A direct way to construct integrable couplings for discrete systems
is presented by use of two semi-direct sum Lie algebras. As their
applications, the discrete integrable couplings associated with
modified Korteweg--de Vries (m-KdV) lattice and two hierarchies of
discrete soliton equations are developed. It is also indicated that
the study of integrable couplings using semi-direct sums of Lie
algebras is an important step towards the complete classification of
integrable couplings.

In this paper, the conserved quantities are constructed using two
methods. The first method is by making an ansatz of the conserved
quantity and then using the definition of Poisson bracket to obtain
the coefficients in the ansatz. The main procedure for the second
method is given as follows. Firstly, the coupled terms in Lagrangian
are eliminated by changing the coordinate scales and rotating the
coordinate axes, secondly, the conserved quantities are obtain in
new coordinate directly, and at last, the conserved quantities are
expressed in the original coordinates by using the inverse transform
of the coordinates. The Noether symmetry and Lie symmetry of the
infinitesimal transformations about the conserved quantities are
also studied in this paper.

Main mathematical concepts and their physical foundation in the
nonstandard analysis theory of turbulence are presented and
discussed. The underlying fact is that there does not exist the
absolute zero fluid-volume. Therefore, the physical object
corresponding to the absolute point is just the uniform
fluid-particle. The fluid-particle, in general, corresponds to the
monad. The uniform fluid-particle corresponds to the uniform monad,
while the nonuniform fluid-particle to the nonuniform monad. There
are two kinds of the differentiations, one is based on the absolute
point, and the other based on the monad. The former is adopted in
the Navier--Stokes equations, and the latter in the fundamental
equations presented in this paper for the nonstandard analysis
theory of turbulence. The continuity of fluid is elucidated by
virtue of the concepts of the fluid-particle and fluid-particle at a
lower level. Furthermore, the characters of the continuity in two
cases, i.e. in the standard and nonstandard analyses, are presented
in this paper. And the difference in discretization between the
Navier--Stokes equations and the fundamental equations given herein
is also pointed out.

We present in this paper a quantum secure direct communication
(QSDC) protocol by using partially entangled states. In the scheme a
third party (Trent) is introduced to authenticate the participants.
After authentication, Alice can directly, deterministically and
successfully send a secret message to Bob. The security of the
scheme is also discussed and confirmed.

Starting from the extended tanh-function method (ETM) based on the
mapping method, the variable separation solutions of the
(2+1)-dimensional asymmetric Nizhnik--Novikov--Veselov (ANNV) system
are derived. By further study, we find that these variable separation
solutions are seemingly independent of but actually dependent on each
other. Based on the variable separation solution and by choosing
appropriate functions, some novel and interesting interactions
between special solitons, such as bell-like compacton, peakon-like
compacton and compacton-like semi-foldon, are investigated.

We present two schemes for realizing the remote preparation of a
Greenberger--Horne--Zeilinger (GHZ) state. The first scheme is to remotely
prepare a general N-particle GHZ state with two steps. One is to prepare a qubit
state by using finite classical bits from sender to receiver via a
two-particle entangled state, and the other is that the receiver introduces
N - 1 additional particles and performs N - 1 controlled-not (C-Not)
operations. The second scheme is to remotely prepare an N-atom
GHZ state via
a two-atom entangled state in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). The two
schemes require only a two-particle entangled state used as a quantum
channel, so we reduce the requirement for entanglement.

We present an experimentally feasible one-step discrimination scheme
on Bell bases with trapped ions, and then generalize it to the case
of N-ion Greenberger--Horne--Zeilinger (GHZ) bases. In the scheme,
all the orthogonal and complete N-ion GHZ internal states can be
exactly discriminated only by one step, and thus it takes very short
time. Moreover, the scheme is insensitive to thermal motion and dose
not require the individual addressing of the ions. The Bell-state
and GHZ-state one-step discrimination scheme can be widely used in
quantum information processing based on ion-trap set-up.

This paper proposes two schemes to generate the multi-atom cluster states. The
first scheme is based on the interaction of atoms with a highly
detuned cavity mode and a classical field, the second scheme is
based on the interaction of atoms with a cavity mode, strongly
driven by a resonant classical field.

