We introduce an attack scheme for eavesdropping freely the ping-pong
quantum communication protocol proposed by Bostr\"{o} m and Felbinger
[Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 187902 (2002)] in a noise channel.
The vicious eavesdropper, Eve, intercepts and measures the travel
photon transmitted between the sender and the receiver. Then she
replaces the quantum signal with a multi-photon signal in the same
state, and measures the returned photons with the measuring basis,
with which Eve prepares the fake signal except for one photon. This
attack increases neither the quantum channel losses nor the error
rate in the sampling instances for eavesdropping check. It works for
eavesdropping the secret message transmitted with the ping-pong
protocol. Finally, we propose a way for improving the security of
the ping-pong protocol.

Recently, random graphs in which vertices are characterized by
hidden variables controlling the establishment of edges
between pairs of vertices have attracted much attention.
This paper presents a specific realization of a class of random
network models in which the connection probability
between two vertices (i,j) is a specific function of degrees ki and kj.
In the framework of the configuration model of random graphs,
we find the analytical expressions for the degree correlation
and clustering as a function of the variance of the desired degree
distribution. The obtained expressions are checked by means
of numerical simulations. Possible applications of our model are discussed.

In this paper, a new mechanism for the emergence of scale-free
distribution is proposed. It is more realistic than the existing
mechanism. Based on our mechanism, a model responsible for the
scale-free distribution with an exponent in a range of 3-to-5 is
given. Moreover, this model could also reproduce the exponential
distribution that is discovered in some real networks. Finally, the
analytical result of the model is given and the simulation shows the
validity of our result.

In this paper, a Birkhoff--Noether method of solving ordinary
differential equations is presented. The differential equations can
be expressed in terms of Birkhoff's equations. The first integrals
for differential equations can be found by using the Noether theory
for Birkhoffian systems. Two examples are given to illustrate the
application of the method.

A new approach to formulizing a new high-order matrix spectral
problem from a normal 2× 2 matrix modified Korteweg--de Vries
(mKdV) spectral problem is presented. It is found that the
isospectral evolution equation hierarchy of this new higher-order
matrix spectral problem turns out to be the well-known mKdV equation
hierarchy. By using the binary nonlinearization method, a new
integrable decomposition of the mKdV equation is obtained in the
sense of Liouville. The proof of the integrability shows that
r-matrix structure is very interesting.

In this paper, Lie symmetry is investigated for a new integrable
coupled Korteweg--de Vries (KdV) equation system. Using some symmetry
subalgebra of the equation system, we obtain five types of the
significant similarity reductions. Abundant solutions of the coupled
KdV equation system, such as the solitary wave solution, exponential
solution, rational solution and polynomial solution, etc. are
obtained from the reduced equations. Especially, one type of
group-invariant solution of reduced equations can be acquired by
means of the Painlev\'e I transcendent function.

Some new exact solutions of an auxiliary ordinary differential
equation are obtained, which were neglected by Sirendaoreji {\it et
al in their auxiliary equation method. By using this method and
these new solutions the combined Korteweg--de Vries (KdV) and
modified KdV (mKdV) equation and (2+1)-dimensional
Broer--Kaup--Kupershmidt system are investigated and abundant exact
travelling wave solutions are obtained that include new solitary wave
solutions and triangular periodic wave solutions.

The problem of sending a single classical bit through a generalized
amplitude damping channel is considered. When two transmissions
through the channel are available as a resource, we find that two
entangled transmissions can enhance the capability of receiver's
judging information correctly under certain conditions compared with
two product-state transmissions. In addition, we find a special case
in which the two entangled transmissions can always make a
classical bit more effectively disable the noise influence.

The ground-state entanglement associated with a three-spin
transverse Ising model is studied. By introducing an energy
current into the system, a quantum phase transition to
energy-current phase may be presented with the variation of
external magnetic field; and the ground-state entanglement
varies suddenly at the critical point of quantum phase
transition. In our model, the introduction of energy current
makes the entanglement between any two qubits become maximally
robust.

