Please wait a minute...
Chin. Phys. B, 2022, Vol. 31(9): 090701    DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/ac5e96
GENERAL Prev   Next  

Spatially modulated scene illumination for intensity-compensated two-dimensional array photon-counting LiDAR imaging

Jiaheng Xie(谢佳衡), Zijing Zhang(张子静), Mingwei Huang(黄明维),Jiahuan Li(李家欢), Fan Jia(贾凡), and Yuan Zhao(赵远)
School of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China
Abstract  Photon-counting LiDAR using a two-dimensional (2D) array detector has the advantages of high lateral resolution and fast acquisition speed. The non-uniform intensity profile of the illumination beam and non-uniform quantum efficiency of the detectors in the 2D array deteriorate the imaging quality. Herein, we propose a photon-counting LiDAR system that uses a spatial light modulator to control the spatial intensity to compensate for both the non-uniform intensity profile of the illumination beam, and the variation in the quantum efficiency of the detectors in the 2D array. By using a 635 nm peak wavelength and 4 mW average power semiconductor laser, lab-based experiments at a 4.27 m stand-off distance are performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. Compared with the unmodulated method, the standard deviation of the intensity image of the proposed method is reduced from 0.109 to 0.089 for a whiteboard target, with an average signal photon number of 0.006 per pixel.
Keywords:  avalanche photodiode camera      photon counting      three-dimensional imaging      array modulation  
Received:  20 December 2021      Revised:  01 March 2022      Accepted manuscript online:  17 March 2022
PACS:  07.05.Pj (Image processing)  
  42.30.-d (Imaging and optical processing)  
  42.68.Wt (Remote sensing; LIDAR and adaptive systems)  
Corresponding Authors:  Zijing Zhang, Yuan Zhao     E-mail:;

Cite this article: 

Jiaheng Xie(谢佳衡), Zijing Zhang(张子静), Mingwei Huang(黄明维),Jiahuan Li(李家欢), Fan Jia(贾凡), and Yuan Zhao(赵远) Spatially modulated scene illumination for intensity-compensated two-dimensional array photon-counting LiDAR imaging 2022 Chin. Phys. B 31 090701

