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Chin. Phys. B  
  Chin. Phys. B--2008, Vol.17, No.7
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GENERAL

An estimation formula for the average path length of scale-free networks

Li Ying, Cao Hong-Duo, Shan Xiu-Ming, Ren Yong
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2327-2332 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/001
Full Text: [PDF 216 KB] (Downloads:812)
Show Abstract
A universal estimation formula for the average path length of scale free networks is given in this paper. Different from other estimation formulas, most of which use the size of network, $N$, as the only parameter, two parameters including $N$ and a second parameter $\alpha $ are included in our formula. The parameter $\alpha $ is the power-law exponent, which represents the local connectivity property of a network. Because of this, the formula captures an important property that the local connectivity property at a microscopic level can determine the global connectivity of the whole network. The use of this new parameter distinguishes this approach from the other estimation formulas, and makes it a universal estimation formula, which can be applied to all types of scale-free networks. The conclusion is made that the small world feature is a derivative feature of a scale free network. If a network follows the power-law degree distribution, it must be a small world network. The power-law degree distribution property, while making the network economical, preserves the efficiency through this small world property when the network is scaled up. In other words, a real scale-free network is scaled at a relatively small cost and a relatively high efficiency, and that is the desirable result of self-organization optimization.

Periodic-soliton solutions of the (2+1)-dimensional Kadomtsev--Petviashvili equation

Zhaqilao, Li Zhi-Bin
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2333-2338 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/002
Full Text: [PDF 2721 KB] (Downloads:943)
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$2N$ line-soliton solutions of the (2+1)-dimensional Kadomtsev--Petviashvili equation can be presented by resorting to the Hirota bilinear method. By extending the real parameters into complex parameters, this paper obtains $N$ periodic-soliton solutions of the (2+1)-dimensional Kadomtsev--Petviashvili equation from the $2N$ line-soliton solutions.

Thermal entanglement and teleportation of a thermally mixed entangled state of a Heisenberg chain through a Werner state

Huang Li-Yuan, Fang Mao-Fa
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2339-2345 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/003
Full Text: [PDF 1722 KB] (Downloads:620)
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The thermal entanglement and teleportation of a thermally mixed entangled state of a two-qubit Heisenberg $XXX$ chain under the Dzyaloshinski--Moriya (DM) anisotropic antisymmetric interaction through a noisy quantum channel given by a Werner state is investigated. The dependences of the thermal entanglement of the teleported state on the DM coupling constant, the temperature and the entanglement of the noisy quantum channel are studied in detail for both the ferromagnetic and the antiferromagnetic cases. The result shows that a minimum entanglement of the noisy quantum channel must be provided in order to realize the entanglement teleportation. The values of fidelity of the teleported state are also studied for these two cases. It is found that under certain conditions, we can transfer an initial state with a better fidelity than that for any classical communication protocol.

Scheme for implementing perfect remote state preparation with W-class state in cavity QED

Wang Xue-Wen, Peng Zhao-Hui
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2346-2351 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/004
Full Text: [PDF 165 KB] (Downloads:671)
Show Abstract
remote state preparation, $W$-class state, cavity QED

Efficient quantum secure communication with a publicly known key

Li Chun-Yan, Li Xi-Han, Deng Fu-Guo, Zhou Hong-Yu
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2352-2355 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/005
Full Text: [PDF 154 KB] (Downloads:541)
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This paper presents a simple way for an eavesdropper to eavesdrop freely the secret message in the experimental realization of quantum communication protocol proposed by Beige {\em et al} (2002 \emph{Acta Phys. Pol.} A \textbf{101} 357). Moreover, it introduces an efficient quantum secure communication protocol based on a publicly known key with decoy photons and two biased bases by modifying the original protocol. The total efficiency of this new protocol is double that of the original one. With a low noise quantum channel, this protocol can be used for transmitting a secret message. At present, this protocol is good for generating a private key efficiently.

Orbital effect in the stationary axisymmetric field

Gong Tian-Xi, Wang Yong-Jiu
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2356-2360 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/006
Full Text: [PDF 149 KB] (Downloads:435)
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This paper uses an elegant mathematical method to calculate the orbital effects in the axisymmetric field created by the spinning mass with electric charge and a large number of magnetic monopoles. In comparison with that in the Reissner--Nordstr\"om (R--N) field, the correction terms caused by the spinning mass decrease the advanced effect as the revolution direction of the test particle coincides with that of the Kerr field, however, the correction terms caused by the spinning charged mass increase the advance effect as the revolution direction of the test particle coincides with that of the Kerr--Newman--Kasnya (KNK) field. Generalizing the effect in the axisymmetric field, it obtains interesting results by discussing the parameters of the celestial body, these parameters provide a feasible experimental verification of the general relativity.

Structure properties and Noether symmetries for super-long elastic slender rod

Fu Jing-Li, Zhao Wei-Jia, Weng Yu-Quan
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2361-2365 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/007
Full Text: [PDF 520 KB] (Downloads:435)
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DNA is a nucleic acid molecule with double-helical structures that are special symmetrical structures attracting great attention of numerous researchers. The super-long elastic slender rod, an important structural model of DNA and other long-train molecules, is a useful tool in analysing the symmetrical properties and the stabilities of DNA. This paper studies the structural properties of a super-long elastic slender rod as a structural model of DNA by using Kirchhoff's analogue technique and presents the Noether symmetries of the model by using the method of infinitesimal transformation. Based on Kirchhoff's analogue it analyses the generalized Hamilton canonical equations. The infinitesimal transformations with respect to the radial coordinate, the generalized coordinates, and the quasi-momenta of the model are introduced. The Noether symmetries and conserved quantities of the model are obtained.

New insights into traffic dynamics: a weighted probabilistic cellular automaton model

Li Xing-Li, Kuang Hua, Song Tao, Dai Shi-Qiang, Li Zhi-Peng
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2366-2372 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/008
Full Text: [PDF 2173 KB] (Downloads:508)
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From the macroscopic viewpoint for describing the acceleration behaviour of drivers, a weighted probabilistic cellular automaton model (the WP model, for short) is proposed by introducing a kind of random acceleration probabilistic distribution function. The fundamental diagrams, the spatiotemporal patterns, are analysed in detail. It is shown that the presented model leads to the results consistent with the empirical data rather well, nonlinear flow--density relationship existing in lower density regions, and a new kind of traffic phenomenon called neo-synchronized flow. Furthermore, we give the criterion for distinguishing the high-speed and low-speed neo-synchronized flows and clarify the mechanism of this kind of traffic phenomenon. In addition, the result that the time evolution of distribution of headways is displayed as a normal distribution further validates the reasonability of the neo-synchronized flow. These findings suggest that the diversity and the randomicity of drivers and vehicles have indeed a remarkable effect on traffic dynamics.

Extraction of periodic signals in chaotic secure communication using Duffing oscillators

Wang Yun-Cai, Zhao Qing-Chun, Wang An-Bang
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2373-2376 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/009
Full Text: [PDF 921 KB] (Downloads:529)
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This paper presents a novel approach to extract the periodic signals masked by a chaotic carrier. It verifies that the driven Duffing oscillator is immune to the chaotic carrier and sensitive to certain periodic signals. A preliminary detection scenario illustrates that the frequency and amplitude of the hidden sine wave signal can be extracted from the chaotic carrier by numerical simulation. The obtained results indicate that the hidden messages in chaotic secure communication can be eavesdropped utilizing Duffing oscillators.

