Template identification technology (TIT) is designed for the
scenarios where a batch of disarmed nuclear weapons or components
would be dismantled to observe a nuclear disarmament treaty. The core
function played by the TIT is to make a judgment on whether the
verified item belongs to a certain kind of nuclear weapons or
component (NW/NC) or to which kind the verified item belongs. This
paper analyses the functions played by the TIT in the process of
NW/NC dismantlement, and proposes that two phases would be followed
when applying the TIT: firstly to establish NW/NC templates with a
sample of size n drawn from a certain kind of disarmament NW;
secondly to authenticate NW/NC by means of the TIT. This paper also
expatiates some terms related to the concept of the TIT and
investigates on the development status of NW/NC TIT based on
radiation signatures. The study concludes that the design of template
structure is crucial to the establishment of an effective TIT and
that starting from different research angles and aiming at the same
goal of classification different template structures and
corresponding template identification methods can be built up to meet
specific identification requirements.

The El Ni\~{n}o--Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an interannual
phenomenon involved in the tropical Pacific Ocean--atmosphere
interactions. In this paper, an asymptotic method of solving the
nonlinear equation for the ENSO model is used. And based on a class
of oscillator of ENSO model, the approximate solution of a
corresponding problem is studied by employing the perturbation
method. Firstly, an ENSO model of nonlinear time delay equation of
equatorial Pacific is introduced, Secondly, by using the perturbed
method, the zeroth and first order asymptotic perturbed solutions are
constructed. Finally, from the comparison of the values for a figure,
it is seen that the first asymptotic perturbed solution using the
perturbation method has a good accuracy. And it is proved from the
results that the perturbation method can be used as an analytic
operation for the sea surface temperature anomaly in the equatorial
Pacific of the atmosphere-ocean oscillation for the ENSO model.

In this paper, a dynamic epidemic control model on the uncorrelated
complex networks is proposed. By means of theoretical analysis, we
found that the new model has a similar epidemic threshold as that of
the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model on the above
networks, but it can reduce the prevalence of the infected
individuals remarkably. This result may help us understand epidemic
spreading phenomena on real networks and design appropriate
strategies to control infections.

In this paper a new ring-shaped harmonic oscillator for spin 1/2
particles is studied, and the corresponding eigenfunctions and
eigenenergies are obtained by solving the Dirac equation with equal
mixture of vector and scalar potentials. Several particular cases
such as the ring-shaped non-spherical harmonic oscillator, the
ring-shaped harmonic oscillator, non-spherical harmonic oscillator,
and spherical harmonic oscillator are also discussed.

This paper investigates the Lie symmetries and Noether conserved
quantities of discrete non-conservative mechanical systems. The
variational principle of discrete mechanics, from which discrete
motion equations of systems are deduced, is generalized to the case
of including the time variational. The requirement for an invariant
group transformation is defined to be the Lie symmetry and the
criterion when the Noether conserved quantities may be obtained from
Lie symmetries is also presented. An example is discussed for
applications of the results.

This paper studies the Hojman conserved quantity, a non-Noether
conserved quantity, deduced by special weak Noether symmetry for
Lagrange systems. Under special infinitesimal transformations in
which the time is not variable, its criterion is given and a method
of how to seek the Hojman conserved quantity is presented. A Hojman
conserved quantity can be found by using the special weak Noether
symmetry.

In this paper, a new type of conserved quantity induced directly
from the Mei symmetry for a relativistic nonholonomic mechanical
system in phase space is studied. The definition and the criterion
of the Mei symmetry for the system are given. The conditions for the
existence and form of the new conserved quantity are obtained.
Finally, an example is given to illustrate the application of the
result.

Based on a first order nonlinear ordinary differential equation with
at most a sixth-degree nonlinear term which is extended from a type
of elliptic equation, and by converting it into a new expansion form,
this paper proposes a new algebraic method to construct exact
solutions for nonlinear evolution equations. Being concise and
straightforward, the method is applied to modified
Benjamin--Bona--Mahony (mBBM) model, and some new exact solutions to
the system are obtained. The algorithm is of important significance
in exploring exact solutions for other nonlinear evolution equations.

By using the modified mapping method, we find some new exact
solutions of the generalized Boussinesq equation and the
Boussinesq--Burgers equation. The solutions obtained in this paper
include Jacobian elliptic function solutions, combined Jacobian
elliptic function solutions, soliton solutions, triangular function
solutions.

This paper proposes a scheme where one can realize quantum cloning
of an unknown two-atom entangled state with assistance of a state
preparer in cavity QED. The first stage of the scheme requires usual
teleportation. In the second stage of the scheme, with the
assistance of the preparer, the perfect copies of an unknown atomic
entangled state can be produced.

