond laser gasket-drilling device, electrode-deposition device, and the gas-loading device, are also introduced in this article. Finally, we conclude by providing some perspectives on the applications of the DAC in related research fields.
    Sub-millikelvin station at Synergetic Extreme Condition User Facility
    Zhi Gang Cheng(程智刚), Jie Fan(樊洁), Xiunian Jing(景秀年), Li Lu(吕力)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7): 070702.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/070702
    Abstract750)   HTML    PDF (5062KB)(373)      
    The Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, is in charge of the construction of the Synergetic Extreme Condition User Facility (SECUF) in Huairou, Beijing. The SECUF is a comprehensive facility focused on providing extreme physical conditions for scientific research, including an ultralow temperature, ultrahigh pressure, ultrahigh magnetic field, and ultrafast laser. The ultralow temperature will be realized by the sub-millikelvin (sub-mK) station, whose main component is an adiabatic nuclear demagnetization refrigerator (ANDR). The refrigerator is designed to have a base temperature below 1 mK and a magnetic field up to 16 T for experiments, as well as a characteristic parameter of B/T ≥ 104 T/K. In this review, we introduce adiabatic nuclear demagnetization refrigeration, thermometry from 10 mK to sub-mK, the properties and parameters of the ANDR of the SECUF, and related prospective research topics.
    Ultra-fast x-ray-dynamic experimental subsystem
    Liming Chen(陈黎明), Xin Lu(鲁欣), Dazhang Li(李大章), Yifei Li(李毅飞)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7): 074101.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/074101
    Abstract761)   HTML    PDF (3975KB)(250)      
    Ultra-fast x-ray-dynamic experimental subsystem is a facility which can provide femtosecond hard x-ray sources using a femtosecond laser interacting with plasmas. By utilizing these ultra-fast x-rays as a probe, combined with a naturally synchronized driver laser as a pump, we can perform dynamic studies on samples with a femtosecond time resolution. This subsystem with a four-dimensional ultra-high spatiotemporal resolution is a powerful tool for studies of the process of photosynthesis, Auger electron effects, lattice vibrations, etc. Compared with conventional x-ray sources based on accelerators, this table-top laser-driven x-ray source has significant advantages in terms of the source size, pulse duration, brightness, flexibility, and economy. It is an effective supplement to the synchrotron light source in the ultrafast detection regime.
    Ultrafast electron diffraction
    Xuan Wang(王瑄), Yutong Li(李玉同)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7): 076102.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/076102
    Abstract523)   HTML    PDF (1803KB)(361)      
    Ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) technique has proven to be an innovative tool for providing new insights in lattice dynamics with unprecedented temporal and spatial sensitivities. In this article, we give a brief introduction of this technique using the proposed UED station in the Synergetic Extreme Condition User Facility (SECUF) as a prototype. We briefly discussed UED's functionality, working principle, design consideration, and main components. We also briefly reviewed several pioneer works with UED to study structure-function correlations in several research areas. With these efforts, we endeavor to raise the awareness of this tool among those researchers, who may not yet have realized the emerging opportunities offered by this technique.
    Quantum oscillation measurements in high magnetic field and ultra-low temperature
    Pu Wang(王瀑), Gang Li(李岗), Jian-Lin Luo(雒建林)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7): 077101.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/077101
    Abstract626)   HTML    PDF (981KB)(283)      
    The physical properties of a solid are determined by the electrons near the Fermi energy and their low-lying excitations. Thus, it is crucially important to obtain the band structure near the Fermi energy of a material to understand many novel phenomena that occur, such as high-Tc superconductivity, density waves, and Dirac-type excitations. One important way to determine the Fermi surface topology of a material is from its quantum oscillations in an external magnetic field. In this article, we provide a brief introduction to the substation at the Synergetic Extreme Condition User Facility (SECUF), with a focus on quantum oscillation measurements, including our motivation, the structure of and the challenges in building the substation, and perspectives.
    Advanced high-pressure transport measurement system integrated with low temperature and magnetic field
    Jing Guo(郭静), Qi Wu(吴奇), Liling Sun(孙力玲)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7): 077402.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/077402
    Abstract548)   HTML    PDF (3938KB)(280)      
    We briefly introduce a new high-pressure transport measurement system integrated with low temperature and magnetic field that is being established as one of the user experimental stations of the Synergetic Extreme Condition User Facilities in the Huairou District of Beijing, China. To demonstrate the capabilities of the system for condensed matter research, the emergence of some pressure-induced phenomena and physics related to superconductivity found previously is also introduced, and then a perspective for such an advanced high-pressure system is presented.
