Based on the three-order Lagrangian equations, Hamilton's function of acceleration
H^\ast and generalized acceleration momentum P_\alpha ^\ast are defined, and
pseudo-Hamilton canonical equations corresponding to three-order Lagrangian
equations are obtained. The equations are similar to Hamilton's canonical equations
of analytical mechanics in form.

This paper focuses on studying non-Noether conserved quantities of Lie
symmetry and of form invariance for a mechanical system in phase space
under the general infinitesimal transformation of groups. We obtain a new
non-Noether conserved quantity of Lie symmetry of the system, and Hojman and
Mei's results are of special cases of our conclusion. We find a
condition under which the form invariance of the system will lead to a Lie
symmetry, and, further, obtain a new non-Noether conserved quantity of form
invariance of the system. An example is given finally to illustrate these
results.

Some doubly-periodic solutions of the Zakharov--Kuznetsov equation are
presented.
Our approach is
to introduce an auxiliary ordinary differential equation and use its Jacobi elliptic function
solutions to construct doubly-periodic solutions of the Zakharov--Kuznetsov
equation, which has been derived by Gottwald as a two-dimensional model for
nonlinear Rossby waves. When the modulus k \rightarrow 1, these solutions reduce
to the solitary wave solutions of the equation.

In this paper, we use our method to solve the extended Lotka--Volterra equation and
discrete KdV equation. With the help of Maple, we obtain a number of exact solutions
to the two equations including soliton solutions presented by hyperbolic functions
of \sinh and \cosh, periodic solutions presented by trigonometric functions of
\sin and \cos, and rational solutions. This method can be used to solve some
other nonlinear difference--differential equations.

The evolution of solitons in Bose--Einstein condensates (BECs)
with time-dependent
atomic scattering length in an expulsive parabolic potential is studied. Based on
the extended hyperbolic function method, we successfully obtain the bright and dark
soliton solutions. In addition, some new soliton solutions in this model are found.
The results in this paper include some in the literature ({\em Phys. Rev. Lett.}
{\bf 94} (2005) 050402 and {\em Chin. Phys. Lett.} {\bf 22} (2005) 1855).

Traditionally, the theory related to the spatial angular momentum has been studied
completely, while the investigation in the generator of Lorentz boost is inadequate.
This paper shows that the generator of Lorentz boost has a nontrivial physical
significance: it endows a charged system with an electric moment, and has an
important significance for the electrical manipulations of electron spin in
spintronics. An alternative treatment and interpretation for the traditional Darwin
term and spin--orbit coupling are given.

In this paper a high-dimension multiparty quantum secret sharing scheme is proposed
by using Einstein--Podolsky--Rosen pairs and local unitary operators. This scheme
has the advantage of not only having higher capacity, but also saving storage space.
The security analysis is also given.

The Landau problem on non-commutative quantum mechanics is studied, where
the Heisenberg algebra and the Landau energy levels as well as the
non-commutative angular momentum are constructed in detail in
non-commutative space and non-commutative phase space respectively.

This paper proposes a scheme for teleporting a kind of essential three-particle
non-symmetric entangled state, which is much more valuable than a GHZ and W state
for some applications in quantum information processing. In comparison with previous
proposal of teleportation, the resources of entangled states as quantum channel and
the number of classical messages required by our scheme can be cut down. Moreover,
it is shown that there exists a class of transformations which ensure the success of
this scheme, because the two-particle transformation performed by the receiver in
the course of teleportation may be a generic two-particle operation instead of a
control-NOT (CNOT) operation. In addition, all kinds of transformations performed by
sender and receiver are given in detail.

We propose a nearly perfect optical scheme for the quantum teleportation of
entangled coherent states using optical devices such as nonlinear Kerr media, beam
splitters, phase shifters, and photon detectors. Different from those previous
schemes, our scheme needs only ``yes' or `no' measurements of the photon number of
the related modes, i.e. nonzero- and zero-photon measurements, while in previous
schemes one has to exactly identify the even or odd parity character of the photon
numbers detected by detectors.

