Please wait a minute...
Chin. Phys. B, 2020, Vol. 29(1): 018201    DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/ab5d07
Special Issue: TOPICAL REVIEW — Advanced calculation & characterization of energy storage materials & devices at multiple scale
TOPICAL REVIEW—Advanced calculation & characterization of energy storage materials & devices at multiple scale Prev   Next  

Neutron-based characterization techniques for lithium-ion battery research

Enyue Zhao(赵恩岳)1,2, Zhi-Gang Zhang(张志刚)1,2, Xiyang Li(李西阳)2, Lunhua He(何伦华)1,2,4, Xiqian Yu(禹习谦)2, Hong Li(李泓)2, Fangwei Wang(王芳卫)1,2,3,4
1 Songshan Lake Materials Laboratory, Dongguan 523808, China;
2 Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China;
3 School of Physical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 101408, China;
4 China Spallation Neutron Source(CSNS), Dongguan 523808, China
Abstract  During the past decades, Li-ion batteries have been one of the most important energy storage devices. Large-scale energy storage requires Li-ion batteries which possess high energy density, low cost, and high safety. Other than advanced battery materials, in-depth understanding of the intrinsic mechanism correlated with cell reaction is also essential for the development of high-performance Li-ion battery. Advanced characterization techniques, especially neutron-based techniques, have greatly promoted Li-ion battery researches. In this review, the characteristics or capabilities of various neutron-based characterization techniques, including elastic neutron scattering, quasi-elastic neutron scattering, neutron imaging, and inelastic neutron scattering, for the related Li-ion-battery researches are summarized. The design of in-situ/operando environment is also discussed. The comprehensive survey on neutron-based characterizations for mechanism understanding will provide guidance for the further study of high-performance Li-ion batteries.
Keywords:  Li-ion battery      neutron scattering      characterization technique  
Received:  31 October 2019      Revised:  24 November 2019      Accepted manuscript online: 
PACS:  82.47.Aa (Lithium-ion batteries)  
  82.45.Fk (Electrodes)  
Fund: Project supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (Grant No. 2016YFA0401503), the National Materials Genome Project of China (Grant No. 2016YFB0100106), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11675255).
Corresponding Authors:  Fangwei Wang     E-mail:

Cite this article: 

Enyue Zhao(赵恩岳), Zhi-Gang Zhang(张志刚), Xiyang Li(李西阳), Lunhua He(何伦华), Xiqian Yu(禹习谦), Hong Li(李泓), Fangwei Wang(王芳卫) Neutron-based characterization techniques for lithium-ion battery research 2020 Chin. Phys. B 29 018201

[1] Tarascon J M and Armand M 2001 Nature 414 359
[2] Armstrong A R and Bruce P G 1996 Nature 381 499
[3] Dunn B, Kamath H and Tarascon J M 2011 Science 334 928
[4] Goodenough J B and Kim Y 2010 Chem. Mater. 22 587
[5] Goodenough J B and Park K S 2013 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135 1167