    Magneto optics and time resolved terahertz spectrocopy
    T Dong(董涛), Z G Chen(谌志国), N L Wang(王楠林)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7): 077501.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/077501
    Abstract627)   HTML    PDF (3485KB)(463)      
    Exploring, manipulating, and understanding new exotic quantum phenomena in condensed-matter systems have generated great interest in the scientific community. Static and time resolved optical spectroscopies after photoexcitations are important experimental tools for probing charge dynamics and quasiparticle excitations in quantum materials. In Synergetic Extreme Condition User Facility (SECUF), we shall construct magneto-infrared and terahertz measurement systems and develop a number of ultrafast femtosecond laser based systems, including intense near to mid-infrared pump terahertz probe. In this article, we shall describe several systems to be constructed and developed in the facilities, then present some examples explaining the application of magneto optics and time resolved spectroscopy techniques.
    Ultrafast electron microscopy in material science
    Huaixin Yang(杨槐馨), Shuaishuai Sun(孙帅帅), Ming Zhang(张明), Zhongwen Li(李中文), Zian Li(李子安), Peng Xu(徐鹏), Huanfang Tian(田焕芳), Jianqi Li(李建奇)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7): 070703.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/070703
    Abstract639)   HTML    PDF (7204KB)(361)      
    Recent advances in the ultrafast transmission electron microscope (UTEM), with combined spatial and temporal resolutions, have made it possible to directly visualize the atomic, electronic, and magnetic structural dynamics of materials. In this review, we highlight the recent progress of UTEM techniques and their applications to a variety of material systems. It is emphasized that numerous significant ultrafast dynamic issues in material science can be solved by the integration of the pump-probe approach with the well-developed conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. For instance, UTEM diffraction experiments can be performed to investigate photoinduced atomic-scale dynamics, including the chemical reactions, non-equilibrium phase transition/melting, and lattice phonon coupling. UTEM imaging methods are invaluable for studying, in real space, the elementary processes of structural and morphological changes, as well as magnetic-domain evolution in the Lorentz TEM mode, at a high magnification. UTEM electron energy-loss spectroscopic techniques allow the examination of the ultrafast valence states and electronic structure dynamics, while photoinduced near-field electron microscopy extends the capability of the UTEM to the regime of electromagnetic-field imaging with a high real space resolution.
    Attosecond laser station
    Hao Teng(滕浩), Xin-Kui He(贺新奎), Kun Zhao(赵昆), Zhi-Yi Wei(魏志义)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7): 074203.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/074203
    Abstract725)   HTML    PDF (4664KB)(516)      
    The attosecond laser station (ALS) at the Synergetic Extreme Condition User Facility (SECUF) is a sophisticated and user-friendly platform for the investigation of the electron dynamics in atoms, molecules, and condensed matter on timescales ranging from tens of femtoseconds to tens of attoseconds. Short and tunable coherent extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) light sources based on high-order harmonic generation in atomic gases are being developed to drive a variety of end-stations for inspecting and controlling ultrafast electron dynamics in real time. The combination of such light sources and end-stations offers a route to investigate fundamental physical processes in atoms, molecules, and condensed matter. The ALS consists of four beamlines, each containing a light source designed specifically for application experiments that will be performed in its own end-station. The first beamline will produce broadband XUV light for attosecond photoelectron spectroscopy and attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. It is also capable of performing attosecond streaking to characterize isolated attosecond pulses and will allow studies on the electron dynamics in atoms, moleculars, and condensed matter. The second XUV beamline will produce narrowband femtosecond XUV pulses for time-resolved and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, to study the electronic dynamics on the timescale of fundamental correlations and interactions in solids, especially in superconductors and topological insulators. The third beamline will produce broadband XUV pulses for attosecond coincidence spectroscopy in a cold-target recoil-ion momentum spectrometer, to study the ultrafast dynamics and reactions in atomic and molecular systems. The last beamline produces broadband attosecond XUV pulses designed for time-resolved photoemission electron microscopy, to study the ultrafast dynamics of plasmons in nanostructures and the surfaces of solid materials with high temporal and spatial resolutions simultaneously. The main object of the ALS is to provide domestic and international scientists with unique tools to study fundamental processes in physics, chemistry, biology, and material sciences with ultrafast temporal resolutions on the atomic scale.
    Femtosecond laser user facility for application research on ultrafast science
    Zhaohua Wang(王兆华), Shaobo Fang(方少波), Hao Teng(滕浩), Hainian Han(韩海年), Xinkui He(贺新奎), Zhiyi Wei(魏志义)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7): 074204.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/074204
    Abstract877)   HTML    PDF (2198KB)(255)      
    The advent of chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) has greatly advanced the field of ultrafast and ultra-intense laser technology. CPA has become an indispensable platform for multidisciplinary research, such as physics, chemistry, life sciences, and precision metrology. The femtosecond laser facility at the Synergic Extreme Condition User Facility (SECUF) is a comprehensive experimental platform with an advanced femtosecond laser source for ultrafast scientific research. It will provide an ultrafast scientific research system having a few-cycle pulse duration, wide spectral range, high energy, and high repetition rate for multipurpose applications.