Based on entanglement swapping, a scheme for the secret sharing of an arbitrary
two-particle entangled state is proposed. If the controllers do not co-operate
with the eavesdropper, the eavesdropper's successful probability decreases with the
number of the controllers increasing.
In addition,
only the Bell-state measurements are
required to realize the secret sharing scheme.

In this paper, we study the Hawking radiation via tunnelling from a uniformly
accelerating black hole. Although the Bekenstein--Hawking entropy is proportional
also to the area of the event horizon, the radius of it, r_{\rm H}, is a function
of \theta, which leads to the difficulties in the calculation of the emission
rate. In order to overcome the mathematical difficulties, we propose a new technique
to calculate the emission rate and the result obtained is reasonable.

The dynamics of coupled Lorenz circuits is investigated experimentally. The partial
amplitude death reported in {\em Phys. Rev.} E {\bf 72}, 057201 (2005) is verified
by physical experiments with electronic circuits. With the increase of coupling
constant, the coupled circuits undergo the transition from the breakdown of both the
reflection symmetry and the translational symmetry to the partial amplitude death.
Its stability is also confirmed by analysing the effects of noise.

In this paper we present a new simple controller for a chaotic system, that is, the
Newton--Leipnik equation with two strange attractors: the upper attractor (UA) and
the lower attractor (LA). The controller design is based on the passive technique.
The final structure of this controller for original stabilization has a simple
nonlinear feedback form. Using a passive method, we prove the stability of a
closed-loop system. Based on the controller derived from the passive principle, we
investigate three different kinds of chaotic control of the system, separately: the
original control forcing the chaotic motion to settle down to the origin from an
arbitrary position of the phase space; the chaotic intra-attractor control for
stabilizing the equilibrium points only belonging to the upper chaotic attractor or
the lower chaotic one, and the inter-attractor control for compelling the chaotic
oscillation from one basin to another one. Both theoretical analysis and simulation
results verify the validity of the suggested method.

Time-resolved measurement of atomic emission enhancement is performed by using a
500-fs KrF laser pulse incident upon a high density supersonic O_{2} gas jet,
synchronized with an orthogonal ns frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser pulse. The
ultra-short pulse serves as an igniter of the gas jet, and the subsequent ns-laser
pulse significantly enhances the atomic emission. Analysis shows that the
contributions to the enhancement effect are made mainly by the bremsstrahlung
radiation and cascade ionization.

A systemic and comprehensive ESD-induced parasitic model is presented in this paper,
which is used to analyse the parasitic influences of electrostatic discharge (ESD)
protection circuits on the performance of radio frequency applications. A novel
low-parasitic ESD protection structure is made in a 0.35\mum 1P3M silicide CMOS
process. The measured results show that this novel structure has a low parasitic
capacitance about 310fF and a low leakage current about 12.2nA with a suitable ESD
robustness target about 5kV human body model.

In this paper, the timing jitter in dispersion-managed soliton-like systems with the
Gaussian pulse is studied by using two methods. Firstly, the derivation of the
dynamic equations for the evolution of soliton-like parameters and the timing jitter
expressions for the dispersion-managed soliton-like systems are carried out by the
perturbed variational method. By analysing and simulating these timing jitter
expressions, one can find that the timing jitter is induced by the amplified
spontaneous emission noise and the frequency shift, etc. Nonlinear gain can suppress
the timing jitter. The chirp sign and the filters action have also effects on the
total timing jitter. Secondly, the timing jitter is calculated and analysed by using
the moment method. The results of the two methods prove to be consistent with each
other.

We propose an experimentally feasible scheme for preparing a four-atom cluster state
in a thermal cavity. In the scheme, the cavity field is only virtually excited and
the photon-number-dependent part in the effective Hamiltonian is cancelled so that
the system is insensitive to the cavity decay and the thermal field. At the same
time, the scheme can be generalized to prepare n-atom cluster states with the
success probability 100\%. In addition, using the four-atom cluster state, we also
propose a simpler scheme for implementing a remote--controlled not gate (CNOT)
without the Bell states measurement.

