This paper considers the multi-symplectic formulations of the
generalized fifth-order KdV equation in Hamiltonian space. Recurring
to the midpoint rule, it presents an implicit multi-symplectic
scheme with discrete multi-symplectic conservation law to solve the
partial differential equations which are derived from the
generalized fifth-order KdV equation numerically. The results of the
numerical experiments show that this multi-symplectic algorithm is
good in accuracy and its long-time numerical behaviour is also
perfect.

A second-order dynamic phase transition in a non-equilibrium Eggers
urn model for the separation of sand is studied. The order
parameter, the susceptibility and the stationary probability
distribution have been calculated. By applying the Lee--Yang zeros
method of equilibrium phase transitions, we study the distributions
of the effective partition function zeros and obtain the same result
for the model. Thus, the Lee--Yang theory can be applied to a more
general non-equilibrium system.

This paper considers the Holling--Tanner model for predator--prey
with self and cross-diffusion. From the Turing theory, it is
believed that there is no Turing pattern formation for the equal
self-diffusion coefficients. However, combined with cross-diffusion,
it shows that the system will exhibit spotted pattern by both
mathematical analysis and numerical simulations. Furthermore,
asynchrony of the predator and the prey in the space. The obtained
results show that cross-diffusion plays an important role on the
pattern formation of the predator--prey system.

A discrete total variation calculus with variable time steps is
presented for mechanico-electrical systems where there exist
non-potential and dissipative forces. By using this discrete
variation calculus, the symplectic-energy-first integrators for
mechanico-electrical systems are derived. To do this, the time step
adaptation is employed. The discrete variational principle and the
Euler--Lagrange equation are derived for the systems. By using this
discrete algorithm it is shown that mechanico-electrical systems are
not symplectic and their energies are not conserved unless they are
Lagrange mechanico-electrical systems. A practical example is
presented to illustrate these results.

The Adomian decomposition method (ADM) and Pad\'{e} approximants are
combined to solve the well-known Blaszak--Marciniak lattice, which
has rich mathematical structures and many important applications in
physics and mathematics. In some cases, the truncated series
solution of ADM is adequate only in a small region when the exact
solution is not reached. To overcome the drawback, the Pad\'{e}
approximants, which have the advantage in turning the polynomials
approximation into a rational function, are applied to the series
solution to improve the accuracy and enlarge the convergence domain.
By using the ADM-Pad\'{e} technique, the soliton solutions of the
Blaszak--Marciniak lattice are constructed with better accuracy and
better convergence than by using the ADM alone. Numerical and
figurative illustrations show that it is a promising tool for
solving nonlinear problems.

A hierarchy of non-isospectral Ablowitz--Kaup--Newell--Segur (AKNS)
equations with self-consistent sources is derived. As a general
reduction case, a hierarchy of non-isospectral nonlinear
Schr\"{o}dinger equations (NLSE) with self-consistent sources is
obtained. Moreover, a new non-isospectral integrable coupling of the
AKNS soliton hierarchy with self-consistent sources is constructed
by using the Kronecker product.

In this paper, a new auxiliary equation method is presented of
constructing more new non-travelling wave solutions of nonlinear
differential equations in mathematical physics, which is direct and
more powerful than projective Riccati equation method. In order to
illustrate the validity and the advantages of the method,
(2+1)-dimensional asymmetric Nizhnik--Novikov--Vesselov equation is
employed and many new double periodic non-travelling wave solutions
are obtained. This algorithm can also be applied to other nonlinear
differential equations.

Applying the spinor representation of the electromagnetic field,
this paper present a quantum-mechanical description of waveguides.
As an example of application, a potential qubit generated by photon
tunnelling is discussed.

In this paper, we present a multi-partner communication network
protocol. The supervisor prepares numerous Einstein--Podolsky--Rosen
(EPR) pairs and auxiliary qubits. He then performs a
controlled-NOT(CNOT) gate operation on one qubit of each EPR pair
and an auxiliary, which induces the entanglement between the EPR
pair and the auxiliary. The supervisor keeps one qubit sequence in
his laboratory and sends the others to the outside world. After
security approval, the network can be constructed successfully,
which can be applied to quantum secret sharing and quantum secure
direct communication.

The stable nonlinear transport of the Bose--Einstein condensates
through a double barrier potential in a waveguide is studied. By
using the direct perturbation method we have obtained a perturbed
solution of Gross--Pitaevskii equation. Theoretical analysis reveals
that this perturbed solution is a stable periodic solution, which
shows that the transport of Bose--Einstein condensed atoms in this
system is a stable nonlinear transport. The corresponding numerical
results are in good agreement with the theoretical analytical
results.

