Please wait a minute...
Chin. Phys. B, 2021, Vol. 30(6): 064207    DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/abd756

Aperture-averaged scintillation index and fade statistics in weak oceanic turbulence

Hao Wang(王昊)1,2, Fu-Zeng Kang(康福增)1,†, Xuan Wang(王瑄)3,4,‡, Wei Zhao(赵卫)1, and Shu-Wei Sun(孙枢为)1,2
1 State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi'an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an 710119, China;
2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
3 Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China;
4 Songshan Lake Materials Laboratory, Dongguan 523808, China
Abstract  With the rapid demand for underwater optical communication (UOC), studies of UOC degradation by oceanic turbulence have attached increasing attention worldwide and become a research hot-spot in recent years. Previous studies used a simplified and inaccurate oceanic turbulence spectrum, in which the eddy diffusivity ratio between temperature and salinity is assumed to be unity and the outer scale of turbulence is assumed to be infinite. However, both assumptions are not true in most of the actual marine environments. In this paper, based on the Rytov theory in weak turbulence, we derive analytical expressions of "the aperture-averaged scintillation index" (SI) for both plane and spherical waves, which can clearly demonstrate how SI is influenced by several key factors in UOC. Then, typical fade statistics of the UOC system in weak turbulence is discussed including the probability of fade, the expected number of fades per time, the mean fade time, signal-to-noise ratio and bit error rate. Our results show that spherical wave is preferable in the UOC system in weak turbulence compared to plane wave, and the aperture-averaged effect has a significant impact on UOC system's performance. Our results can be used to determine those key parameters for designing the UOC system over reasonable ranges.
Keywords:  underwater optical communication (UOC)      aperture-averaged scintillation index      fade statistics  
Received:  14 October 2020      Revised:  10 December 2020      Accepted manuscript online:  30 December 2020
PACS:  42.68.Xy (Ocean optics)  
  42.68.Ay (Propagation, transmission, attenuation, and radiative transfer)  
  42.25.Bs (Wave propagation, transmission and absorption)  
Fund: Project supported by the fund from Xi'an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics.
Corresponding Authors:  Fu-Zeng Kang, Xuan Wang     E-mail:;

Cite this article: 

Hao Wang(王昊), Fu-Zeng Kang(康福增), Xuan Wang(王瑄), Wei Zhao(赵卫), and Shu-Wei Sun(孙枢为) Aperture-averaged scintillation index and fade statistics in weak oceanic turbulence 2021 Chin. Phys. B 30 064207

[1] Hanson F and Radic S 2008 Appl. Opt. 47 277
[2] Johnson L J, Green R J and Leeson M S 2013 Appl. Opt. 52 7867
[3] Chan V W S 2006 J. Lightwave Technol. 24 4750
[4] Nikishov V V and Nikishov V I 2000 Int. J. Fluid Mech. Res. 27 82
[5] Korotkova O, Farwell N and Shchepakina E 2012 Waves in Random and Complex Media 22 260
[6] Wang Z Q, Zhang P F, Qiao C H, Lu L, Fan C Y and Ji X L 2016 Opt. Commun. 380 79
[7] Yi X, Li Z and Liu Z J 2015 Appl. Opt. 54 1273
[8] Yi X, Liu Z J and Yue P 2013 Opt. Laser Technol. 47 199
[9] Gokce M C and Baykal Y 2018 Opt. Commun. 410 830
[10] Baykal Y 2016 Appl. Opt. 55 1228
[11] Elamassie M, Uysal, M, Baykal Y, Abdallah M and Qaraqe K 2017 Opt. Soc. Am. A 34 1969
[12] Yue P, Luan X H, Yi X, Cui Z M and Wu M.J 2019 Opt. Soc. Am. A 36 556
[13] Andrew L C and Phillips R L 2005 Laser Beam Propagation Through Random Medium 2nd edn (Washington: SPIE Press) pp. 261-269
[14] Li Y, Zhang Y X and Zhu Y 2018 Opt. Commun. 428 57
[15] Yue P, Wu M J, Yi X, Cui Z M and Luan X H 2018 Opt. Soc. Am. A 36 32
[16] Al-Habash M A, Andrews L C and Phillips R L 2001 Opt. Eng. 40 1554
[17] Chan V W S 2006 J. Lightwave Technol. 24 4750
[18] Yura H T and McKinley W G 1983 Appl. Opt. 22 3353
[19] Andrews L C, Phillips R L and Hopen C Y 2000 Waves in Random and Complex Media 10 53
[20] Luan X H, Yue P and Yi X 2019 Opt. Soc. Am. A 36 2048
[21] Wu T, Ji X L, Li X Q, Wang H, Deng Y and Deng Z L 2018 Acta Phys. Sin. 67 224206 (in Chinese)
[22] Wei Y, Liu F, Yang K, Han P L, Wang X H and Shao X P 2018 Acta Phys. Sin. 67 184202 (in Chinese)
[23] Wu T, Ji X L and Luo Y J 2018 Acta Phys. Sin. 67 054206 (in Chinese)
[24] Wu X Y, Kong M, Li G Y and Zhao W J 2009 Acta Phys. Sin. 58 2654 (in Chinese)
[25] Bi W H, Chen J G and Zhang S 2017 Acta Phys. Sin. 66 074206 (in Chinese)
[26] Zhang X H, Zhang S and Sun C S 2016 Acta Phys. Sin. 65 144204 (in Chinese)
[27] Liu D J, Wang Y C, Wang G Q, Yin H M and Zhong H Y 2019 Chin. Phys. B 28 104207
[28] Guo L X, Wang R and Wu Z S 2010 Chin. Phys. B 19 044102
[1] Properties of multi-Gaussian Schell-model beams carrying an edge dislocation propagating in oceanic turbulence
Da-Jun Liu(刘大军), Yao-Chuan Wang(王耀川), Gui-Qiu Wang(王桂秋), Hong-Ming Yin(尹鸿鸣), Hai-Yang Zhong(仲海洋). Chin. Phys. B, 2019, 28(10): 104207.
[2] Application of the method of equivalent edge currents to composite scattering from the cone-cylinder above a dielectric rough sea surface
Guo Li-Xin(郭立新), Wang Rui(王蕊), and Wu Zhen-Sen(吴振森). Chin. Phys. B, 2010, 19(4): 044102.
No Suggested Reading articles found!