In this paper, a new observation equation of non-Gaussian frequency
selective fading Bell Labs layered space time (BLAST) architecture
system is proposed, which is used for frequency selective fading
channels and non-Gaussian noise in an application environment of
BLAST system. With othogonal matrix triangularization (QR
decomposition) of the channel matrix, the static observation
equation of frequency selective fading BLAST system is transformed
into a dynamic state space model, and then the particle filter is
used for space--time layered detection. Making the full use of the
finite alphabet of the digital modulation communication signal, the
optimal proposal distribution can be chosen to produce particle and
update the weight. Incorporated with current method of reducing
error propagation, a new space--time layered detection algorithm is
proposed. Simulation result shows the validity of the proposed
algorithm.

In software engineering, class diagrams are often used to describe the system's
class structures in Unified Modelling Language (UML). A class diagram, as a graph,
is a collection of static declarative model elements, such as classes, interfaces,
and the relationships of their connections with each other. In this paper, class
graphs are examined within several Java software systems provided by Sun and IBM,
and some new features are found. For a large-scale Java software system, its
in-degree distribution tends to an exponential distribution, while its out-degree
and degree distributions reveal the power-law behaviour. And then a directed
preferential-random model is established to describe the corresponding degree
distribution features and evolve large-scale Java software systems.

A new model in nonholonomic mechanics,the Rosen--Edelstein model, has been
studied. We prove that the new model is a Lagrange problem in which the action
integral $\int^{t_{1}}_{t_{0}}L\dd t$ can be made stationary.The theoretical basis
of nonholonomic mechanics is investigated and discussed. Finally, we give the range
of practical applications of theRosen--Edelstein model.

By using the solutions of an auxiliary Lam\'e equation, a direct algebraic method is
proposed to construct the exact solutions of $N$-coupled nonlinear Schr\"{o}dinger
equations. The abundant higher-order exact periodic solutions of a family of
$N$-coupled nonlinear Schr\"{o}dinger equations are explicitly obtained with the aid
of symbolic computation and they include corresponding envelope solitary and shock
wave solutions.

In this paper, we propose a scheme for transferring an unknown atomic entangled
state via cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). This scheme, which has a successful
probability of 100 percent, does not require Bell-state measurement and performing
any operations to reconstruct an initial state. Meanwhile, the scheme only involves
atom--field interaction with a large detuning and does not require the transfer of
quantum information between the atoms and cavity. Thus the scheme is insensitive to
the cavity field states and cavity decay. This scheme can also be extended to
transfer ring an entangled state of $n$-atom.

The dynamical properties of quantum entanglement in an integrable
quantum dimer are studied in terms of the reduced-density linear entropy
with various coupling parameters and total boson numbers. The characteristic
time of decoherence process in the early-time evolution of the linear entropy
is obtained, indicating that the characteristic time and the corresponding
entropy exhibit a maximum near the position of the corresponding classical
separatrix energy.

We present a scheme to remotely prepare a photon--photon entangled
state via entanglement swapping in cavity QED. Using two successive
processes of appropriate atom--cavity interaction and subsequent
measurements, we obtain the entangled state with certain
probability.

We propose a scheme to implement a two-qubit conditional quantum
phase gatefor the intracavity field viaa single three-level
$\Lambda$-type atom driven by two modes in a high-Q cavity. The
quantum information is encoded on the Fock states of the bimodal
cavity. The gate's averaged fidelity is expected to reach $99.8\%$.

This paper extends Parikh--Wilzcek's recent work, which treats the Hawking radiation
as a semi-classical tunnelling process from the event horizon of four dimensional
Schwarzshild and Reissner--Nordstr\"{o}m black holes, to that of arbitrarily
dimensional Reissner--Nordstr\"{o}m de Sitter black hole. The result shows that the
tunnelling rate is related to the change of Bekenstein--Hawking entropy and the
factually radiant spectrum is no longer precisely thermal after taking the dynamical
black hole background and energy conservation into account, but is consistent with
the underlying unitary theory and then satisfies the first law of the black hole
thermodynamics. Meanwhile, in Parikh--Wilzcek's framework, this paper points out
that the information conservation is only suitable for the reversible process but in
highly unstable evaporating black hole (irreversible process) the information loss
is possible.