By using the method of density-matrix renormalization-group to solve
the different spin--spin correlation functions, the
nearest-neighbouring entanglement (NNE) and the
next-nearest-neighbouring entanglement (NNNE) of one-dimensional
alternating Heisenberg XY spin chain are investigated in the
presence of alternating the-nearest-neighbouring interaction of
exchange couplings, external magnetic fields and the next-nearest
neighbouring interaction. For a dimerised ferromagnetic spin chain,
the NNNE appears only above a critical dimerized interaction,
meanwhile, the dimerized interaction a effects a quantum phase
transition point and improves the NNNE to a large extent. We also
study the effect of ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic next-nearest
neighbouring (NNN) interaction on the dynamics of NNE and NNNE. The
ferromagnetic NNN interaction increases and shrinks the NNE below
and above a critical frustrated interaction respectively, while the
antiferromagnetic NNN interaction always reduces the NNE. The
antiferromagnetic NNN interaction results in a large value of NNNE
compared with the case where the NNN interaction is ferromagnetic.

Nonlinear dynamics of the time-delayed Mackey--Glass systems is
explored. Coexistent multiple chaotic attractors are found.
Attractors with double-scroll structures can be well classified in
terms of different return times within one period of the delay time
by constructing the Poincar\'{e} section. Synchronizations of the
drive--response Mackey--Glass oscillators are investigated. The
critical coupling strength for the emergence of generalized
synchronization against the delay time exhibits the interesting
resonant behaviour. We reveal that stronger resonance effect may be
observed when different attractors are applied to the drivers, i.e.,
more resonance peaks can be found.

Based on two modified R\"{o}sslor hyperchaotic systems, which are
derived from the chaotic R\"{o}sslor system by introducing a state
feedback controller, this paper proposes a new switched R\"{o}sslor
hyperchaotic system. The switched system contains two different
hyperchaotic systems and can change its behaviour continuously from
one to another via a switching function. On the other hand, it
presents a systematic method for designing the circuit of realizing
the proposed hyperchaotic system. In this design, circuit state
equations are written in normalized dimensionless form by rescaling
the time variable. Furthermore, an analogous circuit is designed by
using the proposed method and built for verifying the new hyperchaos
and the design method. Experimental results show a good agreement
between numerical simulations and experimental results.

This paper proposes a new robust chaotic system of three-dimensional
quadratic autonomous ordinary differential equations by introducing
an exponential quadratic term. This system can display a
double-scroll chaotic attractor with only two equilibria, and can be
found to be robust chaotic in a very wide parameter domain with
positive maximum Lyapunov exponent. Some basic dynamical properties
and chaotic behaviour of novel attractor are studied. By numerical
simulation, this paper verifies that the three-dimensional system
can also evolve into periodic and chaotic behaviours by a constant
controller.

Recently, two chaotic image encryption schemes have been proposed,
in which shuffling the positions and changing the grey values of
image pixels are combined. This paper provides the chosen plaintext
attack to recover the corresponding plaintext of a given ciphertext.
Furthermore, it points out that the two schemes are not sufficiently
sensitive to small changes of the plaintext. Based on the given
analysis, it proposes an improved algorithm which includes two
rounds of substitution and one round of permutation to strengthen
the overall performance.

A new circuit unit for the analysis and the synthesis of the chaotic
behaviours in a fractional-order Liu system is proposed in this
paper. Based on the approximation theory of fractional-order
operator, an electronic circuit is designed to describe the dynamic
behaviours of the fractional-order Liu system with $\alpha =0.9$.
The results between simulation and experiment are in good agreement
with each other, thereby proving that the chaos exists indeed in the
fractional-order Liu system.

This paper reports a new hyperchaotic system by adding an additional
state variable into a three-dimensional chaotic dynamical system,
studies some of its basic dynamical properties, such as the
hyperchaotic attractor, Lyapunov exponents, bifurcation diagram and
the hyperchaotic attractor evolving into periodic, quasi-periodic
dynamical behaviours by varying parameter $k$.
Furthermore，effective linear feedback control method is used to
suppress hyperchaos to unstable equilibrium, periodic orbits and
quasi-periodic orbits. Numerical simulations are presented to show
these results.

In this paper, we studied the effect of Gaussian coloured noise on
the formation and instability of spiral waves described by one class
of modified FitzHugh--Nagumo equation. It was found that Gaussian
coloured noise plays a constructive role in the formation,
transition and instability of spiral wave. Too weak or too strong
noise may act against the formation of spiral waves. At a certain
noise level, spiral wave is maintained in a medium, in which spiral
wave cannot be observed in the absence of the noise. It is difficult
to make a stable spiral wave into unstable state by Gaussian
coloured noise, unless the noise level is very high. The parameter
regions of Gaussian coloured noise for spiral forming and spiral
instability were given and discussed with numerical simulations.