A multi-proxy quantum group signature scheme with threshold shared
verification is proposed. An original signer may authorize a proxy
group as his proxy agent. Then only the cooperation of all the
signers in the proxy group can generate the proxy signature on
behalf of the original signer. In the scheme, any $t$ or more of $n$
receivers can verify the message and any $t-1$ or fewer receivers
cannot verify the validity of the proxy signature.

This paper proposes a circular threshold quantum secret sharing
(TQSS) scheme with polarized single photons. A polarized single
photon sequence runs circularly among any $t$ or more of $n$ parties
and any $t$ or more of $n$ parties can reconstruct the secret key
when they collaborate. It shows that entanglement is not necessary
for quantum secret sharing. Moreover, the theoretic efficiency is
improved to approach 100{\%} as the single photons carrying the
secret key are deterministically forwarded among any $t$ or more of
$n$ parties, and each photon can carry one bit of information without
quantum storage. This protocol is feasible with current technology.

Based on squeezed operators this paper has implemented an ideal
unconventional geometric quantum gate (GQG) in ion trap-optical
cavity system by radiating the trapped ions with the cavity field of
frequency $\omega_c}$ and an external laser field of frequency
$\omega_L}$. It can ensure that the gate time is shorter than
the coherence time for qubits and the decay time of the optical
cavity by appropriately tuning the ionic transition frequency
$\omega_{0}$, the frequencies of the cavity mode $\omega_c}$ and
the vibrational mode $\nu$. It has also realized the unconventional
GQG under the influence of the cavity decay based on the
squeezed-like operators and found that the present scheme works well
for the smaller cavity decay by investigating the corresponding
fidelity and success probability.

This paper proposes an experimentally feasible scheme for
implementing quantum dense coding of trapped-ion system in
decoherence-free states. As the phase changes due to time evolution
of components with different eigenenergies of quantum superposition
are completely frozen, quantum dense coding based on this model
would be perfect. The scheme is insensitive to heating of
vibrational mode and Bell states can be exactly distinguished via
detecting the ionic state.

The relation between the excitonic purity and the concurrence in a
system of two coupled large semiconduction quantum dots mediated by a
single-mode cavity field is investigated by using linear entropy
theory. The results show the difference in describing two modes of
excitonic entanglement between linear entropy and concurrence. The
relation between nonclassical property of cavity field and the
entanglement degree of excitons is also discussed. The results show
that two modes of exciton can reach maximal entanglement when the
cavity exhibits an antibunching effect.

This paper investigates the relationship between the speed of a
quantum not gate and the asymmetry of the potential in an interactive
system formed by a two-level RF-SQUID qubit and a classical microwave
pulse. The RF-SQUID is characterized by an asymmetric double well
potential which gives rise to diagonal matrix elements that describe
the interaction of the SQUID with the microwave pulse. And the
diagonal matrix elements account for the interaction of the microwave
pulse with the SQUID. The results indicate that, when the angular
frequency of the microwave field is chosen as near resonate with the
transition $\left| 0 \right\rangle \leftrightarrow \left| 1
\right\rangle$, i.e. $\omega_1-\omega_0 \approx \omega_{\rm m}$, (1)
the gate speed is decided by three factors, the Rabi frequency, the
difference of the diagonal matrix elements between the two levels,
and the angular frequency of the applied microwave pulse $\omega
_{\rm m} $; (2) the gate speed descends when the asymmetry of the
potential is considered.

This paper presents a scheme for probabilistic remote preparation of
a three-particle entangled Greenberger--Horne--Zeilinger (GHZ) state
via three-particle orthonormal basis projective measurement, and then
directly generalize the scheme to multi-particle case. It is shown
that by using $N$ pairs of bipartite non-maximally entangled states
as the quantum channel and $N$-particle orthonormal basis projective
measurement, the multi-particle remote preparation can be
successfully realized with a certain probability.

A scheme is presented for teleporting an unknown state in a trapped
ion system. The scheme only requires a single laser beam. It allows
the trap to be in any state with a few phonons, e.g. a thermal
motion. Furthermore, it works in the regime, where the Rabi
frequency of the laser is on the order of the trap frequency. Thus,
the teleportation speed is greatly increased, which is important for
decreasing the decoherence effect. This idea can also be used to
teleport an unknown ionic entangled state.