Impulsive control of nonlinear systems with time-varying delays

Yu Yong-Bin, Bao Jing-Fu, Zhang Hong-Bin, Zhong Qi-Shui, Liao Xiao-Feng, Yu Jue-Bang
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2377-2387 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/010
Full Text: [PDF 328 KB] (Downloads:611)
Show Abstract
A whole impulsive control scheme of nonlinear systems with time-varying delays, which is an extension for impulsive control of nonlinear systems without time delay, is presented in this paper. Utilizing the Lyapunov functions and the impulsive-type comparison principles, we establish a series of different conditions under which impulsively controlled nonlinear systems with time-varying delays are asymptotically stable. Then we estimate upper bounds of impulse interval and time-varying delays for asymptotically stable control. Finally a numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the method.

One-way hash function based on hyper-chaotic cellular neural network

Yang Qun-Ting, Gao Tie-Gang
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2388-2393 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/011
Full Text: [PDF 973 KB] (Downloads:654)
Show Abstract
The design of an efficient one-way hash function with good performance is a hot spot in modern cryptography researches. In this paper, a hash function construction method based on cell neural network with hyper-chaos characteristics is proposed. First, the chaos sequence is gotten by iterating cellular neural network with Runge--Kutta algorithm, and then the chaos sequence is iterated with the message. The hash code is obtained through the corresponding transform of the latter chaos sequence. Simulation and analysis demonstrate that the new method has the merit of convenience, high sensitivity to initial values, good hash performance, especially the strong stability.

Fast-scale border collision bifurcation in SEPIC power factor pre-regulators

Liu Fang
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2394-2404 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/012
Full Text: [PDF 5785 KB] (Downloads:775)
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In this paper we report a kind of fast-scale instability occurring in the single-ended primary inductance converter (SEPIC) power factor pre-regulator, which is designed to operate in discontinuous conduction mode. Main results are given by exact cycle-by-cycle computer simulations as well as theoretical analysis. It is found that the instability phenomenon manifests itself as a fast-scale bifurcation at the switching period, which implies the occurrence of border collision bifurcation, or is related to the transition of the regular operating mode of the SEPIC. According to the theoretical analysis and simulation results, the effects of parameters on system stability, and the locations of the bifurcation points are confirmed. Moreover, the effects of such an instability on power factor and switching stress are also discussed. Finally, the occurrence of the asymmetric bifurcation locations is investigated. The results show that this work provides a convenient means of predicting stability boundaries which can facilitate the selection of the practical parameters.

Controlling bifurcations and chaos in discrete small-world networks

Liu Feng, Guan Zhi-Hong, Wang Hua
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2405-2411 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/013
Full Text: [PDF 261 KB] (Downloads:736)
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We propose an impulsive hybrid control method to control the period-doubling bifurcations and stabilize unstable periodic orbits embedded in a chaotic attractor of a small-world network. Simulation results show that the bifurcations can be delayed or completely eliminated. A periodic orbit of the system can be controlled to any desired periodic orbit by using this method.

Adaptive control and synchronization of an uncertain new hyperchaotic Lorenz system

Cai Guo-Liang, Zheng Song, Tian Li-Xin
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2412-2419 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/014
Full Text: [PDF 254 KB] (Downloads:636)
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This paper is involved with the adaptive control and synchronization problems for an uncertain new hyperchaotic Lorenz system. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, the adaptive control law is derived such that the trajectory of hyperchaotic Lorenz system with unknown parameters can be globally stabilized to an unstable equilibrium point of the uncontrolled system. Furthermore, an adaptive control approach is presented to the synchronizations between two identical hyperchaotic systems, particularly between two different uncertain hyperchaotic systems. Numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the presented method.

Local bifurcation analysis of a four-dimensional hyperchaotic system

Wu Wen-Juan, Chen Zeng-Qiang, Yuan Zhu-Zhi
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2420-2432 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/015
Full Text: [PDF 754 KB] (Downloads:752)
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Local bifurcation phenomena in a four-dimensional continuous hyperchaotic system, which has rich and complex dynamical behaviours, are analysed. The local bifurcations of the system are investigated by utilizing the bifurcation theory and the centre manifold theorem, and thus the conditions of the existence of pitchfork bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation are derived in detail. Numerical simulations are presented to verify the theoretical analysis, and they show some interesting dynamics, including stable periodic orbits emerging from the new fixed points generated by pitchfork bifurcation, coexistence of a stable limit cycle and a chaotic attractor, as well as chaos within quite a wide parameter region.

Control of beam halo-chaos by Gauss function in the triangle periodic-focusing channel

Yu Hai-Jun, Bai Long, Weng Jia-Qiang, Luo Xiao-Shu, Fang Jin-Qing
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2433-2437 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/016
Full Text: [PDF 1034 KB] (Downloads:448)
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This paper studies the Kapchinsky--Vladimirsky (K--V) beam through a triangle periodic-focusing magnetic field by using the particle-core model. The beam halo-chaos is found, and an idea of Gauss function controller is proposed based on the strategy of controlling the halo-chaos. It performs multiparticle simulation to control the halo by using the Gauss function control method. The numerical results show that the halo-chaos and its regeneration can be eliminated effectively, and that the radial particle density is uniform at the centre of the beam as long as the control method and appropriate parameter are chosen.

Evolution of spiral wave and pattern formation in a vortical polarized electric field

Ma Jun, Yi Ming, Li Bing-Wei, Li Yan-Long
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2438-2445 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/017
Full Text: [PDF 4835 KB] (Downloads:473)
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In this paper, the evolution of the pattern transition induced by the vortical electric field (VEF) is investigated. Firstly, a scheme is suggested to generate the VEF by changing the spatial magnetic field. Secondly, the VEF is imposed on the whole medium, and the evolutions of the spiral wave and the spatiotemporal chaos are investigated by using the numerical simulation. The result confirms that the drift and the breakup of the spiral wave and the new net-like pattern are observed when different polarized fields are imposed on the whole medium respectively. Finally, the pattern transition induced by the polarized field is discussed theoretically.

Dynamical behaviour of a controlled vibro-impact system

Wang Liang, Xu Wei, Li Ying
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2446-2450 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/018
Full Text: [PDF 254 KB] (Downloads:456)
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In this paper, we give a controlled two-degree-of-freedom (TDOF) vibro-impact system based on the damping control law, and then investigate the dynamical behaviour of this system. According to numerical simulation, we find that this control scheme can suppress chaos to periodic orbit successfully. Furthermore, the feasibility and the robustness of the controller are confirmed, separately. We also find that this scheme cannot only suppress chaos, but also generate chaos in this system.