This paper studies the robust fuzzy control for nonlinear chaotic system in the
presence of parametric uncertainties. An uncertain Takagi--Sugeno (T--S) fuzzy model
is employed for fuzzy modelling of an unknown chaotic system. A sufficient condition
formulated in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI) for the existence of fuzzy
controller is obtained. Then the output feedback fuzzy-model-based regulator derived
from the LMI solutions can guarantee the stability of the closed-loop overall fuzzy
system. The T--S fuzzy model ofthe chaotic Chen system is developed as an example
for illustration. The effectiveness of the proposed controller design methodology is
finally demonstrated through computer simulations on the uncertain Chen chaotic
system.

In this paper, chaos in a voltage-mode controlled buck converter is studied.
The existence of chaos is proven theoretically in this system. The proof consists
of showing that the dynamics of the system is semiconjugate to that of a one-sided
shift map, which implies positive entropy of the system and hence
chaotic behaviour.
The essential tool is the horseshoe hypotheses proposed by Kennedy and Yorke, which
will be reviewed prior to the discussion of the main finding.

The projection of the chaotic attractor observed from the Lorenz system in the
$X$--$Z$ plane is like a butterfly, hence the classical Lorenz system is widely
known as the butterfly attractor, and has served as a prototype model for studying
chaotic behaviour since it was coined.In this work we take one step further to
investigate some fundamental dynamic behaviours of a novel hybrid Takagi--Sugeno
(TS) fuzzy Lorenz-type system, which is essentially derived from the
delta-operator-based TS fuzzy modelling for complex nonlinear systems, and contains
the original Lorenz system of continuous-time TS fuzzy form as a special case. By
simply and appropriately tuning the additional parametric perturbations in the
two-rule hybrid TS fuzzy Lorenz-type system, complex (two-wing) butterfly attractors
observed from this system in the three dimensional (3D) $X$--$Y$--$Z$ space are
created, which have not yet been reported in the literature, and the forming
mechanism of the compound structures have been numerically investigated.

In this paper, an approach to the control of continuous-time
chaotic systems is proposed using the Takagi--Sugeno (TS) fuzzy model and adaptive
adjustment. Sufficient conditions are derived to guarantee chaos
control from Lyapunov stability theory. The proposed approach
offers a systematic design procedure for stabilizing a large class
of chaotic systems in the literature about chaos research. The
simulation results on R\"{o}ssler's system verify the
effectiveness of the proposed methods.

Synchronization and coherence of chaotic Morris--Lecar (ML) neural networks have
been investigated by numerical methods. The synchronization of the neurons can be
enhanced by increasing the number of the shortcuts, even though all neurons are
chaotic when uncoupled. Moreover, the coherence of the neurons exhibits a
non-monotonic dependence on the density of shortcuts. There is an optimal number of
shortcuts at which the neurons' motion is most ordered, i.e. the order parameter
(the characteristic correlation time) that is introduced to measure the coherence of
the neurons has a maximum. These phenomena imply that stochastic shortcuts can tame
spatiotemporal chaos. The effects of the coupling strength have also been studied.
The value of the optimal number of shortcuts goes down as the coupling strength
increases.

We have studied the influence of probe--sample interaction in a scanning near-field
optical microscopy (SNOM) in the far field by using samples with a step structure.
For a sample with a step height of $\sim \lambda $/4, the SNOM image contrast
between the two sides of the step changes periodically at different scan heights.
For a step height of $\sim \lambda $/2, the image contrast remains approximately the
same. The probe--sample interaction determines the SNOM image contrast here. The
influence of different refractive indices of the sample has been also analysed by
using a simple theoretical model.

We fabricated a new type of two-dimensional photonic crystal slab filter. The
resonant cavities were directly put into the waveguide arms. The optical
transmissions of the filters were measured and the results show that the optimized
two-channel filters give good intensity distribution at the output ports of the
waveguide. A minimum wavelength spacing of 5~nm of the filter outputs isrealized
by accurately controlling the size of the resonant cavities.