We propose an effective scheme for the entanglement concentration of
a four-particle state via entanglement swapping in an ion trap.
Taking the maximally entangled state after concentration as a quantum
channel, we can faithfully and determinatively teleport quantum
entangled states from Alice to Bob without the joint Bell-state
measurement. In the process of constructing the quantum channel, we
adopt entanglement swapping to avoid the decrease of entanglement
during the distribution of particles. Thus our scheme provides a new
prospect for quantum teleportation over a longer distance.
Furthermore, the success probability of our scheme is 1.0.

The loss of a quantum channel leads to an irretrievable particle loss
as well as information. In this paper, the loss of quantum channel is
analysed and a method is put forward to recover the particle and
information loss effectively using universal quantum error
correction. Then a secure direct communication scheme is proposed,
such that in a loss channel the information that an eavesdropper can
obtain would be limited to arbitrarily small when the code is
properly chosen and the correction operation is properly arranged.

Darboux transformation with multi-parameters for the
Boussinesq--Burgers (B--B) equation is derived. For an application,
some important explicit solutions of the B--B equation are obtained,
including 2N-soliton solution and periodic solution.
Finally, some elegant and interesting figures are plotted.

In this paper we, firstly, classify the complex networks in which the nodes
are of the lifetime distribution. Secondly, in order to study complex networks
in terms of queuing system and homogeneous Markov chain, we
establish the relation between the complex networks and queuing system,
providing a new way of studying complex networks. Thirdly, we prove that there
exist stationary degree distributions of M--G--P network, and obtain the
analytic expression of the distribution by means of Markov chain theory. We
also obtain the average path length and clustering coefficient of the
network. The results show that M--G--P network is not only scale-free but also
of a small-world feature in proper conditions.

In this paper is investigated the generalized projective
synchronization of a class of chaotic (or hyperchaotic) systems, in
which certain parameters can be separated from uncertain parameters.
Based on the adaptive technique, the globally generalized projective
synchronization of two identical chaotic (hyperchaotic) systems is
achieved by designing a novel nonlinear controller. Furthermore, the
parameter identification is realized simultaneously. A sufficient
condition for the globally projective synchronization is obtained.
Finally, by taking the hyperchaotic Lü system as example, some
numerical simulations are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness
and feasibility of the proposed technique.

A new method is proposed to determine the optimal embedding
dimension from a scalar time series in this paper. This method
determines the optimal embedding dimension by optimizing the
nonlinear autoregressive prediction model parameterized by the
embedding dimension and the nonlinear degree. Simulation results
show the effectiveness of this method. And this method is applicable
to a short time series, stable to noise, computationally efficient,
and without any purposely introduced parameters.

In this paper, an approach for chaotifying a stable controllable
linear system via single input state-feedback is presented. The
overflow function of the system states is designed as the
feedback controller, which can make the fixed point of the
closed-loop system to be a snap-back repeller, thereby yields
chaotic dynamics. Based on the Marotto theorem, it proves
theoretically that the closed-loop system is chaotic in the
sense of Li and Yorke. Finally, the simulation results are used
to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

In this paper, a very simple synchronization method is presented for
a class of fractional-order chaotic systems only via feedback
control. The synchronization technique, based on the stability
theory of fractional-order systems, is simple and theoretically
rigorous.

In this article, we have proposed an epidemic model based on the
probability cellular automata theory. The essential mathematical
features are analysed with the help of stability theory. We have
given an alternative modelling approach for the spatiotemporal system
which is more realistic from the practical point of view. A discrete
and spatiotemporal approach is shown by using cellular automata
theory. It is interesting to note that both the size of the endemic
equilibrium and the density of the individuals increase with the
increase of the neighbourhood size and infection rate, but the
infections decrease with the increase of the recovery rate. The
stability of the system around the positive interior equilibrium has
been shown by using a suitable Lyapunov function. Finally,
experimental data simulation for SARS disease in China in 2003 and a
brief discussion are given.