An alternative scheme is presented for teleportation of a two-atom
entangled state in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). It is based
on the resonant atom--cavity field interaction. In the scheme, only
one cavity is involved, and the number of the atoms needed to be
detected is decreased compared with the previous scheme. Since the
resonant atom--cavity field interaction greatly reduces the
interaction time, the decoherence effect can be effectively
suppressed during the teleportation process. The experimental
feasibility of the scheme is discussed. The scheme can easily be
generalized to the teleportation of N-atom
Greeninger--Horne--Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled states. The number of
atoms needed to be detected does not increase as the number of the
atoms in the GHZ state increases.

In this paper we present some simulation results about the behaviour
of water molecules inside a single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT). We
find that the confinement of water in an SWNT can induce a wave-like
pattern distribution along the channel axis, similar phenomena are
also observed in biological water channels. Carbon nanotubes(CNTs)
can serve as simple nonpolar water channels. Molecular transport
through narrow CNTs is highly collective because of tight hydrogen
bonds in the protective environment of the pore. The hydrogen bond
net is important for proton and other signal transports. The average
dipoles of water molecules inside CNTs (7,7), (8,8) and (9,9) are
discussed in detail. Simulation results indicate that the states of
dipole are affected by the diameter of SWNT. The number of hydrogen
bonds, the water--water interaction and water--CNT interaction are
also studied in this paper.

Stochastic resonance (SR) is based on the cooperative effect between
the stochastic dynamical system and the external forcing. As is well
known, the cooperative effect is produced by adding noises. In this
paper, we show the evidence that by changing the system parameters
and the signal intensity, a nonlinear system in the presence of an
input aperiodic signal can yield the cooperative effect, with the
noise fixed. To quantify the nonlinear system output, we determine
the theoretical bit error rate (BER). By numerical simulation, the
validity of the theoretical derivation is checked. Besides, we show
that parameter-induced SR is more realizable than SR via adding
noises, especially when the noise intensity exceeds the resonance
level, or when the characteristic of the noise is not known.

A controller is designed to realize the synchronization between
chaotic systems with different orders. The structure of the
controller, the error equations and the Lyapunov functions are
determined based on stability theory. Hyperchaotic Chen system and
Rossler system are taken for example to demonstrate the method to be
effective and feasible. Simulation results show that all the state
variables of Rossler system can be synchronized with those of
hyperchaotic Chen system by using only one controller, and the error
signals approach zero smoothly and quickly.

The least mean square error difference (LMS-ED) minimum criterion for
an adaptive chaotic noise canceller is proposed in this paper.
Different from traditional least mean square error minimum criterion
in which the error is uncorrelated with the input vector, the
proposed LMS-ED minimum criterion tries to minimize the correlation
between the error difference and input vector difference. The novel
adaptive LMS-ED algorithm is then derived to update the weights of
adaptive noise canceller. A comparison between cancelling
performances of adaptive least mean square (LMS), normalized LMS
(NLMS) and proposed LMS-ED algorithms is simulated by using three
kinds of chaotic noises. The simulation results clearly show that the
proposed algorithm outperforms the LMS and NLMS algorithms in
achieving small values of steady-state excess mean square error.
Moreover, the computational complexity of the proposed LMS-ED
algorithm is the same as that of the standard LMS algorithms.

In this paper, we propose a new cellular automaton (CA) model for train
movement simulations under mixed traffic conditions. A kind of control
strategy is employed for trains to reduce energy consumption. In the
proposed CA model, the driver controls the train movements by using some
updated rules. In order to obtain a good insight into the evolution
behaviours of the rail traffic flow, we investigate the space--time diagram
of the rail traffic flow and the trajectories of the train movements. The
numerical simulation results demonstrate that the proposed CA model can well
describe the dynamic behaviours of the train movements. Some complex
phenomena of train movements can be reproduced, such as the train delay
propagations, etc.