We propose a scheme to implement the Deutsch--Jozsa algorithm by using
Schr\"{o}dinger cat states in cavity quantum electron-dynamics (QED). The scheme is
based on the Raman interaction of a degenerate three-level \Lambda -type atom with
a coherent state in a cavity. By using Schr\"{o}dinger cat states, the atomic
spontaneous emission can be minimized and the Hadamard transformation in our scheme
is not needed.

Using the linear approximation method, this paper studies the statistical property
of a single-mode laser driven by both coloured pump noise with signal modulation and
the quantum noise with cross-correlation between its real and imaginary parts, and
calculates the steady-state mean normalized intensity fluctuation and intensity
correlation time. It analyses the influences of the modulation signal, the net gain
coefficient, the noise and its correlation form on the statistical fluctuation of
the laser system respectively. It is found that the coloured pump noise modulated by
the signal has a great suppressing action on the statistical fluctuation of the
laser system; the pump noise self-correlation time and the specific frequency of
modulation signal have the result that the statistical fluctuation tends to zero.
Furthermore, the `colour' correlation of pump noise has much influences on the
statistical fluctuation of the laser system. Increasing the intensity of pump noise
will augment the statistical fluctuation of the laser system, but the intensity of
quantum noise and the coefficient of cross-correlation between its real and
imaginary parts have less influence on the statistical fluctuation of the laser
system. Therefore, from the conclusions of this paper the statistical property can
be known and a theoretical basis for steady operation and output of the laser system
can be provided.

The direct acceleration of electrons by using two linearly polarized crossed
Bessel--Gaussian (BG) beams with equal frequency and amplitude in vacuum is proposed
and studied. It is shown that two linearly polarized BG beams of the same order (0
or 1) with a \textit{\pi }-rad phase difference have a resultant non-zero
longitudinal electric field on the z-axis and can be used, in principle, to
accelerate electrons.

In this paper the phase-dependent features of ultrashort laser pulse resonant
propagation in a two-level dipolar molecule are demonstrated by solving full
Maxwell--Bloch equations. The electronic properties of dipolar molecule
4-trans-[p-(N, N-Di-n-butylamino)-p -stilbenylvinyl] pyridine (DBASVP) molecule,
one-dimensional asymmetric organic molecule, is calculated by density functional
theory at \textit{ab initio} level. The numerical results show that the carrier
propagation and the spectrum evolution of the pulse are sensitive to its initial
phase and the phase sensitivity is more obvious for larger area pulse. The
phase-dependent feature is more evident in dipolar molecule because the permanent
dipole moment makes the nonlinear effects stronger.

A theory of excitation of ultrasonic waves in the stimulated Brillouin
scattering (SBS) process is presented in this paper. By using several
reasonable approximations, a numerical calculation of the transient
longitudinal SBS shows that large amplitude of acoustic waves can be built
up by the nanosecond pulse of high-power laser, which may result in the
damage of optical glasses. The maximal density change and the maximal
acoustic wave intensity in optical glasses of 5\,cm in thickness are
calculated by using different parameters of the high-energy laser, such as
the intensity, the pulse width, and the wave length. The damage threshold of
the optical glasses is about 80 GW/cm^{2} when using a 1064 nm laser. The
dynamic mechanism of SBS is the electrostriction effect of the components
coupling with the high-power laser.

Photoluminescence properties and exciton decay dynamics in a porphyrin side-chain
polymer, poly[porphyrin acrylate- acrylonitrile (abbreviated p[(por)A-AN]), have
been investigated by femtosecond time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. All
the luminescences of p[(por)A-AN] films are due to the emissive decay of the
photoexcited singlet excitons in the porphyrins. The luminescence efficiencies and
lifetimes are increased for samples from pure films to dilute blend films. However,
they are increased as the intrachain concentration of the porphyrin sidechain groups
is decreased. The intrachain rotation motions of porphyrin sidechain groups result
in the initial ultrafast luminescence decays, which are much faster than those due
to the interchain interactions. All the samples show no significant red-shift and
broadening of the transient luminescence spectra. The interchain and intrachain
nonradiative exciton relaxation processes may play an important role in the
luminescence dynamics in the p[(por)A-AN] films. The possible origin of different
intrachain and interchain dynamic behaviours in p[(por)A-AN] films is discussed.