[6] Vetter J, Novak P, Wagner M R, Veit C, Moller K C, Besenhard J O, Winter M, Wohlfahrt-Mehrens M, Vogler C and Hammouche A 2005 J. Power Sources 147 269
[7] Li H, Wang Z, Chen L and Huang X 2009 Adv. Mater. 21 4593
[8] Ellis B L, Lee K T and Nazar L F 2010 Chem. Mater. 22 691
[9] Zhao E, Yu X, Wang F and Li H 2017 Sci. Chin.-Chem. 60 1483
[10] Shadike Z, Zhao E, Zhou Y N, Yu X, Yang Y, Hu E, Bak S, Gu L and Yang X Q 2018 Adv. Energy Mater. 8 1702588
[11] Lu J, Wu T and Amine K 2017 Nat. Energy 2 17011
[12] Liu D, Shadike Z, Lin R, Qian K, Li H, Li K, Wang S, Yu Q, Liu M, Ganapathy S, Qin X, Yang Q H, Wagemaker M, Kang F, Yang X Q and Li B 2019 Adv. Mater. 31 1806620
[13] Zhao E, Nie K, Yu X, Hu Y S, Wang F, Xiao J, Li H and Huang X 2018 Adv. Funct. Mater. 28 1707543
[14] Ren Y and Zuo X 2018 Small Methods 2 1800064
[15] Rozier P and Tarascon J M 2015 J. Electrochem. Soc. 162 A2490
[16] Xu J, Lin F, Doeff M M and Tong W 2017 J. Mater. Chem. A 5 874
[17] Zheng J, Myeong S, Cho W, Yan P, Xiao J, Wang C, Cho J and Zhang J G 2017 Adv. Energy Mater. 7 1601284
[18] Zhang J N, Li Q H, Li Q, Yu X Q and Li H 2018 Chin. Phys. B. 27 088202
[19] Luo F, Liu B, Zheng J, Chu G, Zhong K, Li H, Huang X and Chen L 2015 J. Electrochem. Soc. 162 A2509
[20] Xu K 2014 Chem. Rev. 114 11503
[21] Verma P, Maire P and Novak P 2010 Electrochim. Acta 55 6332
[22] Zhao E, Chen M, Hu Z, Chen D, Yang L and Xiao X 2017 J. Power Sources 343 345
[23] Zhao E, Chen M, Hu Z, Xiao X and Chen D 2016 Electrochim. Acta 208 64
[24] Von Cresce A and Xu K 2011 J. Electrochem. Soc. 158 A337
[25] Wang Y, Liu B N, Zhou G, Nie K H, Zhang J N, Yu X Q and Li H 2019 Chin. Phys. B. 28 068202
[26] Lin D, Liu Y and Cui Y 2017 Nat. Nanotechnol. 12 194
[27] Cheng X B, Zhang R, Zhao C Z and Zhang Q 2017 Chem. Rev. 117 10403
[28] Liu J, Bao Z, Cui Y, Dufek E J, Goodenough J B, Khalifah P, Li Q, Liaw B Y, Liu P, Manthiram A, Meng Y S, Subramanian V R, Toney M F, Viswanathan V V, Whittingham M S, Xiao J, Xu W, Yang J, Yang X Q and Zhang J G 2019 Nat. Energy 4 180
[29] Miura A, Rosero-Navarro N C, Sakuda A, Tadanaga K, Phuc N H H, Matsuda A, Machida N, Hayashi A and Tatsumisago M 2019 Nat. Rev. Chem. 3 189
[30] Zhao E, He L, Wang B, Li X, Zhang J, Wu Y, Chen J, Zhang S, Liang T, Chen Y, Yu X, Li H, Chen L, Huang X, Chen H and Wang F 2019 Energy Storage Mater. 16 354
[31] Rao R P, Gu W, Sharma N, Peterson V K, Avdeev M and Adams S 2015 Chem. Mater. 27 2903
[32] Goonetilleke D, Pramudita J C, Hagan M, Al Bahri O K, Pang W K, Peterson V K, Groot J, Berg H and Sharma N 2017 J. Power Sources 343 446
[33] Sharma N, Yu D H, Zhu Y, Wu Y and Peterson V K 2017 J. Power Sources 342 562
[34] Delacourt C, Poizot P, Tarascon J M and Masquelier C 2005 Nat. Mater. 4 254
[35] Delacourt C, Rodriguez-Carvajal J, Schmitt B, Tarascon J M and Masquelier C 2005 Solid State Sci. 7 1506
[36] Nishimura S-i, Kobayashi G, Ohoyama K, Kanno R, Yashima M and Yamada A 2008 Nat. Mater. 7 707
[37] Li S, Meng X, Yi Q, Antonio Alonso J, Fernandez-Diaz M T, Sun C and Wang Z L 2018 Nano Energy 52 510