The purpose of the present study is to investigate the presence of
multi-fractal behaviours in the traffic time series not only by
statistical approaches but also by geometrical approaches. The
pointwise H\"{o} lder exponent of a function is calculated by
developing an algorithm for the numerical evaluation of H\"{o} lder
exponent of time series. The traffic time series observed on the
Beijing Yuquanying highway are analysed. The results from all these
methods indicate that the traffic data exhibit the multi-fractal
behaviour.

Based on the propagation law of cross-spectral density function,
studied in this paper are the coherence vortices of partially
coherent, quasi-monochromatic singular beams with Gaussian
envelope and Schell-model correlator in the far field, where our
main attention is paid to the evolution of far-field coherence
vortices into intensity vortices of fully coherent beams. The
results show that, although there are usually no zeros of
intensity in partially coherent beams with Gaussian envelope and
Schell-model correlator, zeros of spectral degree of coherence
exist. The coherence vortices of spectral degree of coherence
depend on the relative coherence length, mode index and
positions of pairs of points. If a point and mode index are kept
fixed, the position of coherence vortices changes with the
increase of the relative coherence length. For the low coherent
case there is a circular phase dislocation. In the coherent
limit coherence vortices become intensity vortices of fully
coherent Laguerre--Gaussian beams.

Based on adiabatic passage, we propose a scheme for implementing the quantum
transfer of an unknown atomic state. In our scheme, we utilize photons for
ideal quantum transmission between two cavities with the successful
probability being about 1. Meanwhile, the scheme is robust against the
effects of atomic spontaneous emission. It may be useful for transferring
quantum information among spatially distant atoms.

Based on the quantum information theory, we have investigated the
entropy squeezing of a moving two-level atom interacting with the
coherent field via the quantum mechanical channel of the two-photon
process. The results are compared with those of atomic squeezing
based on the Heisenberg uncertainty relation. The influences of the
atomic motion and field-mode structure parameter on the atomic
entropy squeezing and on the control of noise of the quantum
mechanical channel via the two-photon process are examined. Our
results show that the squeezed period, duration of optimal entropy
squeezing of a two-level atom and the noise of the quantum mechanical
channel can be controlled by appropriately choosing the atomic motion
and the field-mode structure parameter, respectively. The quantum
mechanical channel of two-photon process is an ideal channel for
quantum information (atomic quantum state) transmission. Quantum
information entropy is a remarkably accurate measure of the atomic
squeezing.

The giant enhancement of Kerr nonlinearity in a four-level tripod
type system is investigated theoretically. By tuning the value of
the Rabi frequency of the coherent control field, owing to the
double dark resonances, the giant-enhanced Kerr nonlinearity can be
achieved within the right transparency window. The influence of
Doppler broadening is also discussed.

An alternative scheme is proposed for engineering three-dimensional
maximally entangled states for two modes of a superconducting
microwave cavity. In this scheme, an appropriately prepared
four-level atom is sent through a bimodal cavity. During its passing
through the cavity, the atom is coupled resonantly with two cavity
modes simultaneously and addressed by a classical microwave pulse
tuned to the required transition. Then the atomic states are detected
to collapse two modes onto a three-dimensional maximally entangled
state. The scheme is different from the previous one in which two
nonlocal cavities are used. A comparison between them is also made.

A four-level atomic system with a closed interaction loop connected
by two coherent driving fields and a microwave field is
investigated. The results show that inversionless gain can be
achieved on a higher frequency transition outside the closed
interaction loop, and the gain behaviour can be modulated by the
phase of the closed loop as well as the amplitude of the microwave
field. The phase sensitivity property in such a scheme is similar to
that in an analogous configuration with spontaneously generated
coherence, but it is beyond the rigorous condition of
near-degenerate levels with non-orthogonal dipole moments.
Therefore this scheme is much more convenient in experimental
realization.