Generally the incompressible viscous flow problem is described by the Navier--Stokes
equation. Based on the weighted residual method the discrete formulation of
element-free Galerkin is inferred in this paper. By the step-by-step computation in
the field of time,
and adopting the least-square estimation of the-same-order shift,
this paper has calculated
both velocity and pressure
from the decoupling independent equations.
Each time fraction Newton--Raphson iterative method is applied for
the velocity and pressure. Finally, this paper puts the method into
practice of the shear-drive cavity flow, verifying the validity,
high accuracy and stability.

We investigate the quantum motion of two ions stored in a Paul trap and interacting
with a time-periodic laser field. In the pseudopotential approximation and large
detuning condition, we find that the relative motion is independent of the laser
field, but the exact centre-of-mass motion is closely related to the laser field. By
adjusting the laser intensity and frequency, we can well control the quantum motion
of the centre-of-mass. We illustrate some physical properties described by the
centre-of-mass states, such as the squeezed coherent property, the widths and
heights of the wavepackets of probability density, the classical-quantum
correspondence, the resonance ladders of expectation energy and the transition
probabilities between time-dependent quantum levels.

The near-threshold highly bound states of all three stable isotopic
variants of molecular hydrogen have been studied. Numerous
perturbations and unexpected transitions are observed as far as
1cm\sj{-1} just below the second dissociation threshold. This
complex structure may arise from a combination of nonadiabatic
coupling between B, B', C electronic states, perturbations due to
fine and hyperfine interactions, and strong shape resonances. The
perturbed near-threshold states and vibrational continuum exhibit
finegrained structure, differing greatly between isotopes because of
varying nonadiabatic coupling.

CROSS DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

It has been proved recently that the spike timing can play an important role in
information transmission, so in this paper we develop a network with N-unit
FitzHugh--Nagumo neurons coupled by gap junctions and discuss the dependence of the
spike timing precision on synaptic coupling strength, the noise intensity and the
size of the neuron ensemble. The calculated results show that the spike timing
precision decreases as the noise intensity increases; and the ensemble spike timing
precision increases with coupling strength increasing. The electric synapse coupling
has a more important effect on the spike timing precision than the chemical synapse
coupling.

PHYSICS OF GASES, PLASMAS, AND ELECTRIC DISCHARGES

Based on the dispersion relation of intense laser pulse propagating in gradually
ionized plasma, this paper discusses the frequency modulation induced by ionization
of an ultra-short intense laser pulse interacting with a gas target. The
relationship between the frequency modulation and the ionization rate, the plasmas
frequency variation, and the polarization of atoms (ions) is analysed. The numerical
results indicate that, at high frequency, the polarization of atoms (ions) plays a
more important role than plasma frequency variation in modulating the laser
frequency, and the laser frequency variation is different at different positions of
the laser pulse.

The effects of atomic number Z on the energy distribution of hot electrons
generated by the interaction of 60fs, 130mJ, 800nm, and 7\ti10\sj{17}W/cm\sj{2}
laser pulses with metallic targets have been studied experimentally. The results
show that the number and the effective temperature of hot electrons increase with
the atomic number Z of metallic targets, and the temperature of hot electrons are
in the range of 190--230keV, which is consistent with a scaling law of hot
electrons temperature.

An H\al emission measurement array with 25 detection channels has been built on
HL-1M tokamak. Reconstruction maps of H\al emission distribution in plasma
cross-section have been obtained by using tomography, with a hydrogen pellet
injected into the plasma. The dimension, the shape and the rotation characteristic
of the cross-section of the pellet ablation material flow tube have been observed.
These results have been analysed and explained tentatively by using the `tail' model
and the linear expansion model.