The yield stress of our newly developed electrorheological (ER)
fluids consisting of dielectric nano-particles suspended in silicone oil
reaches hundreds of kPa, which is orders of magnitude higher than that of
conventional ones. We found that the polar molecules adsorbed on the
particles play a decisive role in such new ER fluids. To explain this polar
molecule dominated ER (PM-ER) effect a model is proposed based on the
interaction of polar molecule-charge between the particles, where the local
electric field is significantly enhanced and results in the polar molecules
aligning in the direction of the electric field. The model can well explain
the giant ER effect and a near-linear dependence of the yield stress on the
electric field. The main effective factors for achieving high-performance
PM-ER fluids are discussed. The PM-ER fluids with the yield stress higher
than one MPa can be expected.

Total disintegration events produced by 4.5\,A GeV/c $^{16}$O--AgBr interactions are
analysed to investigate the characteristics of secondary charged particles produced
in such collisions. The multiplicity distributions of grey, black, and relativistic
charged particles can be well represented by Gaussian distribution. The average
multiplicity of grey particles is found to increase with the mass of projectile
increasing, while that of black particles is found to decrease with the mass of
projectile increasing. This result is in good agreement with the prediction of
fireball model. Finally, the linear dependence between grey and black particles is
observed, but there is no distinct dependence between the production of relativistic
charged particles and the target excitation.

This paper investigates the effects of spontaneously induced coherence on absorption
properties in a nearly equispaced three-level ladder-type system driven by two
coherent fields. It find that the absorption properties of this system with the
probe field applied on the lower transition can be significantly modified if this
coherence is optimized. In the case of small spontaneous decay rate in the upper
excited state, it finds that such coherence does not destroy the electromagnetically
induced transparency (EIT). Nevertheless, the absorption peak on both sides of zero
detuning and the linewidth of absorption line become larger and narrower than those
in the case corresponding to the effects of spontaneously induced coherence; while
in the case of large decay rate, it finds that, instead of EIT with low resonant
absorption, a sharp absorption peak at resonance appears. That is,
electromagnetically induced absorption in the nearly equispaced ladder-type system
can occur due to such coherent effects.

In this paper, we propose a scheme for implementing the quantum
clock synchronization (QCS) algorithm in cavity quantum electrodynamic (QED) formalism. Our
method is based on three-level ladder-type atoms interacting with
classical and quantized cavity fields. Atom-qubit realizations of
three-qubit and four-qubit QCS algorithms are explicitly
presented.

The quantum features of the temporal photon statistics of an exciton--cavity coupled
system in a quantum-well semiconductor microcavity are investigated analytically.
Under the secular approximation, if the nonlinear interactions, i.e. the
exciton--exciton coupling and the phase-space filling, are much weaker than the
exciton--photon interaction, the evolution of the Fano factor shows that the
distribution of the photon numbers exhibits the feature of collapses--revivals
(CRs), and the relevant revival time may be adjusted by several factors such as the
total particle number, the detuning, and the nonlinear coupling strengths, etc.
Especially, the ideal maximum antibunching with the minimum value 0 of the Fano
factor occurs periodically for such a situation, with the dissipation of
exciton--polariton being ignored.

This paper demonstrates the passively mode-locked Nd:GdVO\xj{4} laser operating on
the \sj{4}$F_{3/2}$--$^4I_{9/2}$ transition at 912\,nm by using a semiconductor
saturable-absorber mirror for passive mode locking, stable continuous wave
mode-locked 912\,nm laser was achieved with a repetition rate of 176\,MHz. At the
incident pump power of 17.7\,W, 22.6\,mW average output power of stable mode-locked
laser was obtained with a slope efficiency of 0.3\%.

