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Chin. Phys. B, 2021, Vol. 30(9): 094301    DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/ac0db2

Assessment of cortical bone fatigue using coded nonlinear ultrasound

Duwei Liu(刘度为)1, Boyi Li(李博艺)2,†, Dongsheng Bi(毕东生)1, Tho N. H. T. Tran2, Yifang Li(李义方)1,3, Dan Liu(刘丹)1, Ying Li(李颖)1, and Dean Ta(他得安)1,2,‡
1 Center for Biomedical Engineering, School of Information Science and Technology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China;
2 Academy for Engineering and Technology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China;
3 Human Phenome Institute, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
Abstract  Bone fatigue accumulation is a factor leading to bone fracture, which is a progressive process of microdamage deteriorating under long-term and repeated stress. Since the microdamage of the early stage in bone is difficult to be investigated by linear ultrasound, the second harmonic generation method in nonlinear ultrasound technique is employed in this paper, which is proved to be more sensitive to microdamage. To solve the deficiency that the second harmonic component is easily submerged by noise in traditional nonlinear measurement, a weighted chirp coded sinusoidal signal was applied as the ultrasonic excitation, while pulse inversion is implemented at the receiving side. The effectiveness of this combination to improve the signal-to-noise ratio has been demonstrated by in vitro experiment. Progressive fatigue loading experiments were conducted on the cortical bone plate in vitro for microdamage generation. There was a significant increase in the slope of the acoustic nonlinearity parameter with the propagation distance (increased by 8% and 24% respectively) when the bone specimen was at a progressive level of microdamage. These results indicate that the coded nonlinear ultrasonic method might have the potential in diagnosing bone fatigue.
Keywords:  nonlinear ultrasonic Lamb wave      bone fatigue      chirp code      pulse inversion  
Received:  08 April 2021      Revised:  16 June 2021      Accepted manuscript online:  23 June 2021
PACS:  43.25.Ba (Parameters of nonlinearity of the medium)  
  43.60.Ek (Acoustic signal coding, morphology, and transformation)  
  43.80.Ev (Acoustical measurement methods in biological systems and media) (Fatigue)  
Fund: Project supported by the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2021M690709), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11827808, 11874289, 11804056, and 12034005), the Program of Shanghai Academic Research Leader (Grant No. 19XD1400500), and the Project of Shanghai Science and Technology Innovation Plan (Grant No. 19441903400).
Corresponding Authors:  Boyi Li, Dean Ta     E-mail:;

Cite this article: 

Duwei Liu(刘度为), Boyi Li(李博艺), Dongsheng Bi(毕东生), Tho N. H. T. Tran, Yifang Li(李义方), Dan Liu(刘丹), Ying Li(李颖), and Dean Ta(他得安) Assessment of cortical bone fatigue using coded nonlinear ultrasound 2021 Chin. Phys. B 30 094301

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