In this paper the temperature dependence of responsivity and response
time for 6H-SiC ultraviolet (UV) photodetector is simulated based on
numerical model in the range from 300K to 900K. The simulation
results show that the responsivity and the response time of device
are less sensitive to temperature and this kind of UV photodetector
has excellent temperature stability. Also the effects of device
structure and bias voltage on the responsivity and the response time
are presented. The thicker the drift region is, the higher the
responsivity and the longer the response time are. So the thickness
of drift region has to be carefully designed to make trade-off
between responsivity and response time.

This paper uses the Lie algebraic method to analyse the charged
particle trajectories in the spherical electrostatic analyser, and
obtains the nonlinear solutions. The results show that the focusing
abilities both in the x and y directions of the analyser are
almost the same. Moreover, there exist dispersion effects in the x
direction, and no dispersion effects in the y direction.

The transmission characteristics of a metallic film with
subwavelength periodic slits are investigated by using the
two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method (2D-FDTD). Two
models are constructed to show the dependance of the transmission
spectrum on the slit structure. A sandwiched structure is used to
exhibit the contribution of the metallic wall inside slits to the
extraordinary high transmission. And a filled slit structure is
employed to reflect the relation between the average refractive
index inside the slits and the transmission spectrum of the
structure. The transmission characteristics of two structures can be
explained well with the waveguide resonance theory.

In this paper, a new kind of light beam called off-axial elliptical
cosine-Gaussian beam
(ECosGBs) is defined by using the tensor method. An analytical propagation
expression for the ECosGBs passing through axially nonsymmetrical optical
systems is derived by using vector integration. The intensity distributions
of ECosGBs on the input plane, on the output plane with the equivalent
Fresnel number being equal to 0.1 and on the focal plane are respectively
illustrated for the propagation properties. The results indicate that an
ECosGB is eventually transformed into an elliptical
cosh-Gaussian beam. In other words, ECosGBs and
cosh-Gaussian beams act in a reciprocal manner after propagation.

Based on the modified spectrum, the analytic expressions for the
variance and normalized covariance of angle-of-arrival (AOA)
fluctuations are presented, which are applicable to the weak and
strong regimes. The experimental data of AOA fluctuations validate
the new derived expressions in weak and strong regimes. The results
show that the receiving aperture D, outer scale and cell scale
larger than the scattering disc S contribute significantly to the
AOA fluctuations, and contributions from the small-scale turbulence
are negligible. For the case of 4S/D\ll 1, the receiving aperture
dominates low-pass filtering effects and the new displacement
variances are in good agreement with the results from the
old weak-fluctuation theory. For the case of 4S/D\gg 1, the scattering disc dominates the low-pass
filtering effects and the new displacement variances depart from the
results from the old
weak-fluctuation theory.

The light's orbital angular momentum (OAM) is a consequence of
the spiral flow of the electromagnetic energy. In this paper, an
analysis of light beams with OAM used for free space optics
(FSO) is conducted. The basic description and conception of
light's OAM are reviewed. Both encoding information into OAM
states of single light beam and encoding information into
spatial structure of the mixed optical vortex with OAM are
discussed, and feasibility to improve the FSO's performance of
security and obstruction of line of sight is examined.

This paper proposes a scheme for implementing teleportation of an
entangled state of two trapped atoms through adiabatic passage and
photonic interference. The scheme is robust against certain noise
such as atomic spontaneous emission and the detector inefficiency.

In a system with a moving V-type three-level atom interacting with
the SU(1,1)-related coherent fields,
we investigate the entanglement between the moving three-level atom
and the SU(1,1)-related coherent fields by
using the quantum-reduced entropy, and that
between the SU(1,1)-related
coherent fields by using the quantum relative
entropy of entanglement. It is shown that the two kinds of entanglement
are dependent on the atomic motion and
exhibit the periodic evolution with a
period of 2π/p. The maximal atom--field qutrit entanglement
state can be prepared, and the entanglement preservation
of the SU(1,1)-related coherent fields
can be realized in the interacting process
via the appropriate selection of system
parameters and interaction time.

This paper discusses the properties of amplitude-squared squeezing of
the generalized odd--even coherent states of anharmonic oscillator in
finite-dimensional Hilbert space. It demonstrates that the
generalized odd coherent states do exhibit strong amplitude-squared
squeezing effects in comparison with the generalized even coherent
states.