Based on the Collins integral formula, the analytic expressions of propagation of
the coherent and the incoherent off-axis Hermite--cosh--Gaussian (HChG) beam
combinations with rectangular symmetry passing through a paraxial first-order
optical system are derived, and corresponding numerical examples are given and
analysed. The resulting beam quality is discussed in terms of power in the bucket
(PIB). The study suggests that the resulting beam cannot keep the initial intensity
shape during the propagation and the beam quality for coherent mode is not always
better than that for incoherent mode. Reviewing the numerical simulations of
Gaussian, Hermite--Gaussian (HG) and cosh--Gaussian (ChG) beam combinations
indicates that the Hermite polynomial exerts a chief influence on the irradiance
profile of composite beam and far field power concentration.

The third-order optical nonlinearities of [(CH$_3$)$_4$N]Au(dmit)$_2$ (dmit =
4,5-dithiolate-1,3-dithiole-2-thione) at 532\,nm and 1064\,nm are investigated using
the $Z$-scan technique with pulses of picoseconds duration. The $Z$-scan spectra
reveal a strong nonlinear absorption (reverse saturable absorption) and a negative
nonlinear refraction at 532\,nm. No nonlinear absorption is observed at 1064\,nm.
The molecular second-order hyperpolarizability $\ga$ for the
[(CH$_3$)$_4$N]Au(dmit)$_2$ molecule at 532\,nm is estimated to be as high as (2.1
$\pm$ 0.1) $\ti$ 10$^{-31}$\,esu, which is nearly three times larger than that at
1064\,nm. The mechanism responsible for the difference between the results is
analysed. Nonlinear transmission measurements suggest that this material has
potential applications in optical limiting.

Based on the three-coupled-oscillator molecular model we proposed, the
relation between the second-order susceptibilities of a chiral film and the
molecular hyperpolarizabilities is given. The effect of microscopic
parameters on the second-order susceptibilities is simulated numerically and
the difference between the efficiencies of s-polarized second-harmonic
fields induced by the left- and the right-handed circularly-polarized
fundamental beams is discussed. The theoretical basis for studying
second-order nonlinear optical properties of the chiral molecular media with
a tripod-like structure is provided in this paper.

We investigate theoretically the temperature effects on the evolution and stability
of a separate screening bright--dark soliton pair formed in a serial
non-photovoltaic photorefractive crystal circuit. Our numerical results show that,
for a stable bright--dark soliton pair originally formed in a crystal circuit at
given temperatures, when one crystal temperature changes, the soliton supported by
the other crystal will evolve into another stable soliton if the temperature change
is quite small, whereas it will become unstable and experience larger cycles of
compression or break up into beam filaments if the temperature difference is big
enough. The dark soliton is more sensitive to the temperature change than the bright
one.

Dark soliton solutions of the one-dimensional complex Ginzburg--Landau equation
(CGLE) are analysed for the case of normal group-velocity dispersion. The CGLE can
be transformed to the nonlinear Schr\"{o}dinger equation (NLSE) with perturbation
terms under some practical conditions. The main properties of dark solitons are
analysed by applying the direct perturbation theory of the NLSE. The results
obtained may be helpful for the research on the optical soliton transmission system.

Stokes' first problem has been investigated for a Maxwell fluid in a porous
half-space for gaining insight into the effect of viscoelasticity on the start-up
flow in a porous medium. An exact solution was obtained by using the Fourier sine
transform. It was found that at large values of the relaxation time the velocity
overshoot occurs obviously and the system exhibits viscoelastic behaviours. On the
other hand, for short relaxation time the velocity overshoot disappears and the
system exhibits viscous behaviours. A critical value of the relaxation time was
obtained for the emergence of the velocity overshoot. Furthermore, it was found that
the velocity overshoot is caused by both the viscoelasticity of the Maxwell fluid
and the Darcy resistance resulting from the structure of the micropore in the porous
medium.

A new anisotropic potential is fitted to {\it ab initio} data. The close-coupling
approach is utilized to calculate state-to-state rotational excitation
partial wave cross sections for elastic and inelastic collisions of He atom
with HBr molecule based on the fitted potential. The calculation is
performed separately at the incident energies: 75, 100 and 200~meV.The
tendency of the elastic and inelastic rotational excitation partial wave
cross sections varying with total angular quantum number $J$ is obtained.