[38] Goonetilleke D, Faulkner T, Peterson V K and Sharma N 2018 J. Power Sources 394 1
[39] Li X Y, Zhang B, Zhang Z G, He L H, Li H, Huang X J and Wang F W 2014 Powder Diffr. 29 248
[40] Liu H, Zhang X, He X, Senyshyn A, Wilken A, Zhou D, Fromm O, Niehoff P, Yan B, Li J, Muehlbauer M, Wang J, Schumacher G, Paillard E, Winter M and Li J 2018 J. Electrochem. Soc. 165 A1886
[41] Song B, Veith G M, Park J, Yoon M, Whitfield P S, Kirkham M J, Liu J and Huq A 2019 Chem. Mater. 31 124
[42] Chen M, Zhao E, Chen D, Wu M, Han S, Huang Q, Yang L, Xiao X and Hu Z 2017 Lnorg. Chem. 56 8355
[43] Zhao E, Hu Z, Xie L, Chen X, Xiao X and Liu X 2015 Rsc Adv. 5 31238
[44] Zhao E, Fang L, Chen M, Chen D, Huang Q, Hu Z, Yan Q B, Wu M and Xiao X 2017 J. Mater. Chem. A 5 1679
[45] Li C, Kan W H, Xie H, Jiang Y, Zhao Z, Zhu C, Xia Y, Zhang J, Xu K, Mu D and Wu F 2019 Adv. Sci. 6 1801406
[46] Goonetilleke D, Sharma N, Pang W K, Peterson V K, Petibon R, Li J and Dahn J R 2019 Chem. Mater. 31 376
[47] Chen C J, Pang W K, Mori T, Peterson V K, Sharma N, Lee P H, Wu S H, Wang C C, Song Y F and Liu R S 2016 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138 8824
[48] Kan W H, Wei C, Chen D, Bo T, Wang B T, Zhang Y, Tian Y, Lee J S, Liu Y and Chen G 2019 Adv. Funct. Mater. 29 1808294
[49] Liu J, Whitfield P S, Saccomanno M R, Bo S H, Hu E, Yu X, Bai J, Grey C P, Yang X Q and Khalifah P G 2017 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 139 9192
[50] Pang W K, Peterson V K, Sharma N, Shiu J J and Wu S h 2014 Chem. Mater. 26 2318
[51] Senyshyn A, Muehlbauer M J, Dolotko O and Ehrenberg H 2015 J. Power Sources 282 235
[52] Laumann A, Boysen H, Bremholm M, Fehr K T, Hoelzel M and Holzapfel M 2011 Chem. Mater. 23 2753
[53] Baklanova Y V, Tyutyunnik A P, Tarakina N V, Fortes A D, Maksimova L G, Korona D V and Denisova T A 2018 J. Power Sources 391 26
[54] Meesala Y, Liao Y K, Jena A, Yang N H, Pang W K, Hu S F, Chang H, Liu C E, Liao S C, Chen J M, Guo X and Liu R S 2019 J. Mater. Chem. A 7 8589
[55] Wagner R, Rettenwander D, Redhammer G J, Tippelt G, Sabathi G, Musso M E, Stanje B, Wilkening M, Suard E and Amthauer G 2016 Lnorg. Chem. 55 12211
[56] Orera A, Larraz G, Alberto Rodriguez-Velamazan J, Campo J and Luisa Sanjuan M 2016 Lnorg. Chem. 55 1324
[57] Takami T, Morita Y, Yonemura M, Ishikawa Y, Tanaka S, Mori M, Fukunaga T and Matsubara E 2018 Acs Appl. Energy Mater. 1 2546
[58] Hallopeau L, Bregiroux D, Rousse G, Portehault D, Stevens P, Toussaint G and Laberty-Robert C 2018 J. Power Sources 378 48
[59] Dietrich C, Weber D A, Culver S, Senyshyn A, Sedlmaier S J, Indris S, Janek J and Zeier W G 2017 Lnorg. Chem. 56 6681
[60] Sedlmaier S J, Indris S, Dietrich C, Yavuz M, Draeger C, von Seggern F, Sommer H and Janek J 2017 Chem. Mater. 29 1830
[61] Strauss F, Rousse G, Dalla Corte D A, Giacobbe C, Dominko R and Tarascon J M 2018 Lnorg. Chem. 57 11646
[62] Hanghofer I, Redhammer G J, Rohde S, Hanzu I, Senyshyn A, Wilkening H M R and Rettenwander D 2018 Chem. Mater. 30 8134
