Please wait a minute...
Chin. Phys. B, 2019, Vol. 28(7): 076101    DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/28/7/076101

Control on β conformation of poly(9,9-di-n-octylfluorene) via solvent annealing

Zhi Chao Zhang(张志超)1, Bing Yue Zhang(张丙悦)1, Yu Yan Weng(翁雨燕)1,2, Tian Hui Zhang(张天辉)1
1 Center for Soft Condensed Matter Physics and Interdisciplinary Research and College of Physics, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, China;
2 National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China

Films of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) are of great importance in fabricating light emitting diodes. In practice, the β-phase of PFO is expected due to its high efficiency in the transport of charge carrier. To promote the formation of β-phase, PFO films are immersed and annealed in the mixture of solvent/nonsolvent. The effects of temperature, solvent/nonsolvent ratio, and annealing time are examined systematically. It is found that the fraction of β-phase can be highly improved by increasing the ratio of solvent/nonsolvent. The reconfiguration of PFO molecules for β-phase in annealing is generally finished in 10 min. The finding in this study demonstrates that solvent-assisted annealing offers a fast and economic approach for mass annealing.

Keywords:  organic crystal      conjugated polymer      solvent annealing  
Received:  25 February 2019      Revised:  26 April 2019      Published:  05 July 2019
PACS:  61.82.Pv (Polymers, organic compounds)  
  61.82.Rx (Nanocrystalline materials)  
  81.40.Ef (Cold working, work hardening; annealing, post-deformation annealing, quenching, tempering recovery, and crystallization)  

Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11674235, 11374218, and 21204058), the National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, China (Grant No. M30036), and the Priority Academic Program Development (PAPD) of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China.

Corresponding Authors:  Yu Yan Weng, Tian Hui Zhang     E-mail:;

Cite this article: 

Zhi Chao Zhang(张志超), Bing Yue Zhang(张丙悦), Yu Yan Weng(翁雨燕), Tian Hui Zhang(张天辉) Control on β conformation of poly(9,9-di-n-octylfluorene) via solvent annealing 2019 Chin. Phys. B 28 076101

[1] Dalal S S, Walters D M, Lyubimov I, J J de Pablo and Ediger M D 2015 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112 4227
[2] Weinfurtner K H, Fujikawa H, Tokito S and Taga Y 2000 Appl. Phys. Lett. 76 2502
[3] Heliotis G, Xia R, Turnbull G A, Andrew P, Barnes W L, Samuel I D W and Bradley D D C 2004 Adv. Funct. Mater. 14 91
[4] Scharber M C, Mühlbacher D, Koppe M, Denk P, Waldauf C, Heeger A J and Brabec C J 2006 Adv. Mater. 18 789
[5] Chua L L, Zaumseil J, Chang J F, Ou E C W, Ho P K H, Sirringhaus H and Friend R H 2005 Nature 434 194
[6] Sirringhaus H, Wilson R J, Friend R H, Inbasekaran M, Wu W, Woo E P, Grell M and Bradley D D C 2000 Appl. Phys. Lett. 77 406
[7] Virgili T, Lidzey D G, Grell M, Bradley D D C, Stagira S, Zavelani-Rossi M and De Silvestri S 2002 Appl. Phys. Lett. 80 4088
[8] Rothe C, Galbrecht F, Scherf U and Monkman A 2006 Adv. Mater. 18 2137
[9] Takenobu T, Bisri S Z, Takahashi T, Yahiro M, Adachi C and Iwasa Y 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 066601
[10] Wang H, Li F, Ravia I, Gao B, Li Y, Medvedev V, Sun H, Tessler N and Ma Y 2011 Adv. Funct. Mater. 21 3770
[11] Cadby A J, Lane P A, Mellor H, Martin S J, Grell M, Giebeler C, Bradley D D C, Wohlgenannt M, An C and Vardeny Z V 2000 Phys. Rev. B 62 15604
[12] Ryu G, Stavrinou P N and Bradley D D C 2009 Adv. Funct. Mater. 19 3237
[13] Yokoyama D, Setoguchi Y, Sakaguchi A, Suzuki M and Adachi C 2010 Adv. Funct. Mater. 20 386
[14] Shaw P E, Ruseckas A, Peet J, Bazan G C and Samuel I D W 2010 Adv. Funct. Mater. 20 155
[15] Roy I and Hazra S 2015 RSC Adv. 5 665
[16] Lu H H, Liu C Y, Chang C H and Chen S A 2007 Adv. Mater. 19 2574
[17] Ariu M, Lidzey D G, Sims M, Cadby A J, Lane P A and Bradley D D C 2002 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14 9975
[18] Huang L, Huang X N, Sun G N, Gu C, Lu D and Ma Y G 2012 J. Phys. Chem. C 116 7993
[19] Liu C F, Wang Q L, Tian H K, Liu J, Geng Y H and Yan D H 2013 J. Phys. Chem. B 117 8880
[20] Hung M C, Liao J L, Chen S A, Chen S H and Su A C 2005 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127 14567
[1] Confinement-induced nanocrystal alignment of conjugated polymer by the soft-stamped nanoimprint lithography
Li Xiao-Hui, Yu Ji-Cheng, Lu Nai-Yan, Zhang Wei-Dong, Weng Yu-Yan, Gu Zhen. Chin. Phys. B, 2015, 24(10): 104215.
[2] Effects of polarons on static polarizabilities and second order hyperpolarizabilities of conjugated polymers
Wang Ya-Dong, Meng Yan, Di Bing, Wang Shu-Ling, An Zhong. Chin. Phys. B, 2010, 19(12): 127105.
[3] Anisotropic electrical conductivity,phase transition and thermal hysteresis of a charge-transfer salt dibutylammonium bis-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane DBA(TCNQ)2
Long Yun-Ze, Chen Zhao-Jia, Peng Hai-Lin, Liu Zhong-Fan. Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17(6): 2251-2256.
[4] Two-step dissociation of a polaron in conjugated polymers
Liu Xiao-Jing, Gao Kun, Li Yuan, Wei Jian-Hua, Xie Shi-Jie. Chin. Phys. B, 2007, 16(7): 2091-2095.
No Suggested Reading articles found!