The ionization level and free electron density of most abundant elements (C,
N, O, Mg, Al, Si, S, and Fe) in the sun are calculated from the centre of
the sun to the surface of the photosphere. The model and computations are
made under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The
Saha equation has been used to calculate the ionization level of
elements and the
electron density. Temperature values for calculations along the solar
radius are taken from references.

Based on the multi-configuration Dirac--Fock method, this paper has
made theoretical calculations
for the dielectronic recombination cross-sections and the
high-$n$ dielectronic satellites to K$\alpha$ resonance line in helium-like
aluminium ions. It is found that high-$n$ dielectronic satellites are seriously
mixed with resonance line, which leads to a significant increase in both the
apparent width and the intensity of K$\alpha$ resonance line. They also
induce a positional shift of K$\alpha$ resonance line.

PHYSICS OF GASES, PLASMAS, AND ELECTRIC DISCHARGES

This paper studies the process of mutual neutralization of Si\sj{+} and H\sj{-} ions
in slow collisions within the multi-channel Landau--Zener model. All important
ionic-covalent couplings in this collision system are included in the collision
dynamics. The cross sections for population of specific final states of product Si
atom are calculated in the CM energy range 0.05\,eV/u--5\,keV/u. Both singlet and
triplet states are considered. At collision energies below $\sim$10\,eV/u, the most
populated singlet state is Si(3p4p, \sj{1}$S_0$), while for energies above
$\sim$150\,eV/u it is the Si(3p, 4p, \sj{1}$P_1$) state. In the case of triplet
states, the mixed 3p4p(\sj{3}$S_1$+\sj{3}$P_0$) states are the most populated in the
entire collision energy range investigated. The total cross section exhibits a broad
maximum around 200--300\,eV/u and for $E_{\rm CM}\leq$ 10\,eV/u it monotonically
increases with decreasing the collision energy, reaching a value of
$8\ti10^{-13}$\,cm\sj{2} at $E_{\rm CM}$ = 0.05\,eV/u. The ion-pair formation
process in Si(3p\sj{2} \sj{3}$P_{\rm J}$)+H(1s) collisions has also been considered
and its cross section in the considered energy range is very small (smaller than
10\sj{-20}\,cm\sj{2} in the energy region below 1\,keV/u).

In this paper, we make a theoretical investigation of the
plasma-wave instability mechanism in a two-dimensional electron
fluid in a high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) driven by the
terahertz radiation in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic
field. It is found that the resonant peaks of the
gate-to-source/drain admittances and detection responsivity depend
on the strength of the external magnetic field. Such phenomena can
be used to produce a desired effect by adjusting the intensity of
the magnetic field.

A slow-wave structure (SWS) with two opposite gratings inside a rectangular
waveguide is presented and analysed. As an all-metal slow-wave circuit, this
structure is especially suited for use in millimetre-wave travelling wave tubes
(TWTs) due to its advantages of large size, high manufacturing precision and good
heat dissipation. The first part of this paper concerns the wave properties of this
structure in vacuum. The influence of the geometrical dimensions on dispersion
characteristics and coupling impedance is investigated. The theoretical results show
that this structure has a very strong dispersion and the coupling impedance for the
fundamental wave is several tens of ohms, but the coupling impedance for --1 space
harmonic wave is much lower than that for the fundamental wave, so the risk of
backward wave oscillation is reduced. Besides these, the CST microwave studio is
also used to simulate the dispersion property of the SWS. The simulation results
from CST and the theoretical results agree well with each other, which supports the
theory. In the second part, a small-signal analysis of a double rectangular
waveguide grating TWT is presented. The typical small-signal gain per period is
about 0.45 dB, and the 3-dB small-signal gain bandwidth is only 4\%.

