Please wait a minute...
Chin. Phys. B, 2020, Vol. 29(4): 048503    DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/ab7808

Dark count in single-photon avalanche diodes: A novel statistical behavioral model

Wen-Juan Yu(喻文娟), Yu Zhang(张钰), Ming-Zhu Xu(许明珠), Xin-Miao Lu(逯鑫淼)
School of Electronics and Information, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018, China
Abstract  Dark count is one of the inherent noise types in single-photon diodes, which may restrict the performances of detectors based on these diodes. To formulate better designs for peripheral circuits of such diodes, an accurate statistical behavioral model of dark current must be established. Research has shown that there are four main mechanisms that contribute to the dark count in single-photon avalanche diodes. However, in the existing dark count models only three models have been considered, thus leading to inaccuracies in these models. To resolve these shortcomings, the dark current caused by carrier diffusion in the neutral region is deduced by multiplying the carrier detection probability with the carrier particle current at the boundary of the depletion layer. Thus, a comprehensive dark current model is constructed by adding the dark current caused by carrier diffusion to the dark current caused by the other three mechanisms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first dark count simulation model into which incorporated simultaneously are the thermal generation, trap-assisted tunneling, band-to-band tunneling mechanisms, and carrier diffusion in neutral regions to evaluate dark count behavior. The comparison between the measured data and the simulation results from the models shows that the proposed model is more accurate than other existing models, and the maximum of accuracy increases up to 31.48% when excess bias voltage equals 3.5 V and temperature is 50℃.
Keywords:  single-photon avalanche diode      dark count      statistical behavioral modeling      carrier diffusion  
Received:  21 January 2020      Revised:  13 February 2020      Accepted manuscript online: 
PACS:  85.30.De (Semiconductor-device characterization, design, and modeling)  
  85.60.Dw (Photodiodes; phototransistors; photoresistors)  
  85.60.Gz (Photodetectors (including infrared and CCD detectors))  
  42.79.Pw (Imaging detectors and sensors)  
Fund: Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. LY17F010022) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61372156).
Corresponding Authors:  Yu Zhang     E-mail:

Cite this article: 

Wen-Juan Yu(喻文娟), Yu Zhang(张钰), Ming-Zhu Xu(许明珠), Xin-Miao Lu(逯鑫淼) Dark count in single-photon avalanche diodes: A novel statistical behavioral model 2020 Chin. Phys. B 29 048503

[1] Nie K M, Xu J T and Gao Z Y 2016 IEEE Sens. J. 16 1319
[2] Xu J T, Shi X L, Nie K M and Gao Z Y 2018 IEEE Sens. J. 18 2729
[3] Zheng L X, Wu J, Shi L X, Xi S Q, Liu S Y and Sun W F 2014 J. Semicond. 35 045011
[4] Acerbi F, Frera A D, Tosi A and Zappa F 2013 IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 49 563
[5] Qu H M, Zhang Y F, Ji Z J and Chen Q 2013 Laser Phys. Lett. 10 105201
[6] Zappa F, Tosi A, Mora A D and Tisa S 2009 Sensors and Actuators: A Physical 153 197
[7] Mita R, Palumbo G and Fallica P G 2008 IET Circ. Dev. Syst. 2 207
[8] He Q Y, Xu Y and Zhao F F 2013 J. Semicond. 34 66
[9] Giustolisi G, Mita R and Palumbo G 2011 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits & Systems (ISCAS), May 15-18, 2011, Rio de Janeiro, pp. 773-776
[10] Cheng Z, Zheng X P, Palubiak D, Deen M J and Peng H 2016 IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63 1940
[11] Xu Y, Zhao T C and Li D 2018 Superlattices and Microstructures 113 635
[12] Xu Y, Xiang P, Xie X P and Huang Y 2016 Semicond. Sci. Technol. 31 065024
[13] Teranishi N 2016 IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63 10
[14] Pagano R, Corso D, Lombardo S, Valvo G, Sanfilippo D N, Fallica G and Libbertino S 2012 IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 59 2410
[15] Pancheri L, Stoppa D and Dalla Betta G F 2014 IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20 328
[16] Hurkx G A M, De Graaff H C, Kloosterman W J and Knuvers M P G 1992 IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 39 2090
[17] Haddadifam T and Karami M A 2019 Chin. Phys. B 28 068502
[18] Zhou P, Li C F, Liao C J, Wei Z J and Yuan S Q 2011 Chin. Phys. B 20 028502
[19] Kindt W J 1999 Geiger mode avalanche photodiode arrays: for spatially resolved single photon counting (PhD Dissertation) (Delft: Technische Universiteit Delft) (in Netherlands)
[1] Pulse-gated mode of commercial superconducting nanowire single photon detectors
Fan Liu(刘帆), Mu-Sheng Jiang(江木生), Yi-Fei Lu(陆宜飞), Yang Wang(汪洋), and Wan-Su Bao(鲍皖苏). Chin. Phys. B, 2021, 30(4): 040302.
[2] Dark count rate and band to band tunneling optimization for single photon avalanche diode topologies
Taha Haddadifam, Mohammad Azim Karami. Chin. Phys. B, 2019, 28(6): 068502.
[3] Numerical analysis of In0.53Ga0.47As/InP single photon avalanche diodes
Zhou Peng(周鹏), Li Chun-Fei(李淳飞), Liao Chang-Jun(廖常俊), Wei Zheng-Jun(魏正军), and Yuan Shu-Qiong(袁书琼). Chin. Phys. B, 2011, 20(2): 028502.
No Suggested Reading articles found!