In this paper, a Takagi--Sugeno (T--S) fuzzy model-based method is
proposed to deal with the problem of synchronization of two
identical or different hyperchaotic systems. The T--S fuzzy models
with a small number of fuzzy IF--THEN rules are employed to
represent many typical hyperchaotic systems exactly. The benefit of
employing the T--S fuzzy models lies in mathematical simplicity of
analysis. Based on the T--S fuzzy hyperchaotic models, two fuzzy
controllers are designed via parallel distributed compensation (PDC)
and exact linearization (EL) techniques to synchronize two identical
hyperchaotic systems with uncertain parameters and two different
hyperchaotic systems, respectively. The sufficient conditions for
the robust synchronization of two identical hyperchaotic systems
with uncertain parameters and the asymptotic synchronization of two
different hyperchaotic systems are derived by applying the Lyapunov
stability theory. This method is a universal one of synchronizing
two identical or different hyperchaotic systems. Numerical examples
are given to demonstrate the validity of the proposed fuzzy model
and hyperchaotic synchronization scheme.

We study projective synchronization with different scaling factors
(PSDF) in $N$ coupled chaotic systems networks. By using the
adaptive linear control, some sufficient criteria for the PSDF in
symmetrical and asymmetrical coupled networks are separately given
based on the Lyapunov function method and the left eigenvalue
theory. Numerical simulations for a generalized chaotic unified
system are illustrated to verify the theoretical results.

This paper presents a general method of the generalized projective
synchronization and the parameter identification between two
different chaotic systems with unknown parameters. This approach is
based on Lyapunov stability theory, and employs a combination of
feedback control and adaptive control. With this method one can
achieve the generalized projective synchronization and realize the
parameter identifications between almost all chaotic (hyperchaotic)
systems with unknown parameters. Numerical simulations results are
presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.

A general model of linearly stochastically coupled identical
connected neural networks with hybrid coupling is proposed, which is
composed of constant coupling, coupling discrete time-varying delay
and coupling distributed time-varying delay. All the coupling terms
are subjected to stochastic disturbances described in terms of
Brownian motion, which reflects a more realistic dynamical behaviour
of coupled systems in practice. Based on a simple adaptive feedback
controller and stochastic stability theory, several sufficient
criteria are presented to ensure the synchronization of linearly
stochastically coupled complex networks with coupling mixed
time-varying delays. Finally, numerical simulations illustrated by
scale-free complex networks verify the effectiveness of the proposed
controllers.

In this work, the stability issues of the equilibrium points of the
cellular neural networks with multiple time delays and impulsive
effects are investigated. Based on the stability theory of
Lyapunov--Krasovskii, the method of linear matrix inequality (LMI)
and parametrized first-order model transformation, several novel
conditions guaranteeing the delay-dependent and the
delay-independent exponential stabilities are obtained. A numerical
example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of our results.

The effect of change in concentration of messenger molecule inositol
1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP$_{3})$ on intracellular Ca$^{2 + }$spiral
pattern evolution is studied numerically. The results indicate that
when the IP$_{3}$ concentration decreases from 0.27\,$\mu $M, a
physiologically reasonable value, to different values, the spiral
centre drifts to the edge of the medium and disappears for a small
enough IP$_{3}$ concentration. The instability of spiral pattern can
be understood in terms of excitability-change controlled by the
IP$_{3}$ concentration. On the other hand, when the IP$_{3}$
concentration increases from 0.27\,$\mu $M, a homogeneous area with
a high Ca$^{2 + }$ concentration emerges and competes with the
spiral pattern. A high enough IP$_{3}$ concentration can lead the
homogeneous area to occupy the whole medium. The instability of
spiral pattern is ascribed to the change in stability of a
stationary state with a high Ca$^{2 + }$ concentration.

We studied synchronization behaviours of spiral waves in a two-layer
coupled inhomogeneous excitable system. It was found that phase
synchronization can be observed under weak coupling strength. By
increasing the coupling strength, the synchronization is broken
down. With the further increase of the coupling strength, complete
synchronization and phase synchronization occur again. We also found
that the inhomogeneity in excitable systems is helpful to the
synchronization.

In this paper, the dynamical behaviour of a linear impulsive system
is discussed both theoretically and numerically. The existence and
the stability of period-one solution are discussed by using a
discrete map. The conditions of existence for flip bifurcation are
derived by using the centre manifold theorem and bifurcation
theorem. The bifurcation analysis shows that chaotic solutions
appear via a cascade of period-doubling in some interval of
parameters. Moreover, the periodic solutions, the bifurcation
diagram, and the chaotic attractor, which show their consistence
with the theoretical analyses, are given in an example.

The static bifurcation of the parametrically excited strongly
nonlinear oscillator is studied. We consider the averaged equations
of a system subject to Duffing--van der Pol and quintic strong
nonlinearity by introducing the undetermined fundamental frequency
into the computation in the complex normal form. To discuss the
static bifurcation, the bifurcation problem is described as a
3-codimensional unfolding with $Z_{2}$ symmetry on the basis of
singularity theory. The transition set and bifurcation diagrams for
the singularity are presented, while the stability of the zero
solution is studied by using the eigenvalues in various parameter
regions.