Taking the intrinsic decoherence effect into account, this paper
investigates the entanglement of a two-qubit anisotropic Heisenberg
XYZ model in the presence of nonuniform external magnetic fields
by employing the concurrence as entanglement measure. It is found
that both the intrinsic decoherence and the anisotropy of the system
give a significant suppression to the entanglement. Moreover it
finds that the initial state of the system plays an important role
in the time evolution of the entanglement, which means that the
entanglement of the system is independent of the nonuniformity and
uniformity of the magnetic field when the system is in the initial
state \left| \Ps \left( 0\right) \right\rangle =\left|
00\right\rangle and \left| \Ps’\left( 0\right)
\right\rangle =m\left| 01\right\rangle +n\left| 10\right\rangle ,
respectively.

Assisted by multipartite entanglement, Quantum information may be
split so that the original qubit can be reconstructed if and only if
the recipients cooperate. This paper proposes an experimentally
feasible scheme for splitting quantum information via W-type
entangled states in cavity QED systems, where three-level Rydberg
atoms interact with nonresonant cavities. Since W-type states are
used as the quantum channel and the cavities are only virtually
excited, the scheme is easy to implement and robust against
decoherence, and the dependence on the quality factor of the
cavities is greatly reduced.

In this paper the entropy of a toroidal black hole due to a scalar
field is investigated by using the DLM scheme. The entropy is
renormalized to the standard Bekenstein--Hawking formula with a
one-loop correction arising from the higher curvature terms of the
gravitational action. For the scalar field, the renormalized Newton
constant and two renormalized coupling constants in the toroidal
black hole are the same as those in the Reissner--Nordstrom black
hole except for other one.

We restudy the master-equation approach applied to aggregation in a
one-dimensional freeway, where the decay transition probabilities for
the jump processes are reconstructed based on a car-following model.
According to the reconstructed transition probabilities, the
clustering behaviours and the stochastic properties of the master
equation in a one-lane freeway traffic model are investigated in
detail. The numerical results show that the size of the clusters
initially below the critical size of the unstable cluster and
initially above that of the unstable cluster all enter the same
stable state, which also accords with the nucleation theory and is
known from the result in earlier work. Moreover, we have obtained
more reasonable parameters of the master equation based on some
results of cellular automata models.

This paper investigates a genotype selection model subjected to both
a multiplicative coloured noise and an additive coloured noise with
different correlation time $\tau_{1}$ and $\tau_{2}$ by means of the
numerical technique. By directly simulating the Langevin Equation,
the following results are obtained. (1) The multiplicative coloured
noise dominates, however, the effect of the additive coloured noise
is not neglected in the practical gene selection process. The
selection rate $\mu$ decides that the selection is propitious to gene
$A$ haploid or gene $B$ haploid. (2) The additive coloured noise
intensity $\alpha$ and the correlation time $\tau_2$ play opposite
roles. It is noted that $\alpha$ and $\tau_2$ can not separate the
single peak, while $\alpha$ can make the peak disappear and $\tau_2$
can make the peak be sharp. (3) The multiplicative coloured noise
intensity $D$ and the correlation time $\tau_1$ can induce phase
transition, at the same time they play opposite roles and the
reentrance phenomenon appears. In this case, it is easy to select one
type haploid from the group with increasing $D$ and decreasing
$\tau_1$.

This paper investigates the stochastic resonance (SR) phenomenon in
an asymmetric system with coupling between multiplicative and
additive noise when the coupling between two noise terms is coloured.
The approximate expression of signal-to-noise ratio has been obtained
by applying the two-state theory and SR exhibits in the bistable
system. Moreover, the potential asymmetry $r$ and cross-correlation
strength $\lambda$ can weaken the SR phenomenon, while the
cross-correlation time $\tau $ can strengthen the SR phenomenon.

This paper investigates the control and synchronization of
hyperchaotic Chen system based on the passive theory. By using two
outputs, novel passive controllers are respectively designed to
realize the globally asymptotical stability of the hyperchaotic Chen
system and the error dynamical system, which avoids mistakes in
Ref.[11], where function $W(z)$ cannot guarantee that $f_0(z)$ is
globally asymptotically stable via only one output and $W(z)$ is the
Lyapunov function of $f_0(z)$. Furthermore, numerical simulations
are given to show the effectiveness of our method.

In this paper a parameter observer and a synchronization controller
are designed to synchronize unknown chaotic systems with diverse
structures. Based on stability theory the structures of the observer
and the controller are presented. The unknown Coullet system and
Rossler system are taken for examples to demonstrate that the method
is effective and feasible. The artificial simulation results show
that global synchronization between the unknown Coullet system and
the Rossler system can be achieved by a single driving variable with
co-operation of the observer and the controller, and all parameters
of the Coullet system can be identified at the same time.