[1] Becker W 2015 Advanced time-correlated single photon counting applications (Switzerland:Springer International Publishing) pp. 3-9
[2] Buller G and Wallace A 2007 IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 13 1006
[3] McCarthy A, Krichel N J, Gemmell N R, Ren X, Tanner M G, Dorenbos S N, Zwiller V, Hadfield R H and Buller G S 2013 Opt. Express 21 8904
[4] Li Z P, Huang X, Cao Y., Wang B, Li Y H, Jin W, Yu C, Zhang J, Zhang Q, Peng C Z, Xu F and Pan J W 2020 Photonics Res. 8 1532
[5] Pawlikowska A M, Halimi A, Lamb R A and Buller G S 2017 Opt. Express 25 11919
[6] Krichel N J, McCarthy A and Buller G S 2010 Opt. Express 18 9192
[7] Kumar S, Dunsby C, De Beule P A, Owen D M, Anand U, Lanigan P M, Benninger R K, Davis D M, Neil M A, Anand P, Benham C, Naylor A and French P M 2007 Opt. Express 15 12548
[8] Becker W, Bergmann A, Hink M A, König K, Benndorf K and Biskup C 2004 Microsc Res. Techn. 63 58
[9] Tobin R, Halimi A, McCarthy A, Laurenzis M, Christnacher F and Buller G S 2019 Opt. Express 27 4590
[10] Heide F, Diamond S, Lindell D B and Wetzstein G 2018 Sci. Rep. 8 1
[11] Li Z P, Ye J T, Huang X, Jiang P Y, Cao Y, Hong Y, Yu C, Zhang J, Zhang Q, Peng C Z, Xu F and Pan J W 2021 Optica 8 344
[12] Du B C, Li Z H, Shen G Y, Zheng T X, Zhang H Y, Yang L and Wu G 2019 Chin. Phys. Lett. 36 094201
[13] Zhang Z, Wu L, Song J and Zhao Y 2017 Chin. Phys. B 26 104207
[14] O'Toole M, Heide F, Lindell D B, Zang K, Diamond S and Wetzstein G 2017 Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, July 21-26, 2017, Hawaii, United States, p. 1539
[15] Heinrichs R, Aull B F, Marino R M, Fouche D G, McIntosh A K, Zayhowski J J, Stephens T, O'Brien M E and Albota M A 2001 Laser Radar Technology and Applications VI. SPIE, April 16-20, 2001, Orlando, United States, p. 106
[16] Vaidyanathan M, Blask S, Higgins T, et al. 2007 Laser Radar Technology and Applications XII. SPIE April 9-13, 2007, Orlando, United States, p. 165
[17] Shin D, Xu F, Venkatraman D, Lussana R, Villa F, Zappa F, Goyal V K, Wong F N and Shapiro J H 2016 Nat. Commun. 7 1
[18] Satat G, Tancik M and Raskar R 2018 IEEE International Conference on Computational Photography, May 4-6, 2018, Pittsburgh, USA, p. 1
[19] Aull B F, Loomis A H, Gregory J A and Young D J 1998 56th Annual Device Research Conference Digest. IEEE, June 22-24, 1998, Charlottesville, USA, p. 58
[20] Aull B F, Loomis A H, Young D J, Heinrichs R M, Felton B J, Daniels P J and Landers D J 2002 Lincoln Lab. J. 13 335
[21] Parmesan L, Dutton N A, Calder N J, Krstajic N, Holmes A J, Grant L A and Henderson R K 2015 MEMORY 900 M5
[22] Gyongy I, Al Abbas T, Finlayson N, Johnston N, Calder N, Erdogan A, Dutton N W, Walker R and Henderson R K 2018 International Society for Optics and Photonics, September 10-13, 2018, Berlin, Germany, p. 1079907
[23] Rapp J, Tachella J, Altmann Y, McLaughlin S and Goyal V K 2020 IEEE Signal Process Mag. 37 62
[24] Sinzinger S, Brenner K H, Moisel J, Spick T and Testorf M 1995 Appl. Opt. 34 6626
[25] Shin D, Shapiro J H and Goyal V K 2017 Wavelets and Sparsity XVII, SPIE, August 6-10, 2017, San Diego, United States, p. 9
[26] Howland G A, Lum D J, Ware M R and Howell J C 2013 Opt. Express 21 23822
[27] Rapp J and Goyal V K 2017 IEEE Trans. Comput. Imaging 3 445
[28] Tsai T H, Yuan X and Brady D J 2015 Opt. Express 23 11912
[29] Sun M J, Edgar M P, Phillips D B, Gibson G M and Padgett M J 2016 Opt. Express 24 10476
[30] Grant M, Boyd S, and Ye Y 2009 Cvx Matlab software for disciplined convex programming
[31] Grant M C and Boyd S P 2008 Graph implementations for nonsmooth convex programs (London:Springer) pp. 95-110
[32] Caselles V, Chambolle A and Novaga M 2007 Multiscale Model Simul. 6 87
[33] Xu J, Feng X, Hao Y and Han Y 2014 J. Syst. Eng. Electron. 25 168
[34] Peng X, Zhao X Y, Li L J and Sun M J 2020 Photonics Res. 8 325
[1] Detection performance improvement of photon counting chirped amplitude modulation lidar with response probability correction
Yi-Fei Sun(孙怿飞), Zi-Jing Zhang(张子静), Li-Yuan Zhao(赵丽媛), Wei-Min Sun(孙伟民), Yuan Zhao(赵远). Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27(9): 094213.
[2] Photon-counting chirped amplitude modulation lidar system using superconducting nanowire single-photon detector at 1550-nm wavelength
Hui Zhou(周慧), Yu-Hao He(何宇昊), Chao-Lin Lü(吕超林), Li-Xing You(尤立星), Zhao-Hui Li(李召辉), Guang Wu(吴光), Wei-Jun Zhang(张伟君), Lu Zhang(张露), Xiao-Yu Liu(刘晓宇), Xiao-Yan Yang(杨晓燕), Zhen Wang(王镇). Chin. Phys. B, 2018, 27(1): 018501.
[3] Detailed calibration of the PI-LCX: 1300 high performance single photon counting hard x-ray CCD camera
Wei Hong(洪伟), Xian-Lun Wen(温贤伦), Lai Wei(魏来), Bin Zhu(朱斌), Yu-Chi Wu(吴玉迟), Ke-Gong Dong(董克攻), Chun-Ye Jiao(焦春晔), Bo Wu(伍波), Ying-Ling He(何颖玲), Fa-Qiang Zhang(张发强), Wei-Min Zhou(周维民), Yu-Qiu Gu(谷渝秋). Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26(2): 025204.
[4] The intensity detection of single-photon detectors based on photon counting probability density statistics
Zijing Zhang(张子静), Long Wu(吴龙), Jie Song(宋杰), Yuan Zhao(赵远). Chin. Phys. B, 2017, 26(10): 104207.
[5] Ultra-low power anti-crosstalk collision avoidance light detection and ranging using chaotic pulse position modulation approach
Jie Hao(郝杰), Ma-li Gong(巩马理), Peng-fei Du(杜鹏飞), Bao-jie Lu(卢宝杰), Fan Zhang(张帆), Hai-tao Zhang(张海涛), Xing Fu(付星). Chin. Phys. B, 2016, 25(7): 074207.
[6] A hybrid-type quantum random number generator
Hai-Qiang Ma(马海强), Wu Zhu(朱武), Ke-Jin Wei(韦克金), Rui-Xue Li(李瑞雪), Hong-Wei Liu(刘宏伟). Chin. Phys. B, 2016, 25(5): 050304.
[7] Photon counting statistics of V-type three-level systems: The effects of the field fluctuations
Peng Yong-Gang (彭勇刚), Zheng Yu-Jun (郑雨军). Chin. Phys. B, 2015, 24(2): 024204.
[8] Imaging properties of a tetra wedge readout
Liu Yong-An (刘永安), Yan Qiu-Rong (鄢秋荣), Sai Xiao-Feng (赛小锋), Wei Yong-Lin (韦永林), Sheng Li-Zhi (盛立志), Yang Hao (杨颢), Hu Hui-Jun (胡慧君), Zhao Bao-Sheng (赵宝升). Chin. Phys. B, 2011, 20(6): 068503.
[9] A new quantum mechanical photon counting distribution formula
Yuan Hong-Chun(袁洪春), Fan Hong-Yi(范洪义), and Hu Li-Yun(胡利云) . Chin. Phys. B, 2011, 20(11): 114204.
[10] Degree of fourth-order coherence by double Hanbury Brown–Twiss detections
Zhang Yu-Chi(张玉驰), Li Yuan(李园), Guo Yan-Qiang(郭龑强), Li Gang(李刚), Wang Jun-Min(王军民), and Zhang Tian-Cai(张天才). Chin. Phys. B, 2010, 19(8): 084205.
[11] Internal cancellation of spikes using two avalanche photodiodes in series for single photon detection
Liu Yun(刘云), Wu Qing-Lin(吴青林), Han Zheng-Fu(韩正甫), Dai Yi-Min(戴逸民), and Guo Guang-Can(郭光灿). Chin. Phys. B, 2010, 19(8): 080308.
No Suggested Reading articles found!