This paper studies quantum entanglement between two spatially
separated atoms driven by a coherent laser field in the dissipative
process of spontaneous emission. It is shown that the entanglement
strongly depends on the detuning of the laser frequency from atomic
transition frequency, the interatomic separation and the Rabi
frequency of the coherent laser field. A considerable amount of
steady state entanglement can be obtained near Δ=-α
(i.e., the dipole--dipole interaction and the detuning cancel out
mutually) for small atomic separation and large Rabi frequency of
the coherent laser field.

In this paper security of the quantum key distribution scheme using
correlations of continuous variable Einstein--Podolsky--Rosen (EPR)
pairs is investigated. A new approach for calculating the secret
information rate Δ I is proposed by using the Shannon
information theory. Employing an available parameter F which is
associated with the entanglement of the EPR pairs, one can detect
easily the eavesdropping. Results show that the proposed scheme is
secure against individual beam splitter attack strategy with a
proper squeeze parameter.

The Ni-like Ag 13.9nm x-ray laser has been previously demonstrated
that the higher gain near critical surface contributes little to the
amplification of the x-ray laser because of severe refraction. In
this paper, the transient collision excitation (TCE) Ni-like Ag
13.9nm x-ray laser is simulated, driven by two 3ps short pulse
preceded by a 330ps long prepulse, optimization of the peak to
peak delay time of the two short pulses is made to get the best
results. Simulation indicates that by producing lowly ionized
preplasma with smoothly varying electron density, it is possible to
decrease electron density gradient in higher density region, and
thus higher gains near this region could be utilized, and if the
main short pulse is delayed by 900ps, local gains where electron
density larger than ～ 4×10^{20}cm^{-3} could be utilized.

Ultra-stable optical cavities are widely used for laser frequency
stabilization. In these experiments the laser performance relies on
the length stability of the Fabry--Perot cavities. Vibration-induced
deformation is one of the dominant factors that affect the stability
of ultra-stable optical cavities. We have quantitatively
analysed the elastic deformation of Fabry--Perot cavities with various shapes
and mounting configurations. Our numerical result facilitates a
novel approach for the design of ultra-stable cavities that are
insensitive to vibrational perturbations. This approach can be
applied to many experiments such as laser frequency stabilization,
high-precision laser spectroscopy, and optical frequency standards.

In order to improve the performance of the two-cell stimulated
Brillouin scattering (SBS) system, this paper proposes the methods
of using mixtures, which require amplifier media to have small
absorption rate, and generator media to have high optical breakdown
threshold and Brillouin frequency shift equal to that of the
amplification media. The characteristics of the two-cell SBS system
are studied experimentally by using CCl_{4} as amplifier medium and
CCl_{4}, C_{2}H_{5}OH and CCl_{4}/C_{2}H_{5}OH liquid mixture as
generator medium pumped by Nd:YAG Q-switched laser. The obtained
results show that liquid mixture in generator cell improves the power
load ability, phase conjugation fidelity, energy reflectivity (ER)
and ER stability.

In an open-circuit dissipative photovoltaic (PV) crystal, by
considering the diffusion effect, the deflection of bright
dissipative photovoltaic (DPV) solitons has been investigated by
employing numerical technique and perturbational procedure. The
relevant results show that the centre of the optical beam moves along
a parabolic trajectory, while the central spatial-frequency component
shifts linearly with the propagation distance; furthermore, both the
spatial deflection and the angular derivation are associated with the
photovoltaic field. Such DPV solitons have a fixed deflection degree
completely determined by the parameters of the dissipative system.
The small bending cannot affect the formation of the DPV soliton via
two-wave mixing.

The total energy loss of N^{+q} ions (for v< Bohr velocity)
grazing on the Al(111) has been simulated without any `fit' parameter
and compared with the experimental data. The energy loss due to the
charge exchange, happening before the N^{+q} hits the Al(111)
surface, is studied. The present simulation shows that the energy
loss strongly depends on the charge state of the projectile and the
lattice orientation of Al(111) surface. The calculated total energy
loss agrees with experimental data very well.