This paper addresses the adaptive synchronization for uncertain Liu
system via a nonlinear input. By using a single nonlinear controller,
the approach is utilized to implement the synchronization of Liu
system with total parameters unknown. This method is simple and can
be easily designed. What is more, it improves the existing
conclusions in Ref [12]. Simulation results prove that the controller
is effective and feasible in the end.

The control problems of chaotic systems are investigated in the
presence of parametric uncertainty and persistent external
disturbances based on nonlinear control theory. By using a designed
nonlinear compensator mechanism, the system deterministic
nonlinearity, parametric uncertainty and disturbance effect can be
compensated effectively. The renowned chaotic Lorenz system
subjected to parametric variations and external disturbances is
studied as an illustrative example. From the Lyapunov stability
theory, sufficient conditions for choosing control parameters to
guarantee chaos control are derived. Several experiments are carried
out, including parameter change experiments, set-point change
experiments and disturbance experiments. Simulation results indicate
that the chaotic motion can be regulated not only to steady states
but also to any desired periodic orbits with great immunity to
parametric variations and external disturbances.

In this paper, we focus on the robust adaptive synchronization
between two coupled chaotic neural networks with all the parameters
unknown and time-varying delay. In order to increase the robustness
of the two coupled neural networks, the key idea is that a
sliding-mode-type controller is employed. Moreover, without the
estimate values of the network unknown parameters taken as an
updating object, a new updating object is introduced in the
constructing of controller. Using the proposed controller, without
any requirements for the boundedness, monotonicity and
differentiability of activation functions, and symmetry of
connections, the two coupled chaotic neural networks can achieve
global robust synchronization no matter what their initial states
are. Finally, the numerical simulation validates the effectiveness
and feasibility of the proposed technique.

This paper proposes a new method to chaotify the discrete-time fuzzy
hyperbolic model (DFHM) with uncertain parameters. A simple nonlinear
state feedback controller is designed for this purpose. By revised
Marotto theorem, it is proven that the chaos generated by this
controller satisfies the Li--Yorke definition. An example is
presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

This paper proposes a co-evolutionary recurrent neural network
(CERNN) for the multi-step-prediction of chaotic time series, it
estimates the proper parameters of phase space reconstruction and
optimizes the structure of recurrent neural networks by
co-evolutionary strategy. The searching space was separated into two
subspaces and the individuals are trained in a parallel computational
procedure. It can dynamically combine the embedding method with the
capability of recurrent neural network to incorporate past experience
due to internal recurrence. The effectiveness of CERNN is evaluated
by using three benchmark chaotic time series data sets: the Lorenz
series, Mackey--Glass series and real-world sun spot series. The
simulation results show that CERNN improves the performances of
multi-step-prediction of chaotic time series.

This paper firstly introduces the control methods to fractals and
give the definition of synchronization of Julia sets between two
different systems. Especially, the gradient control method is taken
on the classic Julia sets of complex quadratic polynomial
$z_{n+1}=z_n^2+c$, which realizes its Julia sets control and
synchronization. The simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the
method.

We present a scheme for chaotic synchronization in two resistive-
capacitive-inductive shunted Josephson junctions (RCLSJJs) by using
another chaotic RCLSJJ as a driving system. Numerical simulations
show that whether the two RCLSJJs are chaotic or not before being
driven, they can realize chaotic synchronization with a suitable
driving intensity, under which the maximum condition Lyapunov
exponent (MCLE) is negative. On the other hand, if the driving
system is in different periodic states or chaotic states, the two
driven RCLSJJs can be controlled into the periodic states with
different period numbers or chaotic states but still maintain the
synchronization.

With both additive and multiplicative noise excitations, the effect
on the chaotic behaviour of the dynamical system is investigated in
this paper. The random Melnikov theorem with the mean-square
criterion that applies to a type of dynamical systems is analysed in
order to obtain the conditions for the possible occurrence of chaos.
As an example, for the Duffing system, we deduce its concrete
expression for the threshold of multiplicative noise amplitude for
the rising of chaos, and by combining figures, we discuss the
influences of the amplitude, intensity and frequency of both bounded
noises on the dynamical behaviour of the Duffing system separately.
Finally, numerical simulations are illustrated to verify the
theoretical analysis according to the largest Lyapunov exponent and
Poincar\'{e} map.

This paper investigates the dynamical behaviour of the Liu system
with time delayed feedback. Two typical situations are considered and
the effect of time-delay parameter on the dynamics of the system is
discussed. It is shown that the Liu system with time delayed
feedback may exhibit interesting and extremely rich dynamical
behaviour. The evolution of the dynamics is shown to be complex with
varying time-delay parameter. Moreover, the strange attractor like
`wormhole' is detected via numerical simulations.