We investigate the wavefronts depinning in current biased,
infinitely long semiconductor superlattice systems by the method of
discrete mapping and show that the wavefront depinning corresponds
to the discrete mapping failure. For parameter values near the lower
critical current in both discrete drift model (DD model) and
discrete drift--diffusion model (DDD model), the mapping failure is
determined by the important mapping step from the bottom of branch
$\gamma$ to branch $\alpha$. For the upper critical parameters in
DDD model, the key mapping step is from branch $\gamma$ to the top
of the corresponding branch $\alpha$, and we may need several active
wells to describe the wavefronts.

In this paper, by using the stability theory of stochastic
differential equations, the average-consensus problem with noise
perturbation is investigated. It is analytically proved that the
consensus could be achieved with a probability of one. Furthermore,
numerical examples are taken to illustrate the effectiveness of the
theoretical result.

This paper critically analyses and simulates the circuit
configuration of the integral gated mode single photon detector
which is proposed for eliminating the transient spikes problem of
conventional gated mode single photon detector. The relationship
between the values of the circuit elements and the effect of
transient spikes cancellation has been obtained. With particular
emphasis, the bias voltage of the avalanche photodiode and the
output signal voltage of the integrator have been calculated. The
obtained analysis results indicate that the output signal voltage of
the integrator only relates to the total quantity of electricity of
the avalanche charges by choosing the correct values of the circuit
elements and integral time interval. These results can be used to
optimize the performance of single photon detectors and provide
guides for the design of single photon detectors.

Simulate anneal arithmetic has been used to settle the problem of
time bunching on a pulsed slow-positron beam device. This paper has
searched for the parameters of the device in a large scope and
achieved the time resolution within 150ps at the target with
accelerating voltage in a range of 0.5--30kV.

This paper introduces a novel method to realize the superposition of
orbital angular momentum of photons by combined computer-generated
hologram (CCGH) fabricated in silica glass with femtosecond laser
pulses. Firstly, the two computer-generated holograms (CGH) of
optical vortex were obtained and combined as a CCGH according to the
design. Then the CCGH was directly written inside glass by
femtosecond laser pulses induced microexplosion without any pre- or
post-treatment of the material. The vortex beams with different
vortex topological charges (including new topological charges) have
been restructured using a collimated He--Ne laser beam incidence to
the CCGH normally. A theoretical and experimental explanation has
been presented for the generations of the new topological charges.

This paper solves exactly a set of fully quantized coupled equations
describing the quantum dynamics of quantum spins mixing in spin-1
Bose--Einstein condensates by deriving the exact explicit analytical
expressions for the evolution of creation and annihilation
operators.

This paper proposes an alternative scheme for generating
cluster-type of entangled coherent states. This scheme is based on
resonant interaction of a two-mode cavity with a two-level atom
driven by strong classical fields. Thus the required interaction
time is greatly shortened, which is very important in view of
decoherence.

This paper investigates the dynamics of cooperative emissions in a
cascade three-level system driven by an ultrashort laser pulse by
solving numerically the full-wave Maxwell--Bloch equations. The 4,
4$'$-bis(dimethylamino) stilbene molecule is used as the model
molecule because of its strong two-photon absorption property. The
two-colour cooperative emissions are studied as functions of
molecular number density and dephasing rate of the dipole coherence.
The propagation effects on the evolution of the cooperative
radiations are also taken into account. The cooperative radiations
are enhanced for large number density of the molecule, while the
fast dephasing of the dipole coherence reduces the intensity of the
cooperative radiations and delays the emission times or even
inhibits the formation of the emissions. The delay time of the
radiation decreases with the increase of the molecular number
density and the propagation distance.

Using a special property of dynamic
complementary-suppression-modulated transmission (DCSMT) in the
bacteriorhodopsin (bR) film, we have demonstrated an all-optical
time-delay relay. To extend our work, the relationship
between the delay time of the all-optical time-delay relay and
parameters of a bR film is numerically studied. We show how the
delay time changes with the product of concentration and thickness
(PCT) of a bR film. Furthermore, the shortest and longest delay
times are given for the relay of `switch off'. The saturable delay
time and maximum delay-time of `switch on' are also given. How the
wavelengths (632.8, 568, 533 and 412\,nm) and intensities of the
illuminating light influence the delay time is also discussed. The
simulation results are useful for optimizing the design of
all-optical time-delay relays.