In this paper the equilibrium structure of HCO has been optimized by
using density functional theory (DFT)/ B3P86 method and CC-PVTZ
basis. It has a bent (C_{s}, X^{2A'}) ground state structure
with an angle of 124.4095℃. The vibronic frequencies and
force constants have also been calculated. Based on the principles
of atomic and molecular reaction statics, the possible electronic
states and reasonable dissociation limits for the ground state of
HCO molecule have been determined. The analytic potential energy
function of HCO ( X^{2A'}) molecule has been derived by using the
many-body expansion theory. The contour lines are constructed, which
show the static properties of HCO ( X^{2A'}), such as the equilibrium
structure, the lowest energies, etc. The potential energy surface of
HCO ( X^{2A'}) is reasonable and very satisfactory.

The bi-dimensional optical lattices formed by several sets of laser
evanescent standing waves propagating at the surface of a dielectric
prism are investigated. The characteristics of the optical traps
including their depths and the sizes are analysed. It is shown that
the micro-optical lattice with a sub-half-wavelength size can be
achieved by the interference of the selected evanescent waves. The
scheme together with the recently developed atomic chip may be used
for atomic quantum manipulation.

The steady-state fluorescence spectrum characteristic of
ethanol--water excimer has been studied in this paper. By analysing
the features of the sharp emission spectrum with fine structures in a
shortwave band and the characteristics of the broad and featureless
fluorescence peaks in the longwave band, one can conclude that the
excimers are formed between the new ethanol--water cluster molecules
in the excited state and the ground state through the interaction
among different chromophores. The excitation spectra in the two
fluorescence bands have been studied, and their emission mechanisms
have been ascertained
based on the energy transfer theory. Furthermore, the critical distance of
the resonance energy transfer has been calculated.

The photo-detachment cross section of H^{-} near two parallel elastic
interfaces is derived and calculated by using the closed orbit theory. The
photo-detachment cross section of H^{-} near two interfaces is shown to
exhibit multi-periodic oscillations when the distance between the H^{-}
and the interface is varied. Each peak in the Fourier transformed
photo-detachment cross section corresponds to the length of a closed orbit,
which is quite similar to the case of atomic spontaneous emissions in a
dielectric slab. This study provides a new understanding of the
photo-detachment process of H^{-} in the presence of interfaces.

CROSS DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

AlN/GaN superlattice buffer is inserted between GaN epitaxial layer
and Si substrate before epitaxial growth of GaN layer. High-quality
and crack-free GaN epitaxial layers can be obtained by inserting
AlN/GaN superlattice buffer layer. The influence of AlN/GaN
superlattice buffer layer on the properties of GaN films are
investigated in this paper. One of the important roles of the
superlattice is to release tensile strain between Si substrate and
epilayer. Raman spectra show a substantial decrease of in-plane
tensile strain in GaN layers by using AlN/GaN superlattice buffer
layer. Moreover, TEM cross-sectional images show that the densities
of both screw and edge dislocations are significantly reduced. The
GaN films grown on Si with the superlattice buffer also have better
surface morphology and optical properties.

PHYSICS OF GASES, PLASMAS, AND ELECTRIC DISCHARGES

Improved confinement of tokamak plasma with central negative shear
is checked against the resistive ballooning mode. In the negative
shear regime, the plasma is always unstable for purely growing
resistive ballooning mode. For a simplest tokamak equilibrium model,
the s--α model, characteristics of this kind of instability
are fully clarified by numerically solving the high n resistive
magnetohydrodynamic ballooning eigen-equation. Dependences of the
growth rate on the resistivity, the absolute shear value, the
pressure gradient are scanned in detail. It is found that the growth
rate is a monotonically increasing function of α while it is not
sensitive to the changes of the shear s, the initial phase \ta_{0}
and the resistivity parameter \va_{R}.

CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURAL, MECHANICAL, AND THERMAL PROPERTIES

Flower-shape clustering GaN nanorods are successfully synthesized on Si(111)
substrates through ammoniating Ga_{2}O_{3}/ZnO films at 950℃.
The as-grown products are characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning
electron microscope (SEM), field-emission transmission electron microscope
(FETEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR) and fluorescence
spectrophotometer. The SEM images demonstrate that the products consist of
flower-shape clustering GaN nanorods. The XRD indicates that the reflections
of the samples can be indexed to the hexagonal GaN phase and HRTEM shows
that the nanorods are of pure hexagonal GaN single crystal. The
photoluminescence (PL) spectrum indicates that the GaN nanorods have a good
emission property. The growth mechanism is also briefly discussed.