The process of a $\gamma $-irradiation experiment of fibre optical
gyroscope (FOG) control circuit was described, in which it is
demonstrated that the FOG control circuit, except for D/A converter,
could endure the dose of 10krad with the protection of cabin
material. The distortion and drift in D/A converter due to radiation,
which affect the performance of FOG seriously, was indicated based on
the elemental analysis. Finally, a compensation network based on
adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system is proposed and its function is
verified by simulation.

Constituent quark mass model is adopted as a tentative one to study
the phase transition between two-flavour quark matter and more stable
three-flavour quark matter in the core of supernovae. The result
shows that the transition has a significant influence on the
increasing of the core temperature, the neutrino abundance and the
neutrino energies, which contributes to the enhancement of the
successful probability of supernova explosion. However, the
equilibrium values of these parameters (except the temperature) from
the constituent quark mass model in this work are slightly bigger
than those obtained from the other model. And we find that the
constituent quark mass model is also applicable to describing the
transition in the supernova core.

The transient backscattering mechanisms of a dipole array with
reflector have been investigated from different aspects: time-domain,
frequency-domain, and combined time-frequency domain, using $4\times
8$ dipole arrays with reflector as an example. The data of scattering
from the arrays under the incidence of Gaussian pulses are obtained
by finite differential time domain method. The influences of the
array structural parameters, incident wave parameters, and incident
angles on the waveforms, spectrum, and time-frequency representations
of the backscattered fields of the arrays are analysed and
conclusions are drawn. From these characteristics and conclusions, it
is possible to deduce the array structure inversely from the
backscattered field.

In this paper the superpositions of two arbitrary coherent states
$\left| \psi \right\rangle = a\left| \beta \right\rangle + b{\rm
e}^{{\rm i}\varphi }\left| {m\beta {\rm e}^{{\rm i}\delta }}
\right\rangle $ are constructed by using the superposition principle
of quantum mechanics. The entropic squeezing effects of the quantum
states are studied. The numerical results indicate that the
amplitudes, the ratio between the amplitudes of two coherent states,
the phase difference between the two components and the relative
phase of the two coefficients play important roles in the squeezing
effects of the position entropy and momentum entropy.

We present a scheme for quantum state sharing of an arbitrary qudit
state by using nonmaximally entangled generalized
Greenberger--Horne--Zeilinger (GHZ) states as the quantum channel and
generalized Bell-basis states as the joint measurement basis. We show
that the probability of successful sharing an unknown qudit state
depends on the joint measurements chosen by Alice. We also give an
expression for the maximally probability of this scheme.

In this paper, we studied incoherent and coherent beam combining for
the master oscillator/power amplifier (MOPA) system with stimulated
Brillouin scattering (SBS) mirror. Optic field intensity
distributions in the near and far field are numerically calculated
for the two kinds of system. The results show that good beam quality
in the far field could be obtained. It provides a theoretical basis
for experimental research in the future.

In this paper a high-repetition-rate mid-infrared (mid-IR) optical
parametric oscillator based on periodically poled MgO-doped
LiNbO$_{3}$ (PPMgLN) at room temperature was demonstrated. The
maximum average mid-IR output power at 3.63\textit{$\mu $}m was 1.02
W with the repetition rate of 60kHz and corresponding efficiency
from the pump to the idler was 26.7{\%}. The temperature tuning and
the period tuning characteristics were also discussed.

This paper describes the evolution of surface capillary waves of deep
water excited by gradually increasing the lateral external force at a
single frequency. The vertical velocities of the water surface are
measured by using a Polytec Laser Vibrometer with a thin layer of
aluminium powder scattering on the surface to reflect the laser beam.
Nonlinear interaction processes result in a stationary Fourier
spectrum of the vertical surface velocities (the same as the surface
elevation), i.e. $I_\omega \sim \omega ^{ - 3.5}$. The observed
spectrum can be interpreted as a wave-turbulent Kolmogorov spectrum
for the case of `narrowband pumping' for a direct cascade of energy.
Correlation dimension analysis of the whole development process
reveals four distinct stages during the wave structure development
and identifies the wave turbulence stage.