Higher-order nonlinear Schr\"{o}dinger equation with the Hirota
constraint conditions is considered, and an analytic solution, which
can describe the modulational instability process, is presented.
Based on the solution, a new pulse train without continuous wave (CW)
background is generated in quadratures and the propagation of the
pulse train is discussed in detail by simulating numerically. The
results show that, unlike the propagation of the picosecond pulse
train, under the effects of the higher-order terms, the pulse train
cannot propagate along the fibre when the energy is very high;
however, for some medium energy the pulse train can stably propagate.
We also investigate the stability of the pulse train against
violation of the Hirota conditions, and the results show that the
pulse train can still propagate stably when the Hirota conditions are
broken.

In underdense plasmas, the transverse ponderomotive force of an
intense laser beam with Gaussian transverse profile expels electrons
radially, and it can lead to an electron cavitation. An improved
cavitation model with charge conservation constraint is applied to
the determination of the width of the electron cavity. The envelope
equation for laser spot size derived by using source-dependent
expansion method is extended to including the electron cavity. The
condition for self-guiding is given and illuminated by an effective
potential for the laser spot size. The effects of the laser power,
plasma density and energy dissipation on the self-guiding condition
are discussed.

Based on the rate equations, we have investigated three types of chaos
synchronizations in injection-locked semiconductor lasers with optical
feedback. Numerical simulation shows that the synchronization can be
realized by the symmetric or asymmetric laser systems. Also, the influence
of parameter mismatches on chaos synchronization is investigated, and the
results imply that these two lasers can achieve good synchronization, with
smaller tolerance of parameter mismatch existing.

A new approach is developed to the fabrication of high-quality
three-dimensional macro-porous copper films. A highly-ordered
macroporous copper film is successfully produced on a
polystyrene sphere (PS) template that has been modified by
sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). It is shown that this procedure
can change a hydrophobic surface of PS template into a
hydrophilic surface. The present study is devoted to the
influence of the electrolyte solution transport on the
nucleation process. It is demonstrated that the permeability of
the electrolyte solution in the nanochannels of the PS template
plays an important role in the chemical electrodeposition of
high-quality macroporous copper film. The permeability is
drastically enhanced in our experiment through the surface
modification of the PS templates. The method could be used to
homogeneously produce a large number of nucleations on a
substrate, which is a key factor for the fabrication of the
high-quality macroporous copper film.

A Fourier analysis method is used to accurately determine not
only the absolute phase but also the temporal-pulse phase of an
isolated few-cycle (chirped) laser pulse. This method is
independent of the pulse shape and can fully characterize the
light wave even though only a few samples per optical cycle are
available. It paves the way for investigating the absolute
phase-dependent extreme nonlinear optics, and the evolutions of
the absolute phase and the temporal-pulse phase of few-cycle
laser pulses.

To obtain the stable operation of erbium-doped fibre laser, the
simple and ideal technology is adopted by use of the erbium doped
polarization maintaining fibre (EDPMF). The design criteria of the
Panda-type EDPMF are presented, which take into account the cutoff
wavelength, mode field diameter, modal birefringence and background
loss. Four groups of optimum structural parameter combinations are
determined in terms of the design criteria. Two kinds of the
Panda-type EDPMFs are selected to be fabricated. The fabrication
process and the parameter control of the Panda-type EDPMFs are
presented in detail. Their refractive index profiles, birefringence
and absorption spectra are experimentally investigated. The
absorption coefficient of the EDPMF, whose core is co-doped with Bi,
Ga, Al and Ge, is about 57.9dB/m at 1.53\mum. Co-doping Bi, Ga
and Al can greatly increase the erbium concentration in the
silica-based fibre. The high birefringence is obtained for the
Panda-type EDPMF. The group birefringence of the EDPMF, whose outer
cladding diameter is 125\mum, is about 4.8\ti10^{-4}.