    Function of large-volume high-pressure apparatus at SECUF
    Pinwen Zhu(朱品文), Qiang Tao(陶强), Lu Wang(王璐), Zhi He(何志), Tian Cui(崔田)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7): 076103.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/076103
    Abstract766)   HTML    PDF (2502KB)(340)      
    Pressure allows the precise tuning of a fundamental parameter, the interatomic distance, which controls the electronic structure and virtually all interatomic interactions that determine material properties. Hence, pressure tuning is an effective tool in the search for new materials with enhanced properties. To realize pressure tuning on matter, large-volume press (LVP) apparatuses have been widely used not only to synthesize novel materials but also to implement the in situ measurement of physical properties. Herein, we introduce the LVP apparatuses, including belt-type, cubic anvil, and 6-8 type multi-anvil, that will be constructed at the Synergetic Extreme Condition User Facility (SECUF) at Jilin University. Typically, cell volumes of 1000 mm3 can be obtained at 20 GPa in a belt-type apparatus that is significantly larger than that obtained in a 6-8 type multi-anvil apparatus at the same pressure. Furthermore, the in situ measurement of physical properties, including thermological, electrical, and mechanical behaviors, is coupled to these LVP apparatuses. Some typical results of both synthetic experiments and in situ measurements obtained from the LVP apparatuses are also reviewed.
    Nuclear magnetic resonance measurement station in SECUF using hybrid superconducting magnets
    Zheng Li(李政), Guo-qing Zheng(郑国庆)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7): 077404.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/077404
    Abstract787)   HTML    PDF (3451KB)(214)      
    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is one of the most powerful tools to explore new quantum states of condensed matter induced by high magnetic fields at a microscopic level. High magnetic field enhances the intensity of the NMR signal, and more importantly, can induce novel phenomena. In this article, examples are given on the field-induced charge density wave (CDW) in high-Tc superconductors and on the studies of quantum spin liquids. We provide a brief introduction to the high magnetic field NMR platform, the station 4 of the Synergetic Extreme Condition User Facility (SECUF), being built at Huairou, Beijing.
    Cubic anvil cell apparatus for high-pressure and low-temperature physical property measurements
    Jin-Guang Cheng(程金光), Bo-Sen Wang(王铂森), Jian-Ping Sun(孙建平), Yoshiya Uwatoko
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7): 077403.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/077403
    Abstract658)   HTML    PDF (2532KB)(266)      
    We will build a cubic anvil cell (CAC) apparatus for high-pressure and low-temperature physical property measurements in the synergic extreme condition user facility (SECUF). In this article, we first introduce the operating principle, the development history, and the current status of the CAC apparatus, and subsequently describe the design plan and technical targets for the CAC in SECUF. We will demonstrate the unique advantages of CAC, i.e., excellent pressure homogeneity and large hydrostatic pressure capacity, by summarizing our recent research progresses using CAC. Finally, we conclude by providing some perspectives on the applications of CAC in the related research fields.
    Raman scattering under extreme conditions
    Feng Jin(金峰), Yang Yang(杨洋), An-Min Zhang(张安民), Jian-Ting Ji(籍建葶), Qing-Ming Zhang(张清明)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27 (7): 077801.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/27/7/077801
    Abstract480)   HTML    PDF (9964KB)(397)      
    Raman scattering is a versatile and powerful technique and has been widely used in modern scientific research and vast industrial applications. It is one of the fundamental experimental techniques in condensed matter physics, since it can sensitively probe the basic elementary excitations in solids like electron, phonon, magnon, etc. The application of extreme conditions (low temperature, high magnetic field, high pressure, etc.) to Raman scattering, will push its capability up to an unprecedented level, because this enables us to look into new quantum phases driven by extreme conditions, trace the evolution of the excitations and their coupling, and hence uncover the underlying physics. This review contains two topics. In the first part, we will introduce the Raman facility under extreme conditions, belonging to the optical spectroscopy station of Synergetic Extreme Condition User Facilities (SECUF), with emphasis on the system design and the capability the facility can provide. Then in the second part we will focus on the applications of Raman scattering under extreme conditions to a variety of condensed matter systems such as superconductors, correlated electron systems, charge density waves (CDW) materials, etc. Finally, as a rapidly developing technique, time-resolved Raman scattering will be highlighted here.