The photo-excitation and Auger decay processes of inner-shell double
vacancy states 1s2s2p$^6(^{1,3}$S)3s3p of neutral neon atoms have
been studied theoretically. Multi-configuration Dirac--Fock (MCDF)
calculations have been carried out, with electron correlation effects
taken into consideration. The relaxation of core and excited orbitals
and configuration interaction are found to be crucial to creating the
double vacancy states by single photo-absorption. The predominant
decay paths for the double vacancy states turn out to be of the LLM
Auger decay to 1s 2s$^2$2p$^5$3s(3p), KLL Auger decay to
1s$^2$2s2p$^4$3s3p, and KLM Auger decay to 1s$^2$2p$^6$3s(3p). They
lead to further Auger decay, creating the neon ions of multiple
charge states. For both double and single vacancy states the
spectator type of Auger process is dominated in all the Auger decay
processes. Theoretical Auger electron spectra are presented for
further investigations, experimental and theoretical.

Making use of the molecular closed-orbit theory and a new model
potential for the Rydberg molecule, we have calculated the recurrence
spectra of He$_{2}^{ + }$ molecular ion in a magnetic field for
different quantum defects. The Fourier transform spectra of He$_{2}^{
+ }$ molecular ion may be used to perform a direct comparison between
peaks in the spectra and the scaled action values of closed orbits of
the excited electron in external fields. We find that the spectral
modulations can be analysed in terms of the scattering of the excited
electron on the molecular core. Unlike the case of the Rydberg atom
where the elastic scattering is predominant, modulations produced by
inelastic scattering are also vital to the photoabsorption spectrum
of the Rydberg molecule. Our results are in good agreement with the
quantum results, which suggests that our method is correct.

CROSS DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

This paper reported that the Mn-doped TiO_{2} films were prepared
by radio frequency (RF) magnetron co-sputtering. X-ray diffraction
measurements indicate that the samples are easy to form the rutile
structure, and the sizes of the crystal grains grow big and big as
the Mn concentration increases. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy
measurements and high resolution transmission electron microscope
photographs confirm that the manganese ions have been effectively
doped into the TiO_{2} crystal when the Mn concentration is lower
than 21%. The magnetic property measurements show that the Ti_{1-x}Mn_{x}O_{2} (x=0.21) films are ferromagnetic at room
temperature, and the saturation magnetization, coercivity, and
saturation field are 16.0emu/cm^{3}, 167.5×80A/m and
3740×80A/m at room temperature, respectively. The
room-temperature ferromagnetism of the films can be attributed to
the new rutile Ti_{1-x}Mn_{x}O_{2} structure formed by the
substitution of Mn^{4+} for Ti^{4+} into the TiO_{2}
crystal lattice, and could be explained by O vacancy (V_{O})-enhanced ferromagnetism model.

Optical tweezers have been a valuable research tool since their
invention in the 1980s. One of the most important developments in
optical tweezers in recent years is the creation of two-dimensional
arrays of optical traps. In this paper, a method based on
interference is discussed to form gradient laser fields, which may
cause the spatial modulation of particle concentration. The
parameters related to the optical tweezers array are discussed in
detail and simulated by the Matlab software to show the influence of
important parameters on the distribution of particle concentration.
The spatial redistribution of particles in a laser interference
field can also be predicted according to the theoretical analysis.

Interference of light has been reinvestigated theoretically by
linear superposition of two different state-vector functions, of
which each describes the photons from one of two different light
sources in both polarization and intensity. By the use of
microscopic parameters for a photon, namely probability amplitude
and phase, it is again validated that interference of light occurs
only between the same photons possessing a set of the selfsame
eigenvalues.

PHYSICS OF GASES, PLASMAS, AND ELECTRIC DISCHARGES

This paper demonstrates the intensity modulation characters of
orthogonally polarized HeNe lasers with different optical feedback
level generated by the variable reflectivity of external reflector.
The modulation depths of the orthogonally polarized frequencies are
increased when the optical feedback level becomes strong. It also
observes that the modulation amplitudes are different for different
external cavity length. Based on the vectorial extension of Lamb's
semi-classical theory, it finds that the calculations are consistent
with the experimental results.

In this paper a commercial CFD (computational fluid dynamics) code
FLUENT has been used and modified for the axisymmetric swirl and
time-dependent simulation of an atmospheric pressure argon arc in an
external axial magnetic field (AMF). The computational domain
includes the arc itself and the anodic region. Numerical results
demonstrate that the AMF substantially increases the tangential
component of the plasma velocity. The resulting centrifugal force for
the plasma rotation impels it to travel to the arc mantel and as a
result, a low-pressure region appears at the arc core. With the AMF,
the arc presents a hollow bell shape and correspondingly, the maximal
values of the temperature, pressure and current density on the anode
surface are departing from the arc centreline.

CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURAL, MECHANICAL, AND THERMAL PROPERTIES

Density functional theory is used to investigate the surface
structures and the energies of two possible terminated LaAlO$_{3}$
(001) surfaces with oxygen vacancies, i.e. LaO- and
AlO$_{2}$-terminated surfaces. The large displacements of ions,
deviated from their crystalline sites, can lead to the formation of
the surface rumpling. From thermodynamics analysis, the
AlO$_{2}$-terminated surface with oxygen-vacancies is less stable
than the LaO-terminated one. Some states in the gap lie under the
Fermi level by about --1eV in the LaO-terminated surface with oxygen
vacancies. For the AlO$_{2}$-terminated oxygen-vacancy surface, some
O 2p states move into the mid-gap region and become partially
unoccupied. The two types of termination surfaces exhibit conduction
related to oxygen vacancies. Our results can contribute to the
application of LAO films to high dielectric constant materials.

Based on the general theory of dislocation and kink, we have
constructed the three kink models corresponding to the 1/2
$\lan111\ran${\{}011{\}} and 1/2 $\lan111\ran${\{}112{\}} edge
dislocations (EDs) in bcc Fe using the molecular dynamics method. We
found that the geometric structure of a kink depends on the type of
ED and the structural energies of the atom sites in the dislocation
core region, as well as the geometric symmetry of the dislocation
core and the characteristic of the stacking sequence of atomic plane
along the dislocation line. The formation energies and widths of the
kinks on the 1/2 $\lan111\ran${\{}011{\}} and 1/2
$\lan111\ran${\{}112{\}} EDs are calculated, the formation energies
are 0.05\,eV and 0.04\,eV, and widths are 6.02b and 6.51b,
respectively (b is the magnitude of the Burgers vector). The small
formation energies indicate that the formation of kink in the edge
dislocation is very easy in bcc Fe.

A nearly free sustained copper (Cu) film system has been
successfully fabricated by thermal evaporation deposition of Cu
atoms on silicone oil surfaces, and a characteristic ordered pattern
has been systematically studied. The ordered pattern, namely, band,
is composed of a large number of parallel key-formed domains with
different width $w$ but nearly uniform length $L$; its
characteristic values of $w$ and $L$ are very susceptible to the
growth period, deposition rate and nominal film thickness. The
formation mechanism of the ordered patterns is well explained in
terms of the relaxation of the internal stress in the films, which
is related to the nearly zero adhesion of the solid-liquid
interface. By using a two-time deposition method, it is confirmed
that the ordered patterns really form in the vacuum chamber.

CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES

By mapping the Fock space of many local fermionic modes
isomorphically onto a many-qubit space and using the measure of
concurrence, this paper studies numerically the mode entanglement of
two spinless electrons with on-site interaction $U$ moving in the
one-dimensional Harper model. Generally speaking, for electrons in
extended regimes (potential parameter $\lambda<2$), the
spectrum-averaged concurrence $N\langle C\rangle$ first decreases
slowly as $\lambda$ increases until its local minimum, then increases
with $\lambda$ until its peak at $\lambda=2$, while for electrons in
localized regimes ($\lambda>2$), $N\langle C\rangle$ decreases
drastically as $\lambda$ increases. The functions of $N\langle
C\rangle$ versus $\lambda$ are different for electrons in extended
and localized regimes. The maximum of $N\langle C\rangle$ occurs at
the point $\lambda=2$, which is the critical value in the
one-dimensional single-particle Harper model. From these studies it
can distinguish extended, localized and critical regimes for the
two-particle system. It is also found for the same $\lambda$ that the
interaction $U$ always induce the decreases of concurrence, i.e., the
concurrence can reflect the localization effect due to the
interaction. All these provide us a new quantity to understand the
localization properties of eigenstates of two interacting particles.

Recently experiments and theories show that the tunnel
magnetoresistance (TMR) does not only depend on the ferromagnetic
metal electrodes but also on the insulator. Considering the
rough-scattering effect and spin-flip effect in the insulator, this
paper investigates the TMR ratio in a
ferromagnet/insulator/ferromagnet (FM/I/FM) tunnelling junction by
using Slonczewsik's model. A more general expression of TMR ratio as
a function of barrier height, interface roughness and spin-flip
effect is obtained. In lower barrier case, it shows that the TMR
ratio depends on the rough-scattering effect and spin-flip effect.

A novel double-gate (DG) junction field effect transistor (JFET)
with depletion operation mode is proposed in this paper. Compared
with the conventional DG MOSFET, the novel DG JFET can achieve
excellent performance with square body design, which relaxes the
requirement on silicon film thickness of DG devices. Moreover, due
to the structural symmetry, both p-type and n-type devices can be
realized on exactly the same structure, which greatly simplifies
integration. It can reduce the delay by about 60{\%} in comparison
with the conventional DG MOSFETs.