[63] Paul N, Wandt J, Seidlmayer S, Schebesta S, Muehlbauer M J, Dolotko O, Gasteiger H A and Gilles R 2017 J. Power Sources 345 85
[64] Baran V, Dolotko O, Muehlbauer M J, Senyshyn A and Ehrenberg H 2018 J. Electrochem. Soc. 165 A1975
[65] Lee P H, Wu S H, Pang W K and Peterson V K 2018 J. Power Sources 374 31
[66] Dolotko O, Senyshyn A, Muehlbauer M J, Nikolowski K, Scheiba F and Ehrenberg H 2012 J. Electrochem. Soc. 159 A2082
[67] Nazer N S, Yartys V A, Azib T, Latroche M, Cuevas F, Forseth S, Vie P J S, Denys R V, Sorby M H, Hauback B C, Arnberg L and Henry P F 2016 J. Power Sources 326 93
[68] Bobrikov I A, Samoylova N Y, Sumnikov S V, Ivanshina O Y, Vasin R N, Beskrovnyi A I and Balagurov A M 2017 J. Power Sources 372 74
[69] Boulet-Roblin L, Sheptyakov D, Borel P, Tessier C, Novak P and Villevieille C 2017 J. Mater. Chem. A 5 25574
[70] Zinth V, von Lueders C, Wilhelm J, Erhard S V, Hofmann M, Seidlmayer S, Rebelo-Kornmeier J, Gan W, Jossen A and Gilles R 2017 J. Power Sources 361 54
[71] Senyshyn A, Muehlbauer M J, Dolotko O, Hofmann M and Ehrenberg H 2016 Sci. Rep. 5 18380
[72] Breger J, Kang K, Cabana J, Ceder G and Grey C P 2007 J. Mater. Chem. 17 3167
[73] Breger J, Dupre N, Chupas P J, Lee P L, Proffen T, Parise J B and Grey C P 2005 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127 7529
[74] Zeng D, Cabana J, Breger J, Yoon W S and Grey C P 2007 Chem. Mater. 19 6277
[75] Idemoto Y, Kitamura N, Ueki K, Vogel S C and Uchimoto Y 2012 J. Electrochem. Soc. 159 A673
[76] Idemoto Y, Ueki K and Kitamura N 2010 Electrochemistry 78 475
[77] Idemoto Y, Sera Y, Ishida N and Kitamura N 2015 Electrochemistry 83 879
[78] Idemoto Y, Tejima F, Ishida N and Kitamura N 2019 J. Power Sources 410--411 38
[79] Zhao E, Zhang M, Wang X, Hu E, Liu J, Yu X, Olguin M, Wynn T A, Meng Y S, Page K, Wang F, Li H, Yang X Q, Huang X and Chen L 2019 Energy Storage Mater. 24 384
[80] Zhao E, Li Q, Meng F, Liu J, Wang J, He L, Jiang Z, Zhang Q, Yu X, Gu L, Yang W, Li H, Wang F and Huang X 2019 Angew. Chem. (Int. Ed. English) 58 4323
[81] Liu J, Olds D, Peng R, Yu L, Foo G S, Qian S, Keum J, Guiton B S, Wu Z and Page K 2017 Chem. Mater. 29 5591
[82] Liu J, Yu L, Hu E, Guiton B S, Yang X Q and Page K 2018 Lnorg. Chem. 57 6873
[83] Bridges C A, Sun X G, Zhao J, Paranthaman M P and Dai S 2012 J. Phys. Chem. C 116 7701
[84] Jafta C J, Sun X G, Veith G M, Jensen G V, Mahurin S M, Paranthaman M P, Dai S and Bridges C A 2019 Energy Environ. Sci. 12 1866
[85] Vizgalov V A, Nestler T, Trusov L A, Bobrikov I A, Ivankov O I, Avdeev M V, Motylenko M, Brendler E, Vyalikh A, Meyer D C and Itkis D M 2018 Crystengcomm 20 1375
[86] Chung S Y, Choi S Y, Kim T H and Lee S 2015 ACS Nano 9 850
[87] Sacci R L, Banuelos J L, Veith G M, Littrel K C, Cheng Y Q, Wildgruber C U, Jones L L, Ramirez-Cuesta A J, Rother G and Dudney N J 2015 J. Phys. Chem. C 119 9816
[88] Paul N, Wetjen M, Busch S, Gasteiger H and Gilles R 2019 J. Electrochem. Soc. 166 A1051
[89] Bergfelt A, Rubatat L, Mogensen R, Brandell D and Bowden T 2017 Polymer 131 234
