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Chin. Phys. B, 2022, Vol. 31(4): 040302    DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/ac2803
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Quantum watermarking based on threshold segmentation using quantum informational entropy

Jia Luo(罗佳)1,2, Ri-Gui Zhou(周日贵)1,2,†, Wen-Wen Hu(胡文文)1,2, YaoChong Li(李尧翀)1,2, and Gao-Feng Luo(罗高峰)3
1 College of Information Engineering, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 201306, China;
2 Research Center of Intelligent Information Processing and Quantum Intelligent Computing, Shanghai 201306, China;
3 College of Information Engineering, Shaoyang University, Shaoyang 422000, China
Abstract  We propose a new quantum watermarking scheme based on threshold selection using informational entropy of quantum image. The core idea of this scheme is to embed information into object and background of cover image in different ways. First, a threshold method adopting the quantum informational entropy is employed to determine a threshold value. The threshold value can then be further used for segmenting the cover image to a binary image, which is an authentication key for embedding and extraction information. By a careful analysis of the quantum circuits of the scheme, that is, translating into the basic gate sequences which show the low complexity of the scheme. One of the simulation-based experimental results is entropy difference which measures the similarity of two images by calculating the difference in quantum image informational entropy between watermarked image and cover image. Furthermore, the analyses of peak signal-to-noise ratio, histogram and capacity of the scheme are also provided.
Keywords:  quantum image watermarking      threshold segmentation      quantum informational entropy      quantum circuit  
Received:  29 July 2021      Revised:  03 September 2021      Accepted manuscript online:  18 September 2021
PACS:  03.67.-a (Quantum information)  
  03.67.Ac (Quantum algorithms, protocols, and simulations)  
  03.67.Dd (Quantum cryptography and communication security)  
  03.67.Lx (Quantum computation architectures and implementations)  
Fund: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 6217070290), the Shanghai Science and Technology Project (Grant Nos. 21JC1402800 and 20040501500), the Scientific Research Fund of Hunan Provincial Education Department (Grant No. 21A0470), the Hunan Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 2020JJ4557), and Top-Notch Innovative Talent Program for Postgraduate Students of Shanghai Maritime University (Grant No. 2021YBR009).
Corresponding Authors:  Ri-Gui Zhou     E-mail:

Cite this article: 

Jia Luo(罗佳), Ri-Gui Zhou(周日贵), Wen-Wen Hu(胡文文), YaoChong Li(李尧翀), and Gao-Feng Luo(罗高峰) Quantum watermarking based on threshold segmentation using quantum informational entropy 2022 Chin. Phys. B 31 040302

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