Zn_{0.75}Co_{0.25}O films are fabricated via reactive electron
beam evaporation. The influence of growth temperature on the
microstructural, optical and magnetic properties of
Zn_{0.75}Co_{0.25}O films is investigated by using x-ray
diffraction, selected area electron diffraction, field emission
scanning electron microscope, high resolution transmitting electron
microscope, photoluminescence (PL), field dependent and temperature
dependent DC magnetization, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
(XPS). It is shown that Zn_{0.75}Co_{0.25}OO films grown at low
temperatures (250--350\du) are of single-phase wurtzite structure.
Films synthesized at 300 or 350\du\ reveal room temperature (RT)
ferromagnetism (FM), while superparamagnetism for 250\du\ fabricated
films is found above 56K. PL and XPS investigations show favour
towards the perspective that the O-vacancy induced spin-split
impurity band mechanism is responsible for the formation of RT FM of
Zn_{0.75}Co_{0.25}O film, while the superparamagnetism of
250\du\ fabricated film is attributed to the small size effect of
nanoparticles in Zn_{0.75}Co_{0.25}O film.

This paper examines the quantization of mesoscopic circuit including
Josephson junctions. Following Feynman's assumption, via the
Hamilton dynamic approach and by virtue of the entangled state
representation, it constructs Hamiltonian operator for the
double-Josephson-junction mesoscopic circuit coupled by a capacitor.
Then it uses the Heisenberg equation of motion to derive the
induction voltage across each Josephson junction. The result
manifestly shows how the voltage is affected by the capacitance
coupling.

This paper considers a generalized spin star system which can be
solved exactly, with the central spin-$\ddfrac{1}{2}$ system embedded
in an outer ring of $N$ spin-$\ddfrac{1}{2}$ particles(denoted as
spin bath). In this model, in addition to the central-outer
interaction, each pair of nearest neighbour of the bath interacts
within themselves. The general expressions of the eigenstates as well
as the eigenvalues of the model are derived with the use of the
symmetries of system. It analyses the quantum state transfer and the
dynamical behaviour of entanglement created during quantum
communication. It also analyses the efficiency of the configuration
regarded as quantum phase covariant clone or decoherence model. Some
interesting results are discovered concerning the properties of
quantum communication in this model.

The spontaneous magnetization of the Ho$^{3+}$ ion in holmium iron
garnet (HoIG) single crystals in the temperature range of
4.2--294\,K along the directions [111], [110], and [100] are
calculated, taking into account the effects of six magnetically
inequivalent sites occupied by the Ho$^{3+}$ ions based on the
quantum theory. The calculated results show that the magnetization
of the Ho$^{3+}$ ion in HoIG is obviously anisotropic. The
theoretical results are in agreement with those of experiments. A
primary interpretation of the anisotropy of magnetization of the
Ho$^{3+}$ ion in HoIG is put forward.

This paper reported that the nano-catkin carbon films were prepared
on Si substrates by means of electron cyclotron resonance microwave
plasma chemical vapour deposition in a hydrogen and methane mixture.
The surface morphology and the structure of the fabricated films were
characterized by using scanning electron microscopes and Raman
spectroscopy, respectively. The stable field emission properties with
a low threshold field of 5V/$\mu $m corresponding to a current
density of about 1$\mu $A/cm$^{2}$ and a current density of
3.2mA/cm$^{2}$ at an electric field of 10V/$\mu $m were obtained from
the carbon film deposited at CH$_{4}$ concentration of 8{\%}. The
mechanism that the threshold field decreased with the increase of the
CH$_{4}$ concentration and the high emission current appeared at the
high CH$_{4}$ concentration was explained by using the
Fowler--Nordheim theory.

Using the daily precipitation data of 740 stations in China from
1960 to 2000, the analysis on the variations and distributions of
the frequency and the percentage of extreme precipitation to the
annual rainfall have been performed in this paper. Results indicate
that the percentage of heavy rains (above 25mm/day) in the annual
rainfall has increased, while on average the day number of heavy
rains has slightly reduced during the past 40 years. In the end of
1970s and the beginning of 1980s, both the number of days with
extreme precipitation and the percentage of extreme precipitation
abruptly changed over China, especially in the northern China. By
moving t test, the abrupt change year of extreme precipitation for
each station and its spatial distribution over the whole country are
also obtained. The abrupt change years concentrated in 1978--1982
for most regions of northern China while occurred at various
stations in southern China in greatly different/diverse years.
Besides the abrupt change years of extreme precipitation at part
stations of Northwest China happened about 5 years later in
comparison with that of the country's average.