A macroscopic cell and three-dimensional fluid model have been used
to investigate the discharge characteristics in ac plasma display
panel cells of electrode-shaping configurations. Four kinds of
non-standard geometries (i.e. $D$-, ${\it\del}$-, $W$- and $U$-shape
electrodes) have been considered. The characteristics of the
discharge current, the operating voltage and the discharge
efficiency of different configurations have been discussed. It is
found that the discharge efficiency can be improved by about
10\%--30\% compared with the standard geometry, while the operating
voltage increases slightly in the non-standard geometries. There is
a trade-off between improving the discharge efficiency and lowering
the sustaining voltage in design of plasma display cells by
electrode shaping.

CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURAL, MECHANICAL, AND THERMAL PROPERTIES

In this paper torsional deformation of the carbon nanotubes is simulated by
molecular dynamics method. The Brenner potential is used to set up thesimulation
system. Simulation results show that the carbon nanotubes can bear larger torsional
deformation, for the armchair type (10,10) single wall carbon nanotubes, with a
yielding phenomenon taking place when the torsional angle is up to
63$^{\circ}$(1.1rad). The influence of carbon nanotube helicity in torsional
deformation is very small. The shear modulus of single wall carbon nanotubes should
be several hundred GPa, not 1\,GPa as others reports.

Two-dimensional numerical research has been carried out on the ablation effects of
titanium target irradiated by intense pulsed ion beam (IPIB) generated by TEMP II
accelerator. Temporal and spatial evolution of the ablation process of the target
during a pulse time has been simulated. We have come to the conclusion that the
melting and evaporating process begin from the surface and the target is ablated
layer by layer when the target is irradiated by the IPIB. Meanwhile, we also
obtained the result that the average ablation velocity in target central region is
about 10\,m/s, which is far less than the ejection velocity of the plume plasma
formed by irradiation. Different effects have been compared to the different ratio
of the ions and different energy density of IPIB while the target is irradiated by
pulsed beams.

In this paper the mixing of a sample in the curved microchannel with heterogeneous
surface potentials is analysed numerically by using the control-volume-based finite
difference method. The rigorous models for describing the wall potential and
external potential are solved to get the distribution of wall potential and external
potential, then momentum equation is solved to get the fully developed flow field.
Finally the mass transport equation is solved to get the concentration field. The
results show that the curved microchannel has an optimized capability of sample
mixing and transport when the heterogeneous surface is located at the left
conjunction between the curved part and straight part. The variation of
heterogeneous surface potential $\psi_{\rm n}$has more influence on the capability
of sample mixing than on that of sample transport. The ratio of the curved
microchannel's radius to width has a comparable effect on the capability of sample
mixing and transport. The conclusions above are helpful to the optimization of the
design of microfluidic devices for the improvement of the efficiency of sample
mixing.

This paper reports that DLC (diamond like carbon)/Ti and DLC films were prepared by
using pulsed laser arc deposition. R-ray diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy,
Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, nanoindenter, spectroscopic
ellipsometer, surface profiler and micro-tribometer were employed to study the
structure and tribological properties of DLC/Ti and DLC films. The results show that
DLC/Ti film, with $I(D)/I(G)$ 0.28 and corresponding to 76{\%} sp$^{3}$ content
calculated by Raman spectroscopy, uniform chemical composition along depth
direction, 98 at{\%} content of carbon, hardness 8.2 GPa and Young's modulus 110.5
GPa, compressive stress 6.579 GPa, thickness 46~nm, coefficient of friction 0.08,
and critical load 95mN, exhibits excellent mechanical and tribological properties.

This paper reports that the $m$-plane GaN layer is grown on (200)-plane LiAlO$_{2}$
substrate by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) method.
Tetragonal-shaped crystallites appear at the smooth surface. Raman measurement
illuminates the compressive stress in the layer which is released with increasing
the layer's thickness. The high transmittance (80{\%}), sharp band edge and
excitonic absorption peak show that the GaN layer has good optical quality. The
donor acceptor pair emission peak located at $\sim$3.41\,eV with full-width at half
maximum of 120\,meV and no yellow peaks in the photoluminescence spectra partially
show that no Li incorporated into GaN layer from the LiAlO$_{2}$ substrate.