Enhanced photoluminescence (PL) at room temperature from thermally
annealed a-Si\jz{.2mm}{:}H/SiO_{2} multilayers is observed through
the step-by-step thermal post-treatment. The correlation between the
PL and the crystallization process is studied using
temperature-dependent PL, Raman, cross section high-resolution
transmission electron microscopy (X-HRTEM) and x-ray diffraction
(XRD) techniques. An intensified PL band around 820nm is
discovered from the sample annealed near the crystallization onset
temperature, which is composed of two peaks centred at 773nm and
863nm, respectively. It is found that the PL band centred at
863nm is related to the pseudo nanocrystal (p-nc-Si) silicon, and
the PL band centred at 773nm is attributed to Si = O bonds
stabilized in the p-nc-Si surface.

A semi-insulating layer is obtained in n-type 4H-SiC by vanadium-ion
implantation. A little higher resistivity is obtained by increasing
the annealing temperature from 1450 to 1650℃. The resistivity at
room temperature is as high as 7.6×10^{6}\Omega .cm.
Significant redistribution of vanadium is not observed even after
1650℃ annealing. Temperature-dependent resistivity and optical
absorption of V-implanted samples are measured. The activation
energy of vanadium acceptor level is observed to be at about E_{C}-1.1eV.

CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES

We have performed first principles calculations of Fe-doped BaTiO_{3}
and SrTiO_{3}. Dopant formation energy, structure distortion, band
structure and density of states have been computed. The dopant
formation energy is found to be 6.8eV and 6.5eV for Fe-doped
BaTiO_{3} and SrTiO_{3} respectively. The distances between Fe
impurity and its nearest O atoms and between Fe atom and Ba or Sr
atoms are smaller than those of the corresponding undoped bulk
systems. The Fe defect energy band is obtained, which mainly
originates from Fe 3d electrons. The band gap is still an indirect
one after Fe doping for both BaTiO_{3} and SrTiO_{3}, but the gap
changes from \Gamma--R point to \Gamma--X point.

In this paper the relationship between the surface relaxations and the electron
density distributions of surface states of Cu(100), Cu(110), and Cu(111)
surfaces is obtained by first-principles calculations. The calculations
indicate that relaxations mainly occur in the layers at which the surface
states electrons are localized, and the magnitudes of the multilayer
relaxations correspond to the difference of electron density of
surface states between adjacent layers. The larger the interlayer relaxation
is, the larger the difference of electron density of surface states between
two layers is.

In this paper the charge transfer and variation of potential distribution upon formation
of 4, 4'-bipyridine molecular junction have been investigated by applying
hybrid density-functional theory (B3LYP) at ab initio level. The numerical results
show that there exist charge-accumulation and charge-depletion regions
located at respective inside and outside of interfaces. The variation of
potential distribution is obvious at interfaces. When distance between
electrodes is changed, the charge transfer and variation of potential
distribution clearly have distance-dependent performance. It is demonstrated
that the contact structure between the molecule and electrodes is another
key factor for dominating the properties of molecular junction. The
qualitative explanation for experimental results is suggested.

Effective spin-polarized injection from magnetic semiconductor (MS)
to nonmagnetic semiconductor (NMS) has been highlighted in recent
years. In this paper we study theoretically the dependence of
nonequilibrium spin polarization (NESP) in NMS during spin-polarized
injection through the magnetic p-n junction. Based on the theory in
semiconductor physics, a model is established and the boundary
conditions are determined in the case of no external spin-polarized
injection and low bias. The control parameters that may influence the
NESP in NMS are indicated by calculating the distribution of spin
polarization. They are the doping concentrations, the equilibrium
spin polarization in MS and the bias. The effective spin-polarized
injection can be realized more easily by optimizing the above
parameters.