By taking full account of the non-orthogonality of the orbitals
between the low-lying doubly excited states ^{1}P^{o} and the
singly excited states ^{1}S^{e} and ^{12}D^{e} of He, the
corresponding radiative decay rates have been investigated
theoretically via analytic generalized Laguerre-type atomic orbitals
at a nearly numerical multi-configuration self-consistent field
accuracy in a general non-orthogonal configuration interaction
scheme. From these rates, we calculate the VUV photon emission and
metastable atom spectra, and both are found to be in good qualitative
agreement with recent excellent measurements. We obtain,
successfully, the enhancement of the VUV photon spectrum,
experimentally observed at the energy of (2s4p-4s2p)/(2p,3d)
^{1}P^{o} as compared with other nearby lying states. The
mechanism proposed by Odling-Smee et al is verified, implying
that taking appropriate account of the overlap existing between
orbitals of the low-lying doubly excited and singly excited states
(especially important for the compact orbitals) can reveal basic
physical dominant mechanism and is crucial in understanding these
spectra.

Using a three-step laser saturation excitation technique, the
saturation effects on the Ba 6pns (J=1) and 6pnd (J=1, 3)
autoionization spectra are observed systemically in zero field. These
saturation spectra are introduced to determine the high n members
of 6pnl (l=0, 2) autoionizing series and are used to analyse the
channel interactions among the autoionizing series in zero field.
Furthermore, the saturation excitation technique is applied to the
electric field case, in which the saturation spectra of Ba 6pnk
(|M|=0, 1) autoionizing Stark states are measured. Most of these
saturation spectra are observed for the first time so far as we know,
which indicate the mixing of the autoionizing states in the electric
fields.

One of the long-standing controversial arguments in protein folding
is Levinthal's paradox. We have recently proposed a new nucleation
hypothesis and shown that the nucleation residues are the most
conserved sequences in protein. To avoid the complicated effect of
tertiary interactions, we limit our search for structural codes to
the nucleation residues. Starting with the hypotheses of secondary
structure nucleation and conservation of residues important for
folding, we have analysed 762 folds classified as unique by SCOP.
Segments of 17 residues around the top 20% conserved amino acids are
analysed, resulting in approximately 100 clusters each for the main
secondary structure classes of helix, sheet and coil. Helical
clusters have the longest correlation range, coils the shortest (four
residues). Strong specific sequence-structure correlation is observed
for coil but not for helix and sheet, suggesting a mapping
relationship between the sequence and the structure for coil. We
propose that the central sequences in these clusters form `structural
codes', a useful basis set for identifying nucleation sites, protein
fragments stable in isolation, and secondary structural patterns in
proteins (particularly turns and loops).

The melting and freezing processes of Cu_{N} (N=180, 256, 360,
408, 500, 628 and 736) nanoclusters are simulated by using
micro-canonical molecular dynamics simulation technique. The
potential energies and the heat capacities as a function of
temperature are obtained. The results reveal that the melting and
freezing points increase almost linearly with the atom number in the
cluster increasing. All copper nanoclusters have negative heat
capacity around the melting and freezing points, and hysteresis
effect in the melting/freezing transition is derived in Cu_{N}
nanoclusters for the first time.

PHYSICS OF GASES, PLASMAS, AND ELECTRIC DISCHARGES

The existence of two different discharge modes has been verified in
an rf (radio-frequency) atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD)
by Shi [J. Appl. Phys. 97, 023306 (2005)]. In the first
mode, referred to as \al mode, the discharge current density is
relatively low and the bulk plasma electrons acquire the energy due
to the sheath expansion. In the second mode, termed \ga mode, the
discharge current density is relatively high, the secondary
electrons emitted by cathode under ion bombardment in the cathode
sheath region play an important role in sustaining the discharge. In
this paper, a one-dimensional self-consistent fluid model for rf
APGDs is used to simulate the discharge mechanisms in the \ga mode
in helium discharge between two parallel metallic planar electrodes.
The results show that as the applied voltage increases, the
discharge current becomes greater and the plasma density
correspondingly increases, consequentially the discharge transits
from the \al mode into the \ga mode. The high collisionality of
the APGD plasma results in significant drop of discharge potential
across the sheath region, and the electron Joule heating and the
electron collisional energy loss reach their maxima in the region.
The validity of the simulation is checked with the available
experimental and numerical data.

CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURAL, MECHANICAL, AND THERMAL PROPERTIES

The anchoring properties of substrate with a grating surface are
investigated analytically. The alignment of nematic liquid
crystal (NLC) in a grating surface originates from two
mechanisms, thus the anchoring energy consists of two parts. One
originates from the interaction potential between NLC molecules
and the molecules on the substrate surface, and the other stems
from the increased elastic strain energy. Based on the two
mechanisms, the expression of anchoring energy per unit area of
a projected plane of this grating surface is deduced and called
the equivalent anchoring energy formula. Both the strength and
the easy direction of equivalent anchoring energy are a function
of the geometrical parameters (amplitude and pitch) of a grating
surface. By using this formula, the grating surface can be
replaced by its projected plane and its anchoring properties can
be described by the equivalent anchoring energy formula.

The thermoelastic properties of CaO over a wide range of pressure and
temperature are studied using density functional theory in the
generalized gradient approximation. The transition pressure taken
from the enthalpy calculations is 66.7GPa for CaO, which accords
with the experimental result very well. The athermal elastic moduli
of the two phases of CaO are calculated as a function of pressure up
to 200GPa. The calculated results are in excellent agreement with
existing experimental data at ambient pressure and compared
favourably with other pseudopotential predictions over the pressure
regime studied. It is also found that the degree of the anisotropy
rapidly decreases with pressure increasing in the B1 phase, whereas
it strongly increases as the pressure increases in the B2 phase. The
thermodynamic properties of the B1 phase of CaO are predicted using
the quasi-harmonic Debye model; the heat capacity and entropy are
consistent with other previous results at zero pressure.

CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES

The electronic structures and magnetism of Fe nanowires along the
[110] direction on Cu(001) and Ag(001) [Fe(nw)/Cu(001) and
Fe(nw)/Ag(001)] are investigated by using the all-electron
full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method in the
generalized gradient approximation. It is found that the magnetic
moment of Fe atom for the Fe(nw)/Cu(001) is 2.99\mu_{B},
which is slightly smaller than that (3.02\mu_{B}) for the
Fe(nw)/Ag(001) but much larger than that (2.22\mu_{B}) for
the bcc iron. The great enhancement of magnetic moment in the Fe
nanowires can be explained by the Fe d-band narrowing and
enhancement of the spin-splitting due to a reduction in coordination
number. From the calculated spin-polarized layer-projected density
of states, it is found that the Fe 3d-states are strongly hybridized
with the adjacent Cu 3d-states in the Fe(nw)/Cu(001), and there
exists a strong hybridization between the Fe sp- and the adjacent Ag
4d-states in the Fe(nw)/Ag(001).

Using the Landauer formula and the quantum S-matrix scattering
theory, we derive a resistance formula for multi-barrier structure
under phase coherent transmission condition. This formula shows that
when the transport is coherent, the potential wells of the structure
are just like conductors contributing to the overall resistance. And
because the resistance formula is derived based on the scattering
theory, the barrier resistance will change with the number of
scattering centres (i.e. the number of barriers) in the structure.

The anomalous Hall effect of heavy holes in semiconductor quantum
wells is studied in the intrinsic transport regime, where the Berry
curvature governs the Hall current properties. Based on the
first--order perturbation of wave function the expression of the
Hall conductivity the same as that from the semiclassical equation
of motion of the Bloch particles is derived. The dependence of Hall
conductivity on the system parameters is shown. The amplitude of
Hall conductivity is found to be balanced by a competition between
the Zeeman splitting and the spin--orbit splitting.