Spectral anomalies of diffracted pulsed Hermite--Gaussian beams in dispersive media

Zhao Zhi-Guo, Pan Liu-Zhan, Lü-Bai-Da
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2451-2457 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/019
Full Text: [PDF 384 KB] (Downloads:386)
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This paper derives and uses the recurrence expressions for the power spectra of diffracted pulsed Hermite--Gaussian (HG) beams in dispersive media to study the spectral anomalies of pulsed HG beams in the far field. Numerical results are given to illustrate the dependence of spectral switches on the pulse parameters, truncation parameter and dispersive property of the medium. The potential application of spectral anomalies of ultrashort pulsed beams in information encoding and transmission is discussed.
NUCLEAR PHYSICS

Transverse momentum and transverse mass distributions of charged hadrons produced in Au--Au collisions at high energies

Liu Fu-Hu
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2458-2465 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/020
Full Text: [PDF 353 KB] (Downloads:421)
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The transverse momentum distribution and the transverse mass distribution of charged hadrons produced in nucleus--nucleus collisions at high energies are described by using a two-cylinder model. The results calculated by the model are compared and found to be in agreement with the experimental data of the STAR and E895 Collaborations, measured in Au--Au collisions at the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and alternating-gradient synchrotron (AGS) energies, respectively. In the energy range concerned, the excitation degree of emission source close to the central axis of cylinders increases obviously with the collision centrality and incident energy increasing, but it does not show any obvious change with the increase of the (pseudo)rapidity in central collisions. The excitation degree of emission source close to the side-surface of cylinders does not show any obvious change with the collision centrality, the (pseudo)rapidity, and the incident energy increasing.
CLASSICAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY

Theoretical research on the performance of a practical helix travelling wave tube

Duan Zhao-Yun, Gong Yu-Bin, Wei Yan-Yu, Wang Wen-Xiang
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2484-2490 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/023
Full Text: [PDF 209 KB] (Downloads:423)
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On the basis of a rigorous field theory, two different physical models of attenuator and sever have been proposed. One is named High attenuation (HATT) model in which both attenuator and sever are considered as a unified attenuator, but the sever is regarded as an area of very high loss; the other is called Sever and attenuator (SATT) model in which the sever is modelled as a drift area in which the electric and magnetic fields both vanish. A complex function is derived and potential sinking effect is also considered. Thus, a set of more practical self-consistent equations of nonlinear beam--wave interaction is formulated. Simulations are carried out under the conditions of the two different physical models, and the simulation results are compared with the experimental data. The results show that in the case of single signal drive, the unknown second harmonic should be included for predicting the saturated output power. It is also evident that the SATT model and the HATT model predict the same physical nature, whereas the results predicted by the HATT model are much closer to the experimental data than those obtained from the SATT model. Therefore, these results provide a strong theoretical basis for designing broadband and high gain helix travelling wave tubes.

Investigation on electromagnetic scattering from rough soil surface of layered medium using the small perturbation method

Ren Xin-Cheng, Guo Li-Xin
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2491-2498 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/024
Full Text: [PDF 629 KB] (Downloads:550)
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Electromagnetic scattering from a rough surface of layered medium is investigated, and the formulae of the scattering coefficients for different polarizations are derived using the small perturbation method. A rough surface with exponential correlation function is presented for describing a rough soil surface of layered medium, the formula of its scattering coefficient is derived by considering the spectrum of the rough surface with exponential correlation function; the curves of the bistatic scattering coefficient of HH polarization with variation of the scattering angle are obtained by numerical calculation. The influence of the permittivity of layered medium, the mean layer thickness of intermediate medium, the roughness surface parameters and the frequency of the incident wave on the bistatic scattering coefficient is discussed. Numerical results show that the influence of the permittivity of layered medium, the mean layer thickness of intermediate medium, the rms and the correlation length of the rough surface, and the frequency of the incident wave on the bistatic scattering coefficient is very complex.

The theoretic analysis of maskless surface plasmon resonant interference lithography by prism coupling

Fang Liang, Du Jing-Lei, Guo Xiao-Wei, Wang Jing-Quan, Zhang Zhi-You, Luo Xian-Gang, Du Chun-Lei
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2499-2503 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/025
Full Text: [PDF 1184 KB] (Downloads:585)
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The use of an attenuated total reflection-coupling mode of prism coated with metal film to excite the interference of the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) was proposed for periodic patterning with a resolution of subwavelength scale. High intensity of electric field can be obtained because of the coupling between SPPs and evanescence under a resonance condition, which can reduce exposure time and improve contrast. In this paper, several critical parameters for maskless surface plasmon resonant lithography are described, and the preliminary simulation based on a finite difference time-domain technique agrees well with the theoretical analysis, which demonstrates this scheme and provides the theoretical basis for further experiments.

Refraction of extraordinary rays and ordinary rays in the Savart polariscope

Wu Jun-Fang, Zhang Chun-Min, Zhang Ying-Tang, Liu Han-Chen, Zhai Xue-Jun
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2504-2508 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/026
Full Text: [PDF 144 KB] (Downloads:536)
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The refraction of rays in the Savart polariscope is different from the isotropic medium. We have analysed and discussed the refraction of rays in the Savart polariscope on the basis of the Snell law. The refraction formulae of the extraordinary rays and ordinary rays were derived. Results obtained may provide theoretical and practical guide lines for studying, developing and engineering of polarization interference imaging spectrometer.

The number of least degrees of freedom required for a polarization controller to transform any state of polarization to any other output covering the entire Poincaré sphere

Zhang Xiao-Guang, Zheng Yuan
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2509-2513 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/027
Full Text: [PDF 463 KB] (Downloads:503)
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Using two typical types of polarization controller, this paper analyses theoretically and experimentally the fact that it is necessary to adjust at least three instead of two waveplates in order to transform any state of polarization to any other output covering the entire Poincar\'{e} sphere. The experimental results are exactly in accordance with the theory discussed in this paper. It has corrected the conventional and inaccurate point of view that two waveplates of a polarization controller are adequate to complete the transformation of state of polarization.

Distillation of bi-partite entanglement from W state with cavity QED

Deng Li, Chen Ai-Xi, Chen De-Hai, Huang Ke-Lin
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2514-2516 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/028
Full Text: [PDF 135 KB] (Downloads:559)
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Following the theoretical protocol described by Fortescue and Lo [Fortescue B and Lo H K 2007 {\it Phys. Rev. Lett.} {\bf 98} 260501], we present a scheme in which one can distill maximally entangled bi-partite states from a tri-partite $W$ state with cavity QED. Our scheme enables the concrete physical system to realize its protocol. In our scheme, the rate distillation also asymptotically approaches one. Based on the present cavity QED techniques, we discuss the experimental feasibility.

Numerical study of the Ne-like Cr x-ray laser at 28.6nm

Zhao Jing, Dong Quan-Li, Wang Shou-Jun, Zhang Lei, Zhang Jie
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2517-2521 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/029
Full Text: [PDF 173 KB] (Downloads:502)
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We investigate the Ne-like Cr x-ray laser at $28.6\,\mathrm{nm}$ by using a modified 1D lagrangian hydrodynamic code MED103 coupled with an atomic physics data package and a 2D ray tracing code as a post-processor. The laser pumping configuration includes two prepulses and one main pulse. The first prepulse normally irradiates the target, while the second prepulse and the main pulse irradiate the target at grazing-incident angles. We predict that saturation can be achieved for the Ne-like Cr x-ray lasers with a total pumping energy of $125\,\mathrm{mJ}$. Good beam qualities with no deflecting angle and a small divergence angle of $5\,\mathrm{mrad}$ are observed.