This paper proposes and simulates a novel all-optical error-bit
amplitude monitor based on cross-gain modulation and four-wave
mixing in cascaded semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs), which
function as logic NOT and logic AND, respectively. The proposed
scheme is successfully simulated for 40\,Gb/s return-to-zero (RZ)
signal with different duty cycles. In the first stage, the SOA is
followed by a detuning filter to accelerate the gain recovery as
well as improve the extinction ratio. A clock probe signal is used
to avoid the edge pulse-pairs in the output waveform. Among these RZ
formats, 33{\%} RZ format is preferred to obtain the largest eye
opening. The normalized error amplitude, defined as error bit
amplitude over the standard mark amplitude, has a dynamic range from
0.1 to 0.65 for all RZ formats. The simulations show small input
power dynamic range because of the nonlinear gain variation in the
first stage. This scheme is competent for nonreturn-to-zero format
at 10Gb/s as well.

The physical process of cumulative second-harmonic generation of
Lamb waves propagating in a two-layered solid plate is presented by
using the second-order perturbation and the technique of nonlinear
reflection of acoustic waves at an interface. In general, the
cumulative second-harmonic generation of a dispersive guided wave
propagation does not occur. However, the present paper shows that
the second-harmonic of Lamb wave propagation arising from the
nonlinear interaction of the partial bulk acoustic waves and the
restriction of the three boundaries of the solid plates does have a
cumulative growth effect if some conditions are satisfied. Through
boundary condition and initial condition of excitation, the
analytical expression of cumulative second-harmonic of Lamb waves
propagation is determined. Numerical results show the cumulative
effect of Lamb waves on second-harmonic field patterns.

This paper presents a funnel external potential model to investigate
dynamic properties of ultracold Bose gas. By using variational
method, we obtain the ground-state energy and density properties of
ultracold Bose atoms. The results show that the ultracold Bose gas
confined in a funnel potential experiences the transition from
three-dimensional regime to quasi-one-dimensional regime in a small
aspect ratio, and undergoes fermionization process as the aspect
ratio increases.

The ionization spectrum of sulfur dioxide has been successfully
studied by using the symmetry-adapted-cluster
configuration-interaction (SAC-CI) general-$R$ and SD-$R$ methods
and the basis set correlation-consistent polarized valence
triple-zeta (cc-pVTZ). The SAC-CI general-$R$ method reproduces the
experimental spectrum well for both the main peaks and the satellite
peaks of ionization spectrum of SO$_{2}$. The sequence of ionic
states corresponding to main peaks of SO$_{2}$ has been
re-determined according to the SAC-CI conclusions and it is
reordered as ${\tilde {X}}{ }^{\rm 2}{A}_1 $, ${\tilde {A}}^{\rm
2}{B}_{\rm 2} $, ${\tilde {B}}{ }^{\rm 2}{A}_{\rm 2} $, ${\tilde
{C}}^{\rm 2}{B}_{\rm 1} $, ${\tilde {D}}{ }^{\rm 2}{A}_{\rm 1} $,
${\tilde {E}}^{\rm 2}{B}_{\rm 2} $ and ${\tilde {F}}^{\rm 2}{A}_1 $.
Besides, the equilibrium structures and adiabatic ionization
potentials (AIPs) of ionic states of main peaks of SO$_{2}$ are
calculated by using the SAC-CI SD-$R$ method.

Traditionally, the zitterbewegung (ZB) of the Dirac electron has
just been studied at the level of quantum mechanics. Seeing the fact
that an old interest in ZB has recently been rekindled by the
investigations on spintronic, graphene, and superconducting systems,
etc., this paper presents a quantum-field-theory investigation on ZB
and obtains the conclusion that, the ZB of an electron arises from
the influence of virtual electron--positron pairs (or vacuum
fluctuations) on the electron.

A new set of trial functions for 1s$^{2}$2s$n$s configurations in a
beryllium atom is suggested. A Mathematica program based on the
variational method is developed to calculate the wavefunctions and
energies of 1s$^{2}$2s$n$s ($n=3-6$) configurations in a beryllium
atom. Non-relativistic energy, polarization correction and
relativistic correction which include mass correction, one- and
two-body Darwin corrections, spin-spin contact interaction and
orbit-orbit interaction, are calculated respectively. The results
are in good agreement with experimental data.

This paper presents an experimental demonstration of light-induced
evaporative cooling in a magneto-optical trap. An additional laser
is used to interact with atoms at the edge of the atomic cloud in
the trap. These atoms get an additional force and evaporated away
from the trap by both the magnetic field and laser fields. The
remaining atoms have lower kinetic energy and thus are cooled. It
reports the measurements on the temperature and atomic number after
the evaporative cooling with different parameters including the
distance between the laser and the centre of the atomic cloud, the
detuning, the intensity. The results show that the light-induced
evaporative cooling is a way to generate an ultra-cold atom source.