This paper reports the induced growth of high quality ZnO thin film
by crystallized amorphous ZnO. Firstly amorphous ZnO was prepared by
solid-state pyrolytic reaction, then by taking crystallized
amorphous ZnO as seeds (buffer layer), ZnO thin films have been
grown in diethyene glycol solution of zinc acetate at 80\,\du. X-ray
Diffraction curve indicates that the films were preferentially
oriented [001] out-of-plane direction of the ZnO. Atomic force
microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate
the surface morphology of the ZnO thin film. Photoluminescence
spectrum exhibits a strong ultraviolet emission while the visible
emission is very weak. The results indicate that high quality ZnO
thin film was obtained.

This paper reports that the optical emission spectroscopy (OES) is
used to monitor the plasma during the deposition process of
hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon films in a very high frequency
plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition system. The OES
intensities (SiH\sj{*}, H$_\al^*$ and H$_\be^*$) are investigated by
varying the deposition parameters. The result shows that the
discharge power, silane concentrations and substrate temperature
affect the OES intensities. When the discharge power at silane
concentration of 4\% increases, the OES intensities increase first
and then are constant, the intensities increase with the discharge
power monotonously at silane concentration of 6\%. The SiH\sj{*}
intensity increases with silane concentration, while the intensities
of H$_\al^*$ and H$_\be^*$ increase first and then decrease. When
the substrate temperature increases, the SiH\sj{*} intensity
decreases and the intensities of H$_\al^*$ and H$_\be^*$ are
constant. The correlation between the intensity ratio of $I_{\rm
H_\al^*}$/$I_{{\rm SiH}^*}$ and the crystalline volume fraction
($X_{\rm c}$) of films is confirmed.

CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES

In this paper a first-principles study of the electronic structure and stability of B2
Ti$_{1 - x}$NiHf$_{x }\,(x=0.2, 0.4, 0.6)$ and B19$^\prime $ Ti$_{1 -
x}$NiHf$_{x}(x=0$, 0.5) alloys is presented. The calculations are performed
by the plane-wave pseudopotential method in the framework of the density
functional theorywith the generalized gradient approximation. This
paper
calculates the lattice parameters, density of states, charge density, and
heats of formation. The results show that the electronic structure and
stability of B2 Ti$_{1 - x}$NiHf$_{x}$ change gradually with Hf content.
However, Hf content has little effect on the electronic structure and
stability of B19$^\prime $ Ti$_{1 - x}$NiHf$_{x}$. The mechanism of the
effect of Hf content on martensitic transformation temperature of TiNiHf
alloys is studied from the electronic structure.

The epitaxial (single crystal-like)
Pr$_{0.4}$La$_{0.1}$Sr$_{0.5}$MnO$_{3}$ (PLSMO) and
Nd$_{0.35}$La$_{0.15}$Sr$_{0.5}$MnO$_{3}$ (NLSMO) thin films
are prepared and characterized, and the electric and magnetic properties are
examined. We find that both PLSMO and NLSMO have their own optimum
deposition temperature ($T_{\rm o})$ in their growing into epitaxial thin films.
When the deposition temperature is higher than $T_{\rm o}$, a $c$-axis
oriented but
polycrystalline thin film grows; when the deposition temperature is lower
than $T_{\rm o}$, the thin film tends to be $a$-axis oriented and also
polycrystalline. The most important point is that for the epitaxial PLSMO
and NLSMO thin films the electronic phase transitions are closely consistent
with the magnetic phase transitions, i.e. an antiferromagnetic phase
corresponds to an insulating state, a ferromagnetic phase corresponds to a
metallic state and a paramagnetic phase corresponds to a semiconducting
state, while for the polycrystalline thin films the electronic phase
transitions are always not consistent with the magnetic transitions.

We have studied the radiation of a double-walled carbon nanotube
(DWNT) filament with a length of 4.5\,mm and a diameter of
10\,$\mu$m by applying an electric current through the filament. The
DWNT filament starts emitting incandescent light at voltage
$U=6$\,V. Emission spectra of the DWNT below temperature 1250\,K can
well be fitted to those of the blackbody radiation. The intensity of
the incandescent light shows an exponential dependence on the
voltage applied on the DWNT filaments. The resistance of the DWNT
filaments is very stable at high temperatures between 900 and
1250\,K during the emission of light in the experiments.