Degradation characteristics of PMOSFETs under negative bias
temperature--positive bias temperature--negative bias temperature
(NBT--PBT--NBT) stress conditions are investigated in this paper. It
is found that for all device parameters, the threshold voltage has
the largest shift under the first NBT stress condition. When the
polarity of gate voltage is changed to positive, the shift of device
parameters can be greatly recovered. However, this recovery is
unstable. The more severe degradation appears soon after
reapplication of NBT stress condition. The second NBT stress causes
in linear drain current to degrade greatly, which is different from
that of the first NBT stress. This more severe parameter shift
results from the wear out of silicon substrate and oxide interface
during the first NBT and PBT stress due to carrier
trapping/detrapping and hydrogen related species diffusion.

The ground state of a two-dimensional square superconducting π
ring array has been investigated. The circulating currents of the
π ring array will spontaneously magnetize to the
`antiferromagnetic' arrangement with directions of the
nearest-neighbouring currents circulating oppositely in the absence
of an external magnetic field. It is found that the external magnetic
field could destroy the anti-parallel configuration effectively. The
external magnetic field needed to destroy the anti-parallel
configuration is related to the superconducting \pi ring's
inductance parameter β=2\pi L I_{c}/\phi_{0}. For a small β
the anti-parallel configuration, which is the lowest-energy ground
state of the system, will be fully destroyed and changed to the
configuration that the circulating currents have the same direction
and parallel to the external magnetic field when the magnetic flux
reaches \phi_{0}/4 in each ring. Moreover, the magnetic field needed
to destroy the anti-parallel configuration will be very small when
β is large enough.

A new device of two parallel distributed feedback (DFB) lasers
integrated monolithically with Y-branch waveguide coupler was
fabricated by means of quantum well intermixing. Optical microwave
signal was generated in the Y-branch waveguide coupler through
frequency beating of the two laser modes coming from two DFB laser
in parallel, which had a small difference in frequency. Continuous
rapid tuning of optical microwave signal from 13 to 42GHz were
realized by adjusting independently the driving currents injected
into the two DFB lasers.

In the solid state cathodoluminescence (SSCL), organic materials were
excited by hot electrons accelerated in silicon oxide (SiO_{2})
layer under alternating current (AC). In this paper exciton
behaviours were analysed by using transient spectra under different
driving voltages. The threshold voltages of SSCL and exciton
ionization were obtained from the transient spectra. The
recombination radiation occurred when the driving voltage went beyond
the threshold voltage of exciton ionization. From the transient
spectrum of two kinds of luminescence (exciton emission and
recombination radiation), it was demonstrated that recombination
radiation should benefit from the exciton ionization.

Several theories have been developed to explain tropical biennial
oscillation (TBO), as an air--sea interactive system to impact Asian
and global weather and climate,
and some models have been established to produce a TBO. A
simple 5-box model, with almost all the key processes associated with
TBO, can produce a TBO by including air--sea interactions in the
monsoon regions. Despite that, the South China Sea/western North
Pacific summer monsoon (SCS/WNPSM), a very important monsoon
subsystem, is neglected. In this paper, based on the dynamical
framework of 5-box model, the term of SCS/WNPSM has been added and a
6-box model has been developed. Comparing the difference of TBO
sensibilities with several key parameters, air--sea coupling
coefficient α, SST-thermocline feedback coefficient
γ and wind-evaporation feedback coefficient λ,
between the modified model and original model, TBO is more sensible
to the parameters in the new model. The results imply that the
eastern Pacific and local wind-evaporation play more important roles
in the TBO when including SCS/WNPSM.

We have continued investigation of waves in the regions of
undisturbed solar wind, foreshock and magnetosheath. The analysis of
ion flux and magnetic field variations with the time interval 1--240s
was performed in the regions above. Very large variation in such a
time interval can be considered the common feature of the foreshock
and magnetosheath. The results of case and statistical studies showed
that the level of relative variations of ion flux and magnetic field
magnitude in foreshock is about 3 times larger than in undisturbed
solar wind. Variations of these parameters in the magnetosheath
topologically connected with the quasi-parallel bow shock are about
two times larger than those behind the quasi-perpendicular. We also
compared the results from Interball-1 data analysis with those from
statistical analysis of cluster magnetic field measurements. The
magnetic field variations obtained from the different satellite data
coincide with each other very well not only in quality but also in
quantity.