Passive Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) remote sensing measurement
of chemical gas cloud is a vital technology. It takes an important
part in many fields for the detection of released gases. The
principle of concentration measurement is based on the Beer--Lambert
law. Unlike the active measurement, for the passive remote sensing,
in most cases, the difference between the temperature of the gas
cloud and the brightness temperature of the background is usually a
few kelvins. The gas cloud emission is almost equal to the
background emission, thereby the emission of the gas cloud cannot be
ignored. The concentration retrieval algorithm is quite different
from the active measurement. In this paper, the concentration
retrieval algorithm for the passive FTIR remote measurement of gas
cloud is presented in detail, which involves radiative transfer
model, radiometric calibration, absorption coefficient calculation,
{\it et al}. The background spectrum has a broad feature, which is a
slowly varying function of frequency. In this paper, the background
spectrum is fitted with a polynomial by using the
Levenberg--Marquardt method which is a kind of nonlinear least
squares fitting algorithm. No background spectra are required. Thus,
this method allows mobile, real-time and fast measurements of gas
clouds.

The values of direct double- to-single ionization ratio $R$ of
helium atoms induced by C$^{q + }$, O$^{q + }$ ($q=1-4$) ions at
incident energies from 0.2 to 8.5MeV are measured. Based on the
existing model (Shao J X, Chen X M and Ding B W 2007 \wx{Phys. Rev.
{\rm A}}{75} 012701) the effective charge of the projectile is
introduced to theoretically estimate the value of $R$ for the
partially stripped ions impacting on helium atoms. The results
calculated from our ``effective charge'' model are in good agreement
with the experimental data, and the dependence of the effective
charge on the ionization energy of the projectile is also discussed
qualitatively.

This paper considers classical strings propagating in
$\gamma$-deformed $AdS_3\times S^3$ backgrounds generated by
certain shift T-dualities accompanied (TsT) transformations on $S^3$
and $AdS_3$, respectively. It finds that
the $U(1)$ currents of strings with the twisted boundary
conditions are equal to those in $\gamma$-deformed backgrounds
generated by TsT transformations on both $S^3$ and $AdS_3$. Applying
the TsT transformations, it derives the local Lax connections and
the monodromy matrices in $\gamma$-deformed backgrounds with the
spectral parameter which ensure the classical integrability of the
string theories.

PHYSICS OF GASES, PLASMAS, AND ELECTRIC DISCHARGES

This paper develops a humped spiral antenna of top inductively
coupled plasma with variable gap. Comparing with planar spiral
antennae, it investigates the performance of humped spiral antennae
in the calculated electromagnetic configurations and experimental
results. It finds that the humped antenna has the improved
uniformity of plasma density in the radial direction and the
decreased electron temperature in the top inductively coupled
plasma. By experimental and theoretical analyses, the plasma
performance in the case of humped antennae is considered to be the
combined results of the uniform electromagnetic configurations and
the depressed capacitively coupling effect.

CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURAL, MECHANICAL, AND THERMAL PROPERTIES

This paper reports that the large-scale single crystalline boron
carbide nanobelts have been fabricated through a simple carbothermal
reduction method with B/B$_{2}$O$_{3}$/C/Fe powder as precursors at
1100${^\circ}$C. Transmission electron microscopy and selected area
electron diffraction characterizations show that the boron carbide
nanobelt has a B$_{4}$C rhomb-centred hexagonal structure with good
crystallization. Electron energy loss spectroscopy analysis
indicates that the nanobelt contains only B and C, and the atomic
ratio of B to C is close to 4:1. High resolution transmission
electron microscopy results show that the preferential growth
direction of the nanobelt is [101]. A possible growth mechanism is
also discussed.

In this paper, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are studied
through molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The simulations are
performed at temperatures of 1 and 300\,K separately, with atomic
interactions characterized by the second Reactive Empirical Bond
Order (REBO) potential, and temperature controlled by a certain
thermostat, i.e. by separately using the velocity scaling, the
Berendsen scheme, the Nose--Hoover scheme, and the generalized
Langevin scheme. Results for a (5,5) SWCNT with a length of 24.5\,nm
show apparent distortions in nanotube configuration, which can
further enter into periodic vibrations, except in simulations using
the generalized Langevin thermostat, which is ascribed to periodic
boundary conditions used in simulation. The periodic boundary
conditions may implicitly be applied in the form of an inconsistent
constraint along the axis of the nanotube. The combination of the
inconsistent constraint with the cumulative errors in calculation
causes the distortions of nanotubes. When the generalized Langevin
thermostat is applied, inconsistently distributed errors are
dispersed by the random forces, and so the distortions and
vibrations disappear. This speculation is confirmed by simulation in
the case without periodic boundary conditions, where no apparent
distortion and vibration occur. It is also revealed that numerically
induced distortions and vibrations occur only in simulation of
nanotubes with a small diameter and a large length-to-diameter
ratio. When MD simulation is applied to a system with a particular
geometry, attention should be paid to avoiding the numerical
distortion and the result infidelity.