Population transfer by femtosecond laser pulses in a ladder-type atomic system

Fan Xi-Jun, Li Ai-Yun, Tong Dian-Min, Liu Cheng-Pu
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2522-2526 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/030
Full Text: [PDF 1356 KB] (Downloads:537)
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The population transfer in a ladder-type atomic system driven by linearly polarized sech-shape femtosecond laser pulses is investigated by numerically solving Schr\"{o}dinger equation without including the rotating wave approximation (RWA). It is shown that population transfer is mainly determined by the Rabi frequency (strength) of the driving laser field and the chirp rate, and that the ratio of the dipole moments and the pulse width also have a prominent effect on the population transfer. By choosing appropriate values of the above parameters, complete population transfer can be realized.

Rotating soliton clusters in nonlocal nonlinear media

Wang Yu-Qing, Guo Qi
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2527-2534 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/031
Full Text: [PDF 1107 KB] (Downloads:583)
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From the study of the dynamics for the ring-like soliton clusters, we find that there exists a critical value of the ring radius, $d_{\rm cr}$, for the stationary rotation of the clusters with respect to the beam centre even in the presence of the relatively strong noise, and that the soliton clusters will not rotate but only undergo periodic collisions in the form of simple harmonic oscillator if the ring radius is large enough. We also show that the direction of the rotation can be opposite to the direction of phase gradient when the relative phase difference is within the domain $0<|\theta|<\pi$, while along the direction of phase gradient when the relative phase difference is within the domain $\pi<|\theta|<2\pi$.

Investigation of third-order nonlinear optical properties of two azo-nickel chelate compounds

Xiang Hong, Tian Zhi-Yuan, Wang Shu-Feng, Wang Zhen-Wei, Li Zhi, Yang Hong, Yao Jian-Nian, Gong Qi-Huang
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2535-2538 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/032
Full Text: [PDF 317 KB] (Downloads:622)
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This paper investigates the third-order nonlinear optical properties of two azo-nickel chelate compounds by the optical Kerr gate method at 830\,nm wavelength with pulse duration of 120\,fs. Both of the two compounds exhibited large third-order optical nonlinearity. The second-order hyperpolarizability, $\gamma$, of Compound 1 is of $1.0\times 10^{ - 31}$\,esu. Due to the charge transfer, the $\gamma$ of Compound 2 with electron donor and acceptor group is $4.9\times10^{ - 31}$\,esu, which is a four-time enhancement in comparison with Compound 1. The absorption spectra show that the electron push--pull effect, which induces intramolecular charge transfer, leads to the increased optical nonlinearity.

Temporal development of open-circuit bright photovoltaic solitons

Zhang Lei, Lu Ke-Qing, Zhang Mei-Zhi, Liu Xue-Ming, Zhang Yan-Peng
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2539-2543 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/033
Full Text: [PDF 1164 KB] (Downloads:554)
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This paper investigates the temporal behaviour of open-circuit bright photovoltaic spatial solitons by using numerical techniques. It shows that when the intensity ratio of the soliton, the ratio between the soliton peak intensity and the dark irradiance, is small, the quasi-steady-state soliton width decreases monotonically with the increase of $\tau $, where $\tau $ is the parameter correlated with the time, that when the intensity ratio of the soliton is big, the quasi-steady-state soliton width decreases with the increase of $\tau $ and then increases with $\tau $, and that the formation time of the steady-state solitons is not correlated with the intensity ratio of the soliton. It finds that the local nonlinear effect increases with the photovoltaic field, which behaves as that the width of soliton beams is small and the self-focusing quasi-period is short. On the other hand, we also discuss that both the time and the temperature have an effect on the beam bending.

Effective permittivity and permeability of one-dimensional dielectric photonic crystal within a band gap

Guo Ji-Yong, Chen Hong, Li Hong-Qiang, Zhang Ye-Wen
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2544-2552 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/034
Full Text: [PDF 1697 KB] (Downloads:637)
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We take a finite dielectric photonic crystal as a homogeneous slab and have extracted the effective parameters. Our systematic study shows that the effective permittivity or permeability of dielectric photonic crystal is negative within a band gap region. This means that the band gap might act as $\varepsilon$-negative materials (ENMs) with $\varepsilon <0$ and $\mu >0$, or $\mu$-negative materials (MNMs) with $\varepsilon >0$ and $\mu <0$. Moreover the effective parameters sensitively rely on size, surface termination, symmetry, etc. The effective parameters can be used to design full transmission tunnelling modes and amplify evanescent wave. Several cases are studied and the results show that dielectric photonic band gap can indeed mimic a single negative material (ENM or MNM) under some restrictions.

Design of a compact polarization beam splitter based on a deformed photonic crystal directional coupler

Ren Gang, Zheng Wan-Hua, Wang Ke, Du Xiao-Yu, Xing Ming-Xin, Chen Liang-Hui
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2553-2556 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/035
Full Text: [PDF 317 KB] (Downloads:445)
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In this paper a compact polarization beam splitter based on a deformed photonic crystal directional coupler is designed and simulated. The transverse-electric (TE) guided mode and transverse-magnetic (TM) guided mode are split due to different guiding mechanisms. The effect of the shape deformation of the air holes on the coupler is studied. It discovered that the coupling strength of the coupled waveguides is strongly enhanced by introducing elliptical airholes, which reduce the device length to less than 18.5$\mu$m. A finite-difference time-domain simulation is performed to evaluate the performance of the device, and the extinction ratios for both TE and TM polarized light are higher than 20\,dB.

Design of novel three port optical gates scheme for the integration of large optical cavity electroabsorption modulators and evanescently-coupled photodiodes

Liao Zai-Yi, Yang Hua, Wang Wei
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2557-2561 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/036
Full Text: [PDF 760 KB] (Downloads:444)
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This paper presents a novel scheme to monolithically integrate an evanescently-coupled uni-travelling carrier photodiode with a planar short multimode waveguide structure and a large optical cavity electroabsorption modulator based on a multimode waveguide structure. By simulation, both electroabsorption modulator and photodiode show excellent optical performances. The device can be fabricated with conventional photolithography, reactive ion etching, and chemical wet etching.

Design, fabrication and characterization of a high-performance microring resonator in silicon-on-insulator

Huang Qing-Zhong, Yu Jin-Zhong, Chen Shao-Wu, Xu Xue-Jun, Han Wei-Hua, Fan Zhong-Chao
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2562-2566 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/037
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A high-performance microring resonator in a silicon-on-insulator rib waveguide is realized by using the electron beam lithography followed by inductively coupled plasma etching. The design and the experimental realization of this device are presented in detail. In addition to improving relevant processes to minimize propagation loss, the coupling efficiency between the ring and the bus is carefully chosen to approach a critical coupling for high performance operating. We have measured a quality factor of 21,200 and an extinction ratio of 12.5dB at a resonant wavelength of 1549.32nm. Meanwhile, a low propagation loss of 0.89dB/mm in a curved waveguide with a bending radius of 40$\mu $m is demonstrated as well.

