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Chin. Phys. B, 2020, Vol. 29(7): 075203    DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/ab8894

Analysis of extreme ultraviolet spectra of laser-produced Cd plasmas

Mohammedelnazier Bakhiet1,3, Maogen Su(苏茂根)1,2, Shiquan Cao(曹世权)1, Qi Min(敏琦)1, Duixiong Sun(孙对兄)1, Siqi He(何思奇)1, Lei Wu(吴磊)1, Chenzhong Dong(董晨钟)1,2
1 Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics & Functional Material of Gansu Province, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China;
2 Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Northwest Normal University and Institute of Modern Physics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730070, China;
3 Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, University of the Holy Quran and Islamic Sciences, P. O. Box 1459, Khartoum 14412, Sudan
Abstract  In order to provide detailed information about Cd structure and gain more insight regarding ionization degrees and types of transition, as well as the understanding of the temporal evolution behavior of laser produced Cd plasmas, extreme ultraviolet spectra of laser-produced cadmium (Cd) plasmas have been measured in the 8.4-12 nm region using spatio-temporally resolved laser-produced plasma spectroscopy technique. Spectral features were analyzed by the Hartree-Fock (HF) method with relativistic correlations (HFR) using the Cowan code. The results showed that the 4p-5s resonance transition arrays from Cd9+ to Cd13+ merged to form intense lines in this spectral region. A number of new spectral features from Cd9+ and Cd10+ ions are reported in this study. Based on the assumption of a normalized Boltzmann distribution among the excited states associated with a steady-state collisional-radiative model, the plasma parameters were obtained by comparing the experimental and simulated spectra. As a result, we succeeded in reproducing the synthetic spectra for different time delays, which yielded good agreement with the experiments. The temporal evolution behaviors of electron temperature and electron density of plasma were also analyzed.
Keywords:  extreme ultraviolet spectra      laser-produced plasmas      collisional-radiative model      cadmium  
Received:  25 February 2020      Revised:  25 March 2020      Published:  05 July 2020
PACS:  52.38.-r (Laser-plasma interactions)  
  52.38.Mf (Laser ablation)  
  52.50.-b (Plasma production and heating)  
  52.50.Jm (Plasma production and heating by laser beams (laser-foil, laser-cluster, etc.))  
Fund: Project supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2017YFA0402300), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11874051, 11904293, and 61965015), and the Special Fund Project for Guiding Scientific and Technological Innovation of Gansu Province, China (Grant No. 2019zx-10).
Corresponding Authors:  Maogen Su, Chenzhong Dong     E-mail:;

Cite this article: 

Mohammedelnazier Bakhiet, Maogen Su(苏茂根), Shiquan Cao(曹世权), Qi Min(敏琦), Duixiong Sun(孙对兄), Siqi He(何思奇), Lei Wu(吴磊), Chenzhong Dong(董晨钟) Analysis of extreme ultraviolet spectra of laser-produced Cd plasmas 2020 Chin. Phys. B 29 075203

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