[90] Moehl G E, Metwalli E, Bouchet R, Phan T N T, Cubitt R and Mueller-Buschbaum P 2018 Acs Energy Lett. 3 1
[91] Borodin O, Suo L, Gobet M, Ren X, Wang F, Faraone A, Peng J, Olguin M, Schroeder M, Ding M S, Gobrogge E, Cresce A v W, Munoz S, Dura J A, Greenbaum S, Wang C and Xu K 2017 ACS Nano 11 10462
[92] He X, Wang J, Wang R, Qiu B, Frielinghaus H, Niehoff P, Liu H, Stan M C, Paillard E, Winter M and Li J 2016 J. Mater. Chem. A 4 7230
[93] Ferguson P P, Todd A D W and Dahn J R 2010 Electrochem. Commun. 12 1041
[94] Paul N, Brumbarov J, Paul A, Chen Y, Moulin J F, Mueller-Buschbaum P, Kunze-Liebhaeuser J and Gilles R 2015 J. Appl. Crystallogr. 48 444
[95] Owejan J E, Owejan J P, DeCaluwe S C and Dura J A 2012 Chem. Mater. 24 2133
[96] Hueger E, Doerrer L, Rahn J, Panzner T, Stahn J, Lilienkamp G and Schmidt H 2013 Nano Lett. 13 1237
[97] Seidlhofer B K, Jerliu B, Trapp M, Hueger E, Risse S, Cubitt R, Schmidt H, Steitz R and Ballauff M 2016 ACS Nano 10 7458
[98] Browning J F, Baggetto L, Jungjohann K L, Wang Y, Tenhaeff W E, Keum J K, Wood D L, I I I and Veith G M 2014 ACS Appl. Mat. Interfaces 6 18569
[99] Kawaura H, Harada M, Kondo Y, Kondo H, Suganuma Y, Takahashi N, Sugiyama J, Seno Y and Yamada N L 2016 ACS Appl. Mat. Interfaces 8 9540
[100] Steinhauer M, Stich M, Kurniawan M, Seidlhofer B K, Trapp M, Bund A, Wagner N and Friedrich K A 2017 ACS Appl. Mat. Interfaces 9 35794
[101] Jerliu B, Hueger E, Doerrer L, Seidlhofer B K, Steitz R, Horisberger M and Schmidt H 2018 Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 20 23480
[102] Lee C H, Dura J A, LeBar A and DeCaluwe S C 2019 J. Power Sources 412 725
[103] Weiss M, Seidlhofer B K, Geiss M, Geis C, Busche M R, Becker M, Vargas-Barbosa N M, Silvi L, Zeier W G, Schroeder D and Janek J 2019 ACS Appl. Mat. Interfaces 11 9539
[104] Hueger E, Stahn J and Schmidt H 2015 J. Electrochem. Soc. 162 A7104
[105] Strauss F, Hueger E, Heitjans P, Geue T, Stahn J and Schmidt H 2016 Energy Technol. 4 1582
[106] Avdeev M V, Rulev A A, Bodnarchuk V I, Ushakova E E, Petrenko V I, Gapon I V, Tomchuk O V, Matveev V A, Pleshanov N K, Kataev E Y, Yashina L V and Itkis D M 2017 Appl. Surf. Sci. 424 378
[107] Jerliu B, Doerrer L, Hueger E, Borchardt G, Steitz R, Geckle U, Oberst V, Bruns M, Schneider O and Schmidt H 2013 Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15 7777
[108] Jerliu B, Hueger E, Horisberger M, Stahn J and Schmidt H 2017 J. Power Sources 359 415
[109] Jerliu B, Hueger E, Doerrer L, Seidlhofer B K, Steitz R, Oberst V, Geckle U, Bruns M and Schmidt H 2014 J. Phys. Chem. C 118 9395
[110] Minato T, Kawaura H, Hirayama M, Taminato S, Suzuki K, Yamada N L, Sugaya H, Yamamoto K, Nakanishi K, Orikasa Y, Tanida H, Kanno R, Arai H, Uchimoto Y and Ogumi Z 2016 J. Phys. Chem. C 120 20082
[111] Hirayama M, Shibusawa T, Yamaguchi R, Kim K, Taminato S, Yamada N L, Yonemura M, Suzuki K and Kanno R 2016 J. Mater. Res. 31 3142
[112] Taminato S, Hirayama M, Suzuki K, Kim K, Tamura K and Kanno R 2018 J. Phys. Chem. C 122 16607
[113] Siegel J B, Lin X, Stefanopoulou A G, Hussey D S, Jacobson D L and Gorsich D 2011 J. Electrochem. Soc. 158 A523