A visible-near infrared tunable waveguide based on plasmonic gold nanoshell

Zhang Hai-Xi, Gu Ying, Gong Qi-Huang
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2567-2573 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/038
Full Text: [PDF 1407 KB] (Downloads:744)
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A tunable plasmonic waveguide via gold nanoshells immerged in a silica base is proposed and simulated by using the finite difference time-domain (FDTD) method. For waveguides based on near-field coupling, transmission frequencies can be tuned in a wide region from 660 to 900\,nm in wavelength by varying shell thicknesses. After exploring the steady distributions of electric fields in these waveguides, we find that their decay lengths are about 5.948--12.83\,dB/1000\,nm, which is superior to the decay length (8.947\,dB/1000\,nm) of a gold nanosphere plasmonic waveguide. These excellent tunability and transmittability are mainly due to the unique hollow structure. These gold nanoshell waveguides should be fabricated in laboratory.

Growth and collapse of laser-induced bubbles in glycerol--water mixtures

Liu Xiu-Mei, He Jie, Lu Jian, Ni Xiao-Wu
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2574-2579 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/039
Full Text: [PDF 608 KB] (Downloads:647)
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Comprehensive numerical and experimental analyses of the effect of viscosity on cavitation oscillations are performed. This numerical approach is based on the Rayleigh--Plesset equation. The model predictions are compared with experimental results obtained by using a fibre-optic diagnostic technique based on optical beam deflection (OBD). The maximum and minimum bubble radii as well as the oscillation times for each oscillation cycle are determined according to the characteristic signals. It is observed that the increasing of viscosity decreases the maximum bubble radii but increases the minimum bubble radii and the oscillation time. These experimental results are consistent with numerical results.

The pressure field in the liquid column in the tube-arrest method

Ying Chong-Fu, Li Chao, Xu De-Long, Deng Jing-Jun
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2580-2593 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/040
Full Text: [PDF 1830 KB] (Downloads:587)
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We have been using the method of tube-arrest as a means of producing transient single cavitation bubble. In the present paper we seek to comprehend the mechanism of production and inquire into the structure of the {\em ab initio} pressure field in the arrested liquid column. The generated pressure wave is shown by combining the theoretical analysis with the experimental observation to be a slightly varied version of water hammer. With relatively clean liquid, the magnitude of the tension peak generating the TSB is likely to reach of several millions Pa. It is also shown that the so generated cavitation bubble originating from the gas-containing bulk liquid is in `violent' motion.
ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS

Radiation forces on a three-level atom in the high-order Bessel beams

Wang Zheng-Ling, Yin Jian-Ping
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2466-2477 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/021
Full Text: [PDF 317 KB] (Downloads:534)
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The general expressions of the average dissipative and dipole forces acting on a $\Lambda $-configuration three-level atom in an arbitrary light field are derived by means of the optical Bloch equations based on the atomic density matrix elements, and the general properties of the average dissipative and dipole forces on a three-level atom in the linearly-polarized high-order Bessel beams (HBBs) are analysed. We find a resonant property (with two resonant peaks) of the dissipative force and a non-resonant property (with two pairs of non-resonant peaks) of the dipole force on the three-level atom, which are completely different from those on the two-level atom. Meanwhile we find a saturation effect of the average dissipative force in the HBB, which comes from the saturation of the upper-level population. Our study shows that the general expressions of the average dissipative and dipole forces on the three-level atom will be simplified to those of the two-level atom under the approximation of large detuning. Finally, we study the axial and azimuthal Doppler cooling of atoms in 1D optical molasses composed of two counter-propagating HBBs and discuss the azimuthal influence of the HBB on the Doppler cooling limit. We also find that the Doppler limit of atoms in the molasses HBB is slightly below the conventional Doppler limit of ${\hbar \Ga} /({2k_{\rm B}})$ due to the orbital angular momentum $l\hbar $ of the HBB.

First-principles study of structures and electronic properties of cadmium sulfide clusters

Chu He-Ying, Liu Zhao-Xia, Qiu Guo-Li, Kong De-Guo, Wu Si-Xin, Li Yun-Cai, Du Zu-Liang
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2478-2483 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/022
Full Text: [PDF 1286 KB] (Downloads:1097)
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The lowest-energy structures and the electronic properties of Cd$_{n}$S$_{n}$ ($n=1-8$) clusters have been studied by using density-functional theory simulating package DMol$^{3}$ in the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The ring-like structures are the lowest-energy configurations for $n=2, 3$ and the three-dimensional spheroid configurations for $n=4-8$. The three-dimensional structures may be considered as being built from the Cd$_{2}$S$_{2}$ and Cd$_{3}$S$_{3}$ rings. Compared to the previous reports, we have found the more stable structures for Cd$_{n}$S$_{n}$($n=7,8$). Calculations show that the magic numbers of Cd$_{n}$S$_{n}$ ($n=1-8$) clusters are $n=3$ and 6. As cluster size increases, the properties of Cd$_{n}$S$_{n}$ clusters tend to bulk-like ones in binding energy per CdS unit and Mulliken atomic charge, obtained by comparing with the calculated results of the wurtzite and zinc blende CdS for the same simulating parameters.
PHYSICS OF GASES, PLASMAS, AND ELECTRIC DISCHARGES

Single-and-double electron loss of O2+ in collisions with argon and helium

Liu Yu-Wen, Chen Xi-Meng, Lu Yan-Xia, Ding Bao-Wei, Fu Hong-Bin, Gao Zhi-Min, Cui Ying, Shao Jian-Xiong, Sun Guang-Zhi, Chen Lin, Yin Yong-Zhi
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2590-null doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/041
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This paper reports that the ratios of double to single electron loss cross-section (R) of O2+ in collision with Ar and He at the velocity of 1--4\nu0 (\nu0 is the Bohr velocity) have been obtained by the coincidence technique. The trend of R-V in the experiment indicates that the effective charge varies with injected velocity. The effective charge can be obtained by the n-body classical trajectory Monte Carlo method, which is interpreted by the molecular Coulomb over barrier model.

The instability of dust acoustic waves in inhomogeneous dusty plasmas with non-adiabatic dust charge fluctuation

Zhang Li-Ping, Xue Ju-Kui
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2594-2599 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/042
Full Text: [PDF 564 KB] (Downloads:530)
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This paper investigates the propagation of linear dust acoustic waves in inhomogeneous dusty plasmas due to spatial gradients of dust charge, plasma densities. A linear dispersion relation is obtained with the non-adiabatic dust charge fluctuation and the non-thermally distributed ions. The numerical results show that the inhomogeneity, non-thermal ions and non-adiabatic dust charge fluctuation have strong influence on the frequency and the damping rate of waves.
CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURAL, MECHANICAL, AND THERMAL PROPERTIES

Solitons and defects in nematic liquid crystals under a simple shear flow and in a static external magnetic field

Luo Kai-Fu, Jiang Xiu-Li, Yang Yu-Liang
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2600-2609 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/043
Full Text: [PDF 505 KB] (Downloads:618)
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Under a simple shear flow and in a static external magnetic field, the production of defects in the director-aligning regime of nematic liquid crystals has been investigated in terms of the Leslie--Ericksen theory. The equation of motion of the nematic director, which conforms to the driven over-damped sine-Gordon equation, has a soliton solution of the amplitude $\pi$. We show that the stationary state with the director uniformly oriented at a Leslie angle is only a metastable state and the potential, which governs the motion of the director, has a number of stable stationary states. For a strong magnetic field, the higher energy barrier between the stable and unstable states leads the director to be locked along the magnetic field direction. However, at the appropriate shear rate and magnetic field the defects, which appear as a stable solitary solution, can be nucleated from a uniformly aligned nematic liquid crystal. We have calculated the stationary travelling velocity of the solitary waves and the distance between a pair of defects.

