SPECIAL TOPIC — Twistronics
The electronic properties of van der Waals (vdW) structures can be substantially modified by the moiré superlattice potential, which strongly depends on the twist angle among the compounds. In twisted bilayer graphene (TBG), two low-energy Van Hove singularities (VHSs) move closer with decreasing twist angles and finally become highly non-dispersive flat bands at the magic angle (∼ 1.1°). When the Fermi level lies within the flat bands of the TBG near the magic angle, Coulomb interaction is supposed to exceed the kinetic energy of the electrons, which can drive the system into various strongly correlated phases. Moreover, the strongly correlated states of flat bands are also realized in other graphene-based vdW structures with an interlayer twist. In this article, we mainly review the recent scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) advances on the strongly correlated physics of the magic-angle TBG (MATBG) and the small-angle twisted multilayer graphene. Lastly we will give out a perspective of this field.
We review the recent discoveries of exotic phenomena in graphene, especially superconductivity. It has been theoretically suggested for more than one decade that superconductivity may emerge in doped graphene-based materials. For single-layer pristine graphene, there are theoretical predictions that spin-singlet d + id pairing superconductivity is present when the filling is around the Dirac point. If the Fermi level is doped to the Van Hove singularity where the density of states diverges, then unconventional superconductivity with other pairing symmetry would appear. However, the experimental perspective was a bit disappointing. Despite extensive experimental efforts, superconductivity was not found in monolayer graphene. Recently, unconventional superconductivity was found in magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene. Superconductivity was also found in ABC stacked trilayer graphene and other systems. In this article, we review the unique properties of superconducting states in graphene, experimentally controlling the superconductivity in twisted bilayer graphene, as well as a gate-tunable Mott insulator, and the superconductivity in trilayer graphene. These discoveries have attracted the attention of a large number of physicists. The study of the electronic correlated states in twisted multilayer graphene serves as a smoking gun in recent condensed matter physics.