[114] Knoche T, Zinth V, Schulz M, Schnell J, Gilles R and Reinhart G 2016 J. Power Sources 331 267
[115] Kino K, Yonemura M, Ishikawa Y and Kamiyama T 2016 Solid State Ionics 288 257
[116] Senyshyn A, Muehlbauer M J, Dolotko O, Hofmann M, Pirling T and Ehrenberg H 2014 J. Power Sources 245 678
[117] Owejan J P, Gagliardo J J, Harris S J, Wang H, Hussey D S and Jacobson D L 2012 Electrochim. Acta 66 94
[118] Zhang Y, Chandran K S R and Bilheux H Z 2018 J. Power Sources 376 125
[119] Zhang Y, Chandran K S R, Jagannathan M, Bilheux H Z and Bilheux J C 2017 J. Electrochem. Soc. 164 A28
[120] Nie Z, McCormack P, Bilheux H Z, Bilheux J C, Robinson J P, Nanda J, Koenig G M and Jr. 2019 J. Power Sources 419 127
[121] Michalak B, Sommer H, Mannes D, Kaestner A, Brezesinski T and Janek J 2015 Sci. Rep. 5 15627
[122] Starke B, Seidlmayer S, Schulz M, Dinter A, Revay Z, Gilles R and Pettinger K H 2017 J. Electrochem. Soc. 164 A3943
[123] Kamiyama T, Narita Y, Sato H, Ohnuma M and Kiyanagi Y 2017 Neutron Imaging for Applications in Industry and Science (Chen D, et al. Ed.) p. 27
[124] Liu D X, Wang J, Pan K, Qiu J, Canova M, Cao L R and Co A C 2014 Angew. Chem.-Int. Ed. 53 9498
[125] Lv S, Verhallen T, Vasileiadis A, Ooms F, Xu Y, Li Z, Li Z and Wagemaker M 2018 Nat. Commun. 9 2152
[126] Chen C, Oudenhoven J F M, Danilov D L, Vezhlev E, Gao L, Li N, Mulder F M, Eichel R A and Notten P H L 2018 Adv. Energy Mater. 8 1801430
[127] Liu M, Cheng Z, Qian K, Verhallen T, Wang C and Wagemaker M 2019 Chem. Mater. 31 4564
[128] Zhang X, Verhallen T W, Labohm F and Wagemaker M 2015 Adv. Energy Mater. 5 1500498
[129] Ceccio G, Cannavo A, Horak P, Torrisi A, Tomandl I, Hnatowicz V, Tsai H S and Vacik J 2018 Radiat Eff. Defects Solids 173 836
[130] Wetjen M, Trunk M, Werner L, Gasteiger H A, Gernhaeuser R, Gilles R, Maerkisch B and Revay Z 2019 J. Electrochem. Soc. 166 A1408
[131] Li Q, Yi T, Wang X, Pan H, Quan B, Liang T, Guo X, Yu X, Wang H, Huang X, Chen L and Li H 2019 Nano Energy 63 103895
[132] Nagpure S C, Mulligan P, Canova M and Cao L R 2014 J. Power Sources 248 489
[133] Oudenhoven J F M, Labohm F, Mulder M, Niessen R A H, Mulder F M and Notten P H L 2011 Adv. Mater. 23 4103
[134] Nagpure S C, Downing R G, Bhushan B, Babu S S and Cao L 2011 Electrochim. Acta 56 4735
[135] Wetjen M, Trunk M, Werner L, Gernhaeuser R, Maerkisch B, Revay Z, Gilles R and Gasteiger H A 2018 J. Electrochem. Soc. 165 A2340
[136] Wang C, Gong Y, Dai J, Zhang L, Xie H, Pastel G, Liu B, Wachsman E, Wang H and Hu L 2017 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 139 14257
[137] Han F, Westover A S, Yue J, Fan X, Wang F, Chi M, Leonard D N, Dudney N, Wang H and Wang C 2019 Nat. Energy 4 187
[138] Sinha K, Wang W, Winey K I and Maranas J K 2012 Macromolecules 45 4354
[139] Sacci R L, Lehmann M L, Diallo S O, Cheng Y Q, Daemen L L, Browning J F, Doucet M, Dudney N J and Veith G M 2017 J. Phys. Chem. C 121 11083