Exact analytic solutions for an elliptic hole with asymmetric collinear cracks in a one-dimensional hexagonal quasi-crystal

Guo Jun-Hong, Liu Guan-Ting
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2610-2620 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/044
Full Text: [PDF 371 KB] (Downloads:604)
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Using the complex variable function method and the technique of conformal mapping, the anti-plane shear problem of an elliptic hole with asymmetric collinear cracks in a one-dimensional hexagonal quasi-crystal is solved, and the exact analytic solutions of the stress intensity factors (SIFs) for mode III problem are obtained. Under the limiting conditions, the present results reduce to the Griffith crack and many new results obtained as well, such as the circular hole with asymmetric collinear cracks, the elliptic hole with a straight crack, the mode T crack, the cross crack and so on. As far as the phonon field is concerned, these results, which play an important role in many practical and theoretical applications, are shown to be in good agreement with the classical results.

The elastic properties and energy characteristics of Au nanowires: an atomistic simulation study

Liu Shan-Shan, Wen Yu-Hua, Zhu Zi-Zhong
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2621-2626 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/045
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This paper have performed molecular static calculations with the quantum corrected Sutten--Chen type many body potential to study size effects on the elastic modulus of Au nanowires with [100], [110] and [111] crystallographic directions, and to explore the preferential growth orientation of Au nanowires. The main focus of this work is the size effects on their surface characteristics. Using the common neighbour analysis, this paper deduces that surface region approximately consists of two layer atoms. Further, it extracts the elastic modulus of surface, and calculate surface energy of nanowire. The results show that for all three directions the Young's modulus of nanowire increases as the diameter increases. Similar trend has been observed for the Young's modulus of surface. However, the atomic average potential energy of nanowire shows an opposite change. Both the potential and surface energy of [110] nanowire are the lowest among all three orientational nanowires, which helps to explain why Au nanowires possess a [110] preferred orientation during the experimental growth proceeds.

Power dissipation characteristics of great power and super high speed semiconductor switch

Liang Lin, Yu Yue-Hui, Peng Ya-Bin
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2627-2632 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/046
Full Text: [PDF 223 KB] (Downloads:446)
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The power dissipation characteristics of pulsed power switch reversely switched dynistors (RSDs) are investigated in this paper. According to the expressions of voltage on RSD, derived from the plasma bipolar drift model and the RLC circuit equations of RSD main loop, the simulation waveforms of current and voltage on RSD are acquired through iterative calculation by using the fourth order Runge--Kutta method, then the curve of transient power on RSD versus time is obtained. The result shows that the total dissipation on RSD is trivial compared with the pulse discharge energy and the commutation dissipation can be nearly ignored compared with the quasi-static dissipation. These characteristics can make the repetitive frequency of RSD increase largely. The experimental results prove the validity of simulation calculations. The influence factors on power dissipation are discussed. The power dissipation increases with the increase of the peak current and the n-base width and with the decrease of n-base doping concentration. In order to keep a low power dissipation, it is suggested that the n-base width should be smaller than 320$\mu $m when doping concentration is 1.0$\times $10$^{14}$cm$^{ - 3}$ while the doping concentration should be higher than 5.8$\times $10$^{13}$cm$^{ - 3}$ when n-base width is 270$\mu $m.

Molecular dynamics simulation of surface melting behaviours of the V(110) plane

Yang Xi-Yuan, Hu Wang-Yu, Yuan Xiao-Jian, Cai Xin-Hua
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2633-2638 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/047
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The modified analytic embedded-atom method and molecular dynamics simulations are applied to the investigation of the surface premelting and melting behaviours of the V(110) plane by calculating the interlayer relaxation, the layer structure factor and atomic snapshots in this paper. The results obtained indicate that the premelting phenomenon occurs on the V(110) surface at about 1800K and then a liquid-like layer, which approximately keeps the same thickness up to 2020K, emerges on it. We discover that the temperature 2020K the V(110) surface starts to melt and is in a completely disordered state at the temperature of 2140K under the melting point for the bulk vanadium.

Electronic structure and thermodynamic properties of LiBC under high pressure

Ai Qiong, Fu Zhi-Jian, Cheng Yan, Chen Xiang-Rong
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2639-2645 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/048
Full Text: [PDF 258 KB] (Downloads:736)
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This paper investigates the electronic structure and thermodynamic properties of LiBC in the hexagonal structure by using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and local density approximation correction scheme in the frame of density functional theory. The geometric structure of LiBC under zero pressure, and the dependences of the normalized lattice parameters $a/a_{0}$ and $c/c_{0}$, the ratio $c/a$, the normalized primitive volume $V/V_{0}$ on pressure are given. The thermodynamic quantity (including the heat capacity $C_{V}$, Debye temperature $\Th _{\rm D}$, thermal expansion $\alpha $ and Gr\"{u}neisen parameter \textit{$\gamma $}) dependences on temperature and pressure are obtained through the GGA method and the quasi-harmonic Debye model. The band structures and density of state of LiBC under different pressures have also been analysed.

High density gas state at water/graphite interface studied by molecular dynamics simulation

Wang Chun-Lei, Li Zhao-Xia, Li Jing-Yuan, Xiu Peng, Hu Jun, Fang Hai-Ping
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2646-2654 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/049
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In this paper molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the accumulation behaviour of N$_{2}$ and H$_{2}$ at water/graphite interface under ambient temperature and pressure. It finds that both N$_{2}$ and H$_{2}$ molecules can accumulate at the interface and form one of two states according to the ratio of gas molecules number to square of graphite surface from our simulation results: gas films (pancake-like) for a larger ratio and nanobubbles for a smaller ratio. In addition, we discuss the stabilities of nanobubbles at different environment temperatures. Surprisingly, it is found that the density of both kinds of gas states can be greatly increased, even comparable with that of the liquid N$_{2}$ and liquid H$_{2}$. The present results are expected to be helpful for the understanding of the stable existence of gas film (pancake-like) and nanobubbles.