We have carried out a theoretical study of double-$\delta$-doped
InAlAs/InGaAs/InP high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) by means of the
finite differential method. The electronic states in the quantum well of the
HEMT are calculated self-consistently. Instead of boundary conditions,
initial conditions are used to solve the Poisson equation. The concentration
of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) and its distribution in the HEMT have
been obtained. By changing the doping density of upper and lower impurity
layers we find that the 2DEG concentration confined in the channel is
greatly affected by these two doping layers. But the electrons depleted by
the Schottky contact are hardly affected by the lower impurity layer. It is
only related to the doping density of upper impurity layer. This means that
we can deal with the doping concentrations of the two impurity layers and
optimize them separately. Considering the sheet concentration and the
mobility of the electrons in the channel, the optimized doping
densities are
found to be $5\times 10^{12}$ and $3\times 10^{12}$~cm$^{ - 2}$ for the upper
and lower impurity layers, respectively, in the double-$\delta$-doped
InAlAs/InGaAs/InP HEMTs.

Hot carriers injection (HCI) tests for ultra-short channel n-MOSFET
devices were studied. The experimental data of short channel devices
(75--90\,nm), which does not fit formal degradation power law well,
will bring severe error in lifetime prediction. This phenomenon
usually happens under high drain voltage ($V_{\rm d}$) stress
condition. A new model was presented to fit the degradation curve
better. It was observed that the peak of the substrate current under
low drain voltage stress cannot be found in ultra-short channel
device. Devices with different channel lengths were studied under
different $V_{\rm d}$ stresses in order to understand the relations
between peak of substrate current ($I_{\rm sub}$) and channel
length/stress voltage.

A surface crystallization phenomenon on bonding pads and wires of integrated circuit
chip is reported in this paper. Through a lot of experiments, an unknown failure
effect caused by mixed crystalline matter is revealed, whereas non-plasma fluorine
contamination cannot cause the failure of bonding pads. By experiments combined with
infrared spectroscopy analysis, the surface crystallization effect is studied. The
conclusion of the study can provide the guidance for IC fabrication, modelling and
analysis.

In this paper, a method to fabricate Silicon-on-Nothing (SON) MOSFETs using
H$^{ + }$ and He$^{ + }$ co-implantation is presented. The technique is
compatible with conventional CMOS technology and its feasibility has been
experimentally demonstrated. SON MOSFETs with 50nm gate length have been
fabricated. Compared with the corresponding bulk MOSFETs, the SON MOSFETs
show higher on current, reduced leakage current and lower subthreshold
slope.

The optical properties of LaCl_{3}:Ce crystal are reported in this paper.
Optical transmission spectrum, photoluminescence and time resolved
photoluminescence spectra at different temperatures are investigated. It is
found that optical transmittance is as high as 80{\%} between 320~nm and
600~nm, and no obvious absorption band is found in this region. Emission
intensity and decay time of photoluminescence are quite stable with the
change of the temperature between 80~K and 500~K. No thermal quenching is
present up to 500~K, and decay time keeps at $17\pm 2$~ns. With the increase
of the temperature, the whole emission bands and excitation bands present
broadening and overlapping,$_{ }$leading to the strengthening of
re-absorption of the Ce$^{3 + }$ emission, which makes the emission spectra
have a red shift trend.

In this paper the multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were synthesized by a
chemical vapour deposition and the SEM graph shows that the sample has good
construction. The micro-Raman spectrum shows the characteristic line of the MWNTs
and an additional line produced by the defects on the outer surface of MWNTs. The
photoluminescence (PL) spectra observed experimentally are variable under different
excitation wavelengths and the strong excitation wavelength dependence of
luminescence indicates a distribution of emitters which include electron $\pi$ in
excited states and the Van Hove singularities. The absorption spectra confirm the
transition channels which are consistent with the PL emission.