[140] Muy S, Bachman J C, Giordano L, Chang H H, Abernathy D L, Bansal D, Delaire O, Hori S, Kanno R, Maglia F, Lupart S, Lamp P and Shao-Horn Y 2018 Energy Environ. Sci. 11 850
[141] Ganapatibhotla L V N R and Maranas J K 2014 Macromolecules 47 3625
[142] Nozaki H, Harada M, Ohta S, Watanabe I, Miyake Y, Ikedo Y, Jalarvo N H, Mamontov E and Sugiyama J 2014 Solid State Ionics 262 585
[143] Lefevr J, Cervini L, Griffin J M and Blanchard D 2018 J. Phys. Chem. C 122 15264
[144] Wagemaker M, Kearley G J, van Well A A, Mutka H and Mulder F M 2003 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125 840
[145] Wagemaker M, van Well A A, Kearley G J and Mulder F M 2004 Solid State Ionics 175 191
[146] Heitmann T, Hester G and Mitra S 2018 Physica B 551 315
[147] Singh B, Gupta M K, Mittal R, Zbiri M, Rols S, Patwe S J, Achary S N, Schober H, Tyagi A K and Chaplot S L 2017 Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 19 15512
[148] Benedek P, Yazdani N, Chen H, Wenzler N, Juranyi F, Mßnsson M, Islam M S and Wood V C 2019 Sustainable Energy & Fuels 3 508
[149] Xie Y, Naguib M, Mochalin V N, Barsoum M W, Gogotsi Y, Yu X, Nam K W, Yang X Q, Kolesnikov A I and Kent P R C 2014 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136 6385
[150] Papanek P, Kamitakahara W A, Zhou P and Fischer J E 2001 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 13 8287
[151] Vitoux L, Reichardt M, Sallard S, Novák P, Sheptyakov D and Villevieille C 2018 Front. Energy Res. 6 76
[152] Bergstom O, Andersson A M, Edstrom K and Gustafsson T 1998 J. Appl. Crystallogr. 31 823
[153] Rosciano F, Holzapfel M, Scheifele W and Novak P 2008 J. Appl. Crystallogr. 41 690
[154] Godbole V A, Heß M, Villevieille C, Kaiser H, Colin J F and Novák P 2013 RSC Adv. 3 757
[155] Bianchini M, Leriche J B, Laborier J L, Gendrin L, Suard E, Croguennec L and Masquelier C 2013 J. Electrochem. Soc. 160 A2176
[156] Sharma N, Du G, Studer A J, Guo Z and Peterson V K 2011 Solid State Ionics 199-200 37
[157] Roberts M, Biendicho J J, Hull S, Beran P, Gustafsson T, Svensson G and Edström K 2013 J. Power Sources 226 249
[158] Brant W R, Roberts M, Gustafsson T, Biendicho J J, Hull S, Ehrenberg H, Edström K and Schmid S 2016 J. Power Sources 336 279
[159] Pang W K and Peterson V K 2015 J. Appl. Crystallogr. 48 280
[160] Liu H, Fell C R, An K, Cai L and Meng Y S 2013 J. Power Sources 240 772
[161] Vadlamani B, An K, Jagannathan M and Chandran K S R 2014 J. Electrochem. Soc. 161 A1731
[162] Seidlmayer S, Hattendorff J, Buchberger I, Karge L, Gasteiger H A and Gilles R 2015 J. Electrochem. Soc. 162 A3116
[163] DeCaluwe S C, Dhar B M, Huang L, He Y, Yang K, Owejan J P, Zhao Y, Talin A A, Dura J A and Wang H 2015 Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17 11301
[1] Small-angle neutron scattering study on the stability of oxide nanoparticles in long-term thermally aged 9Cr-oxide dispersion strengthened steel
Peng-Lin Gao(高朋林), Jian Gong(龚建), Qiang Tian(田强), Gung-Ai Sun(孙光爱), Hai-Yang Yan(闫海洋),Liang Chen(陈良), Liang-Fei Bai(白亮飞), Zhi-Meng Guo(郭志猛), and Xin Ju(巨新). Chin. Phys. B, 2022, 31(5): 056102.