Effect of the stoichiometry on the electronic structure of the Ni(111)/ɑ-Al2O3(0001) interface: a first-principles investigation

Shi Si-Qi, Tanaka Shingo, Kohyama Masanori
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2655-2661 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/050
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In this paper first-principles calculations of Ni(111)/$\alpha $-Al$_{2}$O$_{3}$(0001) interfaces have been performed, and are compared with the preceding results of the Cu (111)/$\alpha $-Al$_{2}$O$_{3}$(0001) interface [2004 {\em Phil. Mag. Lett.} \textbf{84} 425]. The Al-terminated and O-terminated interfaces have quite different adhesion mechanisms, which are similar to the Cu(111)/$\alpha $-Al$_{2}$O$_{3}$(0001) interface. For the O-terminated interface, the adhesion is caused by the strong O-2p/Ni-3d orbital hybridization and ionic interactions. On the other hand, the adhesion nature of the Al-terminated interface is the image-like electrostatic and Ni--Al hybridization interactions, the latter is substantial and cannot be neglected. Charge transfer occurs from Al$_{2}$O$_{3}$ to Ni, which is opposite to that in the O-terminated interface. The charge transfer direction for the Al-terminated and O-terminated Ni(111)/$\alpha$-Al$_{2}$O$_{3}$(0001) interfaces is similar to that in the corresponding Cu(111)/$\alpha$-Al$_{2}$O$_{3}$(0001) interface, but there exist the larger charge transfer quantity and consequent stronger adhesion nature, respectively.
CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES

Electron resonance-transmission through a driven quantum well with spin--orbit coupling

Zhang Cun-Xi, Wang Rui, Nie Yi-Hang, Liang Jiu-Qing
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2662-2669 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/051
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We have studied the spin-dependent electron transmission through a quantum well driven by both dipole-type and homogeneous oscillating fields. The numerical evaluations show that Dresselhaus spin--orbit coupling induces the splitting of asymmetric Fano-type resonance peaks in the conductivity, in which the dipole modulation and the homogeneous modulation are\ equivalent. Therefore, we predict that the dipole-type oscillation, which is more practical in the experimental setup, can be used to realize the tunable spin filters by adjusting the field oscillation-frequency and the amplitude as well.

Field-assisted electron transport through a symmetric double-well structure with spin--orbit coupling and the Fano-resonance induced spin filtering

Zhang Cun-Xi, Nie Yi-Hang, Liang Jiu-Qing
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2670-2677 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/052
Full Text: [PDF 269 KB] (Downloads:566)
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We have investigated theoretically the field-driven electron-transport through a double-quantum-well semiconductor-heterostructure with spin--orbit coupling. The numerical results demonstrate that the transmission spectra are divided into two sets due to the bound-state level-splitting and each set contains two asymmetric resonance peaks which may be selectively suppressed by changing the difference in phase between two driving fields. When the phase difference changes from $0$ to $\pi$, the dip of asymmetric resonance shifts from one side of resonance peak to the other side and the asymmetric Fano resonance degenerates into the symmetric Breit--Wigner resonance at a critical value of phase difference. Within a given range of incident electron energy, the spin polarization of transmission current is completely governed by the phase difference which may be used to realize the tunable spin filtering.

Carriers recombination processes in charge trapping memory cell by simulation

Song Yun-Cheng, Liu Xiao-Yan, Du Gang, Kang Jin-Feng, Han Ru-Qi
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2678-2682 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/053
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We have evaluated the effects of recombination processes in a charge storage layer, either between trapped electrons and trapped holes or between trapped carriers and free carriers, on charge trapping memory cell's performances by numerical simulation. Recombination is an indispensable mechanism in charge trapping memory. It helps charge convert process between negative and positive charges in the charge storage layer during charge trapping memory programming/erasing operation. It can affect the speed of programming and erasing operations.

Effect of fabrication conditions on the properties of indium tin oxide powders

Xie Wei
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2683-2688 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/054
Full Text: [PDF 197 KB] (Downloads:663)
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This paper reports that indium tin oxide (ITO) crystalline powders are prepared by coprecipitation method. Fabrication conditions mainly as sintering temperature and Sn doping content are correlated with the phase, microstructure, infrared emissivity $\varepsilon $ and powder resistivity of indium tin oxides by means of x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, and transmission electron microscope. The optimum sintering temperature of 1350${^\circ}$C and Sn doping content 6$\sim $8wt{\%} are determined. The application of ITO in the military camouflage field is proposed.

The low-temperature mobility of two-dimensional electron gas in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

Zhang Jin-Feng, Mao Wei, Zhang Jin-Cheng, Hao Yue
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2689-2695 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/055
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To reveal the internal physics of the low-temperature mobility of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures, we present a theoretical study of the strong dependence of 2DEG mobility on Al content and thickness of AlGaN barrier layer. The theoretical results are compared with one of the highest measured of 2DEG mobility reported for AlGaN/GaN heterostructures. The 2DEG mobility is modelled as a combined effect of the scattering mechanisms including acoustic deformation-potential, piezoelectric, ionized background donor, surface donor, dislocation, alloy disorder and interface roughness scattering. The analyses of the individual scattering processes show that the dominant scattering mechanisms are the alloy disorder scattering and the interface roughness scattering at low temperatures. The variation of 2DEG mobility with the barrier layer parameters results mainly from the change of 2DEG density and distribution. It is suggested that in AlGaN/GaN samples with a high Al content or a thick AlGaN layer, the interface roughness scattering may restrict the 2DEG mobility significantly, for the AlGaN/GaN interface roughness increases due to the stress accumulation in AlGaN layer.

Reliability analysis of GaN-based light emitting diodes for solid state illumination

Yang Ling, Ma Xiao-Hua, Feng Qian, Hao Yue
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2696-2700 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/056
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In this paper, we have discussed the effect of electrical stress on GaN light emitting diode (LED). With the lapse of time, the LED with an applied large current stress can reduce its current more than without such a stress under a large forward-voltage drop. Its scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image shows that there exist several pits on the surface of the p-metal. With an electrical stress applied, the number of pits greatly increases. We also find that the degradation of GaN LED is related to the oxidized Ni/Au ohmic contact to p-GaN. The electrical activation of H-passivated Mg acceptors is described in detail. Annealing is performed in ambient air for 10 min and the differential resistances at a forward-voltage drop of 5\,V are taken to evaluate the activation of the Mg acceptors. These results suggest some mechanisms of degradation responsible for these phenomena, which are described in the paper.

A note on localized transition in the spin-boson model by variational calculation

Chen Zhi-De, Hou Zhi-Lan
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2701-2706 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/057
Full Text: [PDF 190 KB] (Downloads:442)
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We present mathematical analyses of the evolution of solutions of the self-consistent equation derived from variational calculations based on the displaced-oscillator-state and the displaced-squeezed-state in spin-boson model at a zero temperature and a finite temperature. It is shown that, for a given spectral function defined as $J(\omega)=\pi\sum_k c_k^2=\ddfrac{\pi}{2}\alpha \omega^{ s}\omega_{\rm c}^{ 1-s}$, there exists a universal $s_{\rm c}$ for both kinds of variational schemes, the localized transition happens only for $s\le s_{\rm c}$, moreover, the localized transition is discontinuous for $s

Rectifying effect of heterojunctions between metals and doped conducting polymer nanostructure pellets

Long Yun-Ze, Yin Zhi-Hua, Hui Wen, Chen Zhao-Jia, Wan Mei-Xiang
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2707-2711 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/058
Full Text: [PDF 1696 KB] (Downloads:828)
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This paper reports that the Schottky junctions between low work function metals (e.g. Al and In) and doped semiconducting polymer pellets (e.g. polyaniline (PANI) microsphere pellet and polypyrrole (PPy) nanotube pellet) have been prepared and studied. Since Ag is a high work function metal which can make an ohmic contact with polymer, silver paste was used to fabricate the electrodes. The Al/PANI/Ag heterojunction shows an obvious rectifying effect as shown in $I-V$ characteristic curves (rectifying ratio $\gamma = 5$ at $\pm $6\,V bias at room temperature). As compared to the Al/PANI/Ag, the heterojunction between In and PANI (In/PANI/Ag) exhibits a lower rectifying ratio $\gamma = 1.6$ at $\pm $2\,V bias at room temperature. In addition, rectifying effect was also observed in the heterojunctions Al/PPy/Ag ($\gamma = 3.2$ at $\pm $1.6\,V bias) and In/PPy/Ag ($\gamma = 1.2$ at $\pm $3.0\,V bias). The results were discussed in terms of thermoionic emission theory.