The Brenner--LJ potential is adopted to describe the interaction
between C$_{36}$ clusters and diamond surface, and the deposition
mechanism of multi-C$_{36}$ clusters on the diamond surface is also
studied by using the method of molecular dynamics simulation. The
simulation results show that the competition effects of two
interactions, i.e. the interaction between cluster and cluster and
the interaction between cluster and crystal plane, are studied, and
then the influence of these competition effects on C$_{36}$ cluster
deposition is analysed. The finding is that when an incident energy
is appropriately chosen, C$_{36}$ clusters can be chemically
adsorbed and deposited steadily on the diamond surface in the form
of single-layer, and in the deposition process the multi-C$_{36}$
clusters present a phenomenon of energy transmission. The
experimental result shows that at a temperature of 300K, in order to
deposit C$_{36}$ clusters into a steady nano-structured
single-layered film, the optimal incident energy is between 10 and
18\,eV, if the incident energy is larger than 18\,eV, the C$_{36}$
clusters will be deposited into an island nano-structured film.

This paper studies the two-vibron bound states in the $\beta
$--Fermi--Pasta--Ulam model by means of the number conserving
approximation combined with the number state method. The results
indicate that on-site, adjacent-site and mixed two-vibron bound
states may exist in the model. Specially, wave number has a
significant effect on such bound states, which may be considered as
the quantum effects of the localized states in quantum systems.

This paper uses finite element method to obtain the
three-dimensional temperature field of laser-induced transient
thermal grating (TTG) for two-layered structure of diamond film on
ZnSe substrate. The numerical results indicate that unique two-times
heating process is gradually experienced in the area between two
adjacent grating stripes. However, there is a little change for the
temperature field along the depth direction for the diamond film due
to its great thermal conductivity. It further finds that the
thickness of the diamond film has a significant influence on the
temperature field in diamond/ZnSe system. The results are useful for
the application of laser-induced TTG technique in film/substrate
system.

CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES

This paper studies the electronic structure and native defects in
transparent conducting oxides CuScO$_{2}$ and CuYO$_{2}$ using the
first-principle calculations. Some typical native copper-related and
oxygen-related defects, such as vacancy, interstitials, and
antisites in their relevant charge state are considered. The results
of calculation show that, Cu$M$O$_{2}$($M=$ Sc, Y) is impossible to
show n-type conductivity ability. It finds that copper vacancy and
oxygen interstitial have relatively low formation energy and they
are the relevant defects in CuScO$_{2}$ and CuYO$_{2}$. Copper
vacancy is the most efficient acceptor, and under O-rich condition
oxygen antisite also becomes important acceptor and plays an
important role in p-type conductivity.

The excitonic optical absorption of GaAs bulk semiconductors under
intense terahertz (THz) radiation is investigated numerically. The
method of solving initial-value problems, combined with the perfect
matched layer technique, is used to calculate the optical
susceptibility. In the presence of a driving THz field, in addition
to the usual exciton peaks, 2p replica of the dark 2p exciton and
even-THz-photon-sidebands of the main exciton resonance emerge in
the continuum above the band edge and below the main exciton
resonance. Moreover, to understand the shift of the position of the
main exciton peak under intense THz radiation, it is necessary to
take into consideration both the dynamical Franz--Keldysh effect and
ac Stark effect simultaneously. For moderate frequency fields, the
main exciton peak decreases and broadens due to the field-induced
ionization of the excitons with THz field increasing. However, for
high frequency THz fields, the characteristics of the exciton recur
even under very strong THz fields, which accords with the recent
experimental results qualitatively.

Electromechanical property of a p-type single-crystal silicon
nanoplate is modelled by a microscopic approach where the hole
quantization effect and the spin--orbit coupling effect are taken
into account. The visible anisotropic subband structures are
calculated by solving self-consistently the stress-dependent
6$\times $6 ${\bm k} \cdot {\bm p} $ Schr\"{o}dinger equation with
the Poisson equation. The strong mixing among heavy, light, and
split-off holes is quantitatively assessed. The influences of the
thickness and the temperature on the piezoresistive coefficient are
quantitatively investigated by using the hole concentrations and the
effective masses from the complex dispersion structure of the
valence band with and without stresses. Our results show that the
stress determines the extent to which the band is mixed. The hole
quantization effect increases as the thickness decreases, and
therefore the valence band is strongly reshaped, resulting in the
size-dependent piezoresistivity of the silicon nanoplate. The
piezoresistive coefficient increases almost 4 times as the thickness
reduces from the bulk to 3\,nm, exhibiting a promising application
in mechanical sensors.