[2] Excess-iron driven spin glass phase in Fe1+yTe1-xSex
Long Tian(田龙), Panpan Liu(刘盼盼), Tao Hong(洪涛), Tilo Seydel, Xingye Lu(鲁兴业), Huiqian Luo(罗会仟), Shiliang Li(李世亮), and Pengcheng Dai(戴鹏程). Chin. Phys. B, 2021, 30(8): 087402.
[3] Some experimental schemes to identify quantum spin liquids
Yonghao Gao(高永豪), Gang Chen(陈钢). Chin. Phys. B, 2020, 29(9): 097501.
[4] Physical properties and magnetic structure of a layered antiferromagnet PrPd0.82Bi2
Meng Yang(杨萌), Changjiang Yi(伊长江), Fengfeng Zhu(朱锋锋), Xiao Wang(王霄), Dayu Yan(闫大禹), Shanshan Miao(苗杉杉), Yixi Su(苏夷希), Youguo Shi(石友国). Chin. Phys. B, 2020, 29(6): 067502.
[5] A revised jump-diffusion and rotation-diffusion model
Hua Li(李华), Yu-Hang Chen(陈昱沆), Bin-Ze Tang(唐宾泽). Chin. Phys. B, 2019, 28(5): 056105.
[6] Recent progress on magnetic-field studies on quantum-spin-liquid candidates
Zhen Ma(马祯), Kejing Ran(冉柯静), Jinghui Wang(王靖珲), Song Bao(鲍嵩), Zhengwei Cai(蔡正蔚), Shichao Li(李世超), Jinsheng Wen(温锦生). Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27(10): 106101.
[7] Multiscale structures and phase transitions in metallic glasses: A scattering perspective
Si Lan(兰司), Zhenduo Wu(吴桢舵), Xun-Li Wang(王循理). Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26(1): 017104.
[8] Dynamic behaviors of water contained in calcium—silicate—hydrate gel at different temperatures studied by quasi-elastic neutron scattering spectroscopy
Zhou Yi(易洲), Pei-Na Deng(邓沛娜), Li-Li Zhang(张丽丽), Hua Li(李华). Chin. Phys. B, 2016, 25(10): 106401.
[9] First-principle study of Li ion diffusion in copper thin film
Xiong Zhi-Hua (熊志华), Lei Min-Sheng (雷敏生). Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14(6): 1199-1204.
[10] Vibrational analysis of L-serine using the density functional theory
Zhang Ying (张英), Yin Wen (殷雯), Zhang Peng (张鹏), Xu Chang-Ye (徐昌业), Han Sheng-Hao (韩圣浩), Li Ji-Chen (李济晨). Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14(12): 2585-2589.
[11] Vibration properties of low-fraction hydrogen in deuterium ices
Wang Yan (王燕), Dong Shun-Le (董顺乐). Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14(10): 1942-1945.
Dong Shun-le (董顺乐), Wang Yan (王燕), Li Qi (李琪). Chin. Phys. B, 2001, 10(10): 951-957.
Dong Shun-le (董顺乐), Wang Yan (王燕). Chin. Phys. B, 2001, 10(10): 958-965.
No Suggested Reading articles found!