The effects of interstitial oxygen on superconducting electronic phases in strontium and oxygen co-doped La1.937Sr0.063CuO4+δ

Shen Cai-Xia, Shen Xiao-Li, Lu Wei, Dong Xiao-Li, Li Zheng-Cai, Xiong Ji-Wu, Zhou Fang
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2712-2716 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/059
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Strontium and oxygen co-doped La$_{1.937}$Sr$_{0.063}$CuO$_{4 + \delta }$ superconductor with $T_{\rm c}\approx 40$\,K, which is obtained by oxidizing strontium-doped starting ceramic sample La$_{1.937}$Sr$_{0.063}$CuO$_{4}$ in NaClO solution, is annealed under different conditions to allow interstitial oxygen to redistribute. The evolution of the intrinsic superconducting property with the oxygen redistribution is studied in detail by magnetic measurements in various fields. It is found that there occurs the electronic phase separation from the single superconducting phase with $T_{\rm c} \approx40$\,K into two coexisting superconducting states with values of $T_{\rm c}$: 15 and 40\,K or of 15 and 35\,K in this system, depending on annealing condition. Our results indicate that the 15, 35 and 40\,K superconducting phases associated with the excess oxygen redistribution are all thermodynamically meta-stable intrinsic states in this Sr/O co-doped cuprate.

Spontaneous magnetization and resistivity jumps in bilayered manganite (La0.8Eu0.2)4/3Sr5/3Mn2O7 single crystals

Zhao Jian-Jun, Lu Yi, Haosibayar, Xing Ru, Yang Ren-Fu, Li Qing-An, Sun Young, Cheng Zhao-Hua
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2717-2720 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/060
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Owing to the inhomogeneous state resulting from the doping of a small number of Eu ions into La$_{4 / 3}$Sr$_{5 / 3}$Mn$_{2}$O$_{7}$, from the resulting single crystal (La$_{0.8}$Eu$_{0.2})_{4 / 3}$Sr$_{5 / 3}$Mn$_{2}$O$_{7}$ we have observed the magnetization jump, the resistivity jump, as well as the relaxation phenomena. For (La$_{0.8}$Eu$_{0.2})_{4 / 3}$Sr$_{5 / 3}$Mn$_{2}$O$_{7}$, it has a very delicate ground state due to the interplays among spin, charge, orbital, lattice degrees of freedom. Consequently, the magnetization state is sensitive to temperature, magnetic field, as well as time. Meanwhile, the evolution of the magnetization with time shows a spontaneous jump when both the temperature and the magnetic field are constant. Similar step-like behaviours are also observed in resistivity. All these results suggest that Eu doping can greatly modulate the physical properties of La$_{4 / 3}$Sr$_{5 / 3}$Mn$_{2}$O$_{7}$ and cause such interesting behaviours.

Electron spin resonance study of the Ba-doping manganite Nd0.5Sr0.5MnO3

Zhao Jian-Jun, Xing Ru, Lu Yi, Haosibayar, Zhao Ming-Yu, Jin Xiang, Zheng Lin, Ning Wei, Sun Young, Cheng Zhao-Hua
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2721-2724 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/061
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We have performed magnetization measurements and electron spin resonance (ESR) on polycrystalline manganites of Nd$_{0.5}$Sr$_{0.5 - x}$Ba$_{x}$MnO$_{3}$ ($x = 0.1$). Phase separation and phase transitions are observed from the susceptibility and the ESR spectra data. Between 260\,K ($\sim T_{\rm C})$ and 185\,K ($\sim T_{\rm N})$, the system coexists of the paramagnetic phase and the ferromagnetic (FM) phase. Between 185\,K and 140\,K, the system coexists of the FM phase and the antiferromagnetic (AFM) phase. These results indicate that the system has a very complex magnetic state due to the origin of the instability stemming from manganite Nd$_{0.5}$Sr$_{0.4}$Ba$_{0.1}$MnO$_{3}$ by partially substituting the larger Ba$^{2 + }$ ions for the smaller Sr$^{2 + }$ ions.

The performance enhancement in organic light-emitting diode using a semicrystalline composite for hole injection

Cao Jun-Song, Guan Min, Cao Guo-Hua, Zeng Yi-Ping, Li Jin-Min, Qin Da-Shan
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2725-2729 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/062
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A semicrystalline composite, 3, 4, 9, 10 perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) doped N,N'-di(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenylbenzidine (NPB), has been fabricated and characterized. An organic light-emitting diode using such a composite in hole injection exhibits the improved performance as compared with the reference device using neat NPB in hole injection. For example, at a luminance of 2000 cd/m$^{2}$, the former device gives a current efficiency of 2.0cd/A, higher than 1.6cd/A obtained from the latter device. Furthermore, the semicrystalline composite has been shown thermally to be more stable than the neat NPB thin film, which is useful for making organic light emitting diodes with a prolonged lifetime.
GEOPHYSICS, ASTRONOMY, AND ASTROPHYSICS

Analysis of precipitation characteristics of South and North China based on the power-law tail exponents

Feng Guo-Lin, Gong Zhi-Qiang, Zhi Rong, Zhang Da-Quan
Chin. Phys. B, 2008, 17 (7): 2745-2752 doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/7/065
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Precipitation sequence is a typical nonlinear and chaotic observational series, and studies on precipitation forecasts are restricted to the use of traditional linear statistical methods, especially when analysing the regional characteristics of precipitation. In the context of 20 stations' daily precipitation series (from 1956 to 2000) in South China (SC) and North China (NC), we divide each precipitation series into many self-stationary segments by using the heuristic segmentation algorithm (briefly BG algorithm). For each station's precipitation series, we calculate the exponent of power-law tail (EPT) of the cumulative probability distribution of segments with a length larger than $l$ for precipitation and temperature series. Our results show that the power-law decay of the cumulative probability distribution of stationary segments might be a common attribution for precipitation and other nonstationary time series; the EPT somewhat indicates the precipitation duration and its spatial distribution that might be different from area to area. The EPT in NC is larger than in SC; Meanwhile, EPT might be another effective way to study the abrupt changes in nonlinear and nonstationary time series.
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