This paper investigates the effect of O_{2} plasma treatment on the
electric property of Cu/SiCOH low dielectric constant (low-k) film
integrated structure. The results show that the leakage current of
Cu/SiCOH low-k integrated structure can be reduced obviously at
the expense of a slight increase in dielectric constant k of SiCOH
films. By the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis on the
bonding configurations of SiCOH films treated by O_{2} plasma, it is
found that the decrease of leakage current is related to the
increase of Si-O cages originating from the linkage of Si dangling
bonds through O, which makes the open pores sealed and reduces the
diffusion of Cu to pores.

Trichloroethylene (TCE) pretreatment of Si surface prior to
HfO_{2} deposition is employed to fabricate HfO_{2}
gate-dielectric MOS capacitors. Influence of this processing
procedure on interlayer growth, HfO_{2}/Si interface
properties, gate-oxide leakage and device reliability is
investigated. Among the surface pretreatments in NH_{3}, NO,
N_{2}O and TCE ambients, the TCE pretreatment gives the least
interlayer growth, the lowest interface-state density, the
smallest gate leakage and the highest reliability. All these
improvements should be ascribed to the passivation effects of
Cl_{2} and HCl on the structural defects in the interlayer and
at the interface, and also their gettering effects on the ion
contamination in the gate dielectric.

The spin current in a parabolically confined semiconductor
heterojunction quantum wire with Dresselhaus spin--orbit coupling is
theoretically studied by using the perturbation method. The formulae
of the elements for linear and angular spin current densities are
derived by using the recent definition for spin current based on spin
continuity equation. It is found that the spin current in this
Dresselhaus spin--orbit coupling quantum wire is antisymmetrical,
which is different from that in Rashba model due to the difference in
symmetry between these two models. Some numerical examples for the
result are also demonstrated and discussed.

This paper investigates gate current through ultra-thin gate oxide of
nano-scale metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors
(MOSFETs), using two-dimensional (2D) full-band self-consistent
ensemble Monte Carlo method based on solving quantum Boltzmann
equation. Direct tunnelling, Fowler--Nordheim tunnelling and
thermionic emission currents have been taken into account for the
calculation of total gate current. The 2D effect on the gate current
is investigated by including the details of the energy distribution
for electron tunnelling through the barrier. In order to investigate
the properties of nano scale MOSFETs, it is necessary to simulate
gate tunnelling current in 2D including non-equilibrium transport.

The amorphous FeCuNbSiB microwires are fabricated by using the
melt extraction method and annealed separately at temperatures
T = 573, 673, 723 and 773K for 1h. The effect of annealing
treatment on the microwave electromagnetic properties of
FeCuNbSiB wires/wax composites has been investigated for the
first time. It is found that in a frequency range of
0.5--4.0GHz, the complex permittivity, permeability, magnetic
and electric loss tangents of FeCuNbSiB wires/wax composites are
strongly dependent on the annealing temperature and frequency.
For T = 573, 723 and 773K, two resonance peaks are found at
frequency f = 1.2 and 3.3GHz. However, for T = 673K,
only one resonance peak occurs at f = 3.3GHz. The resonance
peak at f = 1.2GHz is believed to be due to the
stress-induced anisotropy, while the resonance peak at f =
3.3GHz is attributed to the random anisotropy.

In this paper, the growth rate, ponderomotive force and the exciting
condition for parametric instability are derived by considering the loss
reaction using a new method. On the basis of the hydrodynamic
equations, we take the production and loss reactions in plasma into account
to derive the coupling equations for the electron plasma oscillation and
ion acoustic oscillation, and obtain the growth rate for the parametric
instability, the ponderomotive force and the exciting condition. The result
shows that (a) the production reaction has no effect on the parametric
instability, and the effect of loss reaction on the parametric instability
is a damping one, (b) the more intensive the external field or pump is, the larger
the growth rate is, (c) there exist two modes of the ponderomotive force,
i.e.\ the high frequency mode and the low frequency mode,
and (d) when ponderomotive force counteracts the damping force, the
oscillations become non-damping and non-driving. The ratio of the
electron plasma oscillation to ion acoustic oscillation is independent of
the loss reaction and the external field.