Photoluminescence (PL) and lasing properties of InAs/GaAs quantum
dots (QDs) with different growth procedures prepared by metalorganic
chemical vapour deposition are studied. PL measurements show that
the low growth rate QD sample has a larger PL intensity and a
narrower PL line width than the high growth rate sample. During
rapid thermal annealing, however, the low growth rate sample shows a
greater blueshift of PL peak wavelength. This is caused by the
larger InAs layer thickness which results from the larger 2--3 dimensional
transition critical layer thickness for
the QDs in the low-growth-rate sample. A growth technique including
growth interruption and in-situ annealing, named {indium flush
method,} is used during the growth of GaAs cap layer, which can
flatten the GaAs surface effectively. Though the method results in a
blueshift of PL peak wavelength and a broadening of PL line width,
it is essential for the fabrication of room temperature working QD
lasers.

We study theoretically the interfacial electronic property of a
heterojunction made from two Mott insulators (MI) with different
magnetic structures. By means of unrestricted Hartree-Fock
calculations in real space, we find that a charge dipole can form
spontaneously near the interface of the MI/MI heterojunction. The
magnitude of this charge dipole depends strongly on the magnetic
states of both sides of the heterojunction. Combining with the
result from an exactly solvable two-site toy model, we argue that
the interface dipole arises from exchange effects as well as its
asymmetry intrinsic to the heterojunction near the interface. Our
study may shed light on the fabrication of ultrathin ferroelectric
and magnetoelectric devices.

Halo structure is added to sub-100\,nm surrounding-gate
metal--oxide--semiconductor field- effect-transistors (MOSFETs) to
suppress short channel effect. This paper develops the analytical
surface potential and threshold voltage models based on the solution
of Poisson's equation in fully depleted condition for symmetric
halo-doped cylindrical surrounding gate MOSFETs. The performance of
the halo-doped device is studied and the validity of the analytical
models is verified by comparing the analytical results with the
simulated data by three dimensional numerical device simulator
Davinci. It shows that the halo doping profile exhibits better
performance in suppressing threshold voltage roll-off and
drain-induced barrier lowering, and increasing carrier transport
efficiency. The derived analytical models are in good agreement with
Davinci.

This paper investigates the single-molecule magnets of pure and
Cr/Fe-doped Mn$_{12}$-Ac. The components of the mixed crystals are
identified by AC susceptibility technique. The ground-state spin and
anisotropy parameters of doped \mbox{Mn$_{12}$-Ac} are obtained: (i)
\mbox{Mn$_{11}$Cr-Ac} ($S$=19/2, $D$=0.62\,K, $B$=0.0009\,K,
$\De$=63\,K), and (ii) \mbox{Mn$_{11}$Fe-Ac} ($S$=21/2, $D$=0.39\,K,
$B$=0.001\,K, $\De$=55\,K). The single-ion origin of the magnetic
anisotropy is discussed.

This paper reports that the lead zirconate titanate (PZT)
piezoelectric composites incorporating zinc oxide nanowhiskers
(ZnO$_{\rm w})$ were prepared by the conventional solid state
processing. The whisker-dispersed PZT composites (PZT/ZnO$_{\rm w})$
presented a significant enhancement in the mechanical properties
such as Young's modulus, tensile strength and compressive strength.
Especially, the compressive strength increased from 153\,MPa for the
PZT to 228\,MPa for the PZT/ZnO$_{\rm w}$ composites. The
reinforcement mechanism in strength of the composites was discussed.
The mechanical quality factors of the PZT/ZnO$_{\rm w }$ composites
increased considerably, while the piezoelectric constants and
electromechanical coupling coefficient decreased slightly. The
composites with good electrical and excellent mechanical properties
are promising for further applications.

A systematic investigation on °uorescence spectroscopy of trivalent thulium doped in oxy°uoride glass ceramics
containing LaF3 nanocrystals has been carried out in a spectral range from 400 to 900nm under the direct excitation of
1D2 level at a low temperature. Speciˉc optical transitions related to the °uorescence emissions are studied based on
experimental measurements in frequency and time domain. Fluorescence emissions from the ions in crystal phase are
distinguished from what in glass phase and their spectroscopic properties are explored. The dynamical process shows
that the temporal decay of °uorescence emission consists of two parts: a rapid decay from the ions in glass phase and
a slower decay from the ions in crystal phase.

Low-field electron emission is obtained from the pinaster-like
MoO$_{2}$ nanoarrays. The turn-on field of the pinaster-like
MoO$_{2}$ nanoarrays is found to be as low as 2.39\,V/$\mu $m with
the current density of 10\,$\mu $A/cm$^{2}$. The enhancement factor
is extracted to be 3590 from the Fowler--Nordheim plot. These
excellent emission properties are attributed to the special
structure of the pinaster-like MoO$_{2}$ nanoarrays and confirmed by
the calculation in the frame of the two -stage model. Our results
show that the pinaster-like MoO$_{2}$ nanoarrays are promising
candidate in realizing field emission displays.