For a better understanding of the deposition mechanism of thin films in
SiCl_{4} source gas, we have measured the spatial distributions of
SiCl_{n} (n=0--2) radicals in SiCl_{4} radio frequency glow discharge
plasma utilizing a mass spectrometer equipped with a movable
gas sampling apparatus. The experimental results demonstrate that the
relative densities of SiCl_{n} (n=0--2) radicals have peak values at the
position of 10mm above the powered electrode along the axial direction;
the relative densities of the Si and SiCl_{n} (n=1, 2) radicals have peak
values at the positions of 27mm and 7mm away from the axis along the radial
direction, respectively. Generally speaking, in the whole SiCl_{4}
plasma bulk region, the relative density of Si is one order of magnitude
higher than that of SiCl, and the relative density of SiCl is several times
higher than that of SiCl_{2/sub>. This reveals that Si and SiCl may be the
primary growth precursors in forming thin films.
}

CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURAL, MECHANICAL, AND THERMAL PROPERTIES

In this paper a technique based on high-speed digital photography and the digital
speckle correlation (DSC) method is used for the quantitative measurement of the
displacement and strain fields of various Portevin--Le Chatelier (PLC) bands (types
A, B, and C). The experimental results clearly show the nucleation process of a
type-B band and the propagation of a type-A band. The results also reveal that there
exists an elastic shrinkage deformation outside a PLC band during a large
avalanche-like deformation inside the PLC band.

Mg_{x}Zn_{1-x}O thin films have been prepared on silicon substrates by radio
frequency magnetron sputtering at 60℃. The thin films have hexagonal
wurtzite single-phase structure and a preferred orientation with the c-axis
perpendicular to the substrates. The refractive indices of Mg_{x}Zn_{1-x}O films
are studied at room temperature by spectroscopic ellipsometry over the wavelength
range of 400--760\,nm at the incident angle of 70℃. Both absorption
coefficients and optical band gaps of Mg_{x}Zn_{1-x}O films are determined by
the transmittance spectra. While Mg content is increasing, the absorption edges of
Mg_{x}Zn_{1-x}O films shift to higher energies and band gaps linearly increase
from 3.24.eV at x=0 to 3.90\,eV at x=0.30. These results provide important
information for the design and modelling of ZnO/ Mg_{x}Zn_{1-x}O heterostructure
optoelectronic devices.

CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES

This paper shows that the local electric field distribution near the nanostructure
metallic surface is obtained by solving the Laplace equation, and furthermore, the
configuration of CO molecules adsorbed on a Pt nanoparticle surface is obtained by
using Monte Carlo simulation. It is found that the uneven local electric field
distribution induced by the nanostructure surface can influence the configuration of
carbon monoxide (CO) molecules by a force, which drags the adsorbates to the poles
of the nanoparticles. This result, together with our results obtained before, may
explain the experimental results that the nanostructure metallic surface can lead to
abnormal phenomena such as anti-absorption infrared effects.

In this paper, we use a pulsed rapid thermal processing (RTP) approach to
create an emitter layer of hetero-junction solar cell. The process
parameters and crystallization behaviour are studied. The structural,
optical and electric properties of the crystallized films are also
investigated. Both the depth of PN junction and the conductivity of the
emitter layer increase with the number of RTP pulses increasing. Simulation results
show that efficiencies of such solar cells can exceed 15% with a lower
interface recombination rate, but the highest efficiency is 11.65% in our
experiments.

In the GaN-based heterostructures, this paper reports that the strong electric
fields induced by polarization effects at the structure boundaries complicate the
electric--static equilibrium and the boundary conditions. The basic requirements of
electric--static equilibrium for the heterostructure systems are discussed first,
and it is deduced that in the application of the coupled Schr\"{o}dinger--Poisson
model to the heterostructures of electric--static equilibrium state, zero external
electric field guarantees the overall electric neutrality, and there is no need to
introduce the charge balance equation. Then the relation between the screening of
the polar charges in GaN-based heterostructures and the possible boundary conditions
of the Poisson equation is analysed, it is shown that the various boundary
conditions are equivalent to each other, and the surface charge, which can be used
in studying the screening of the polar charges, can be precisely solved even if only
the conduction band energy is correctly known at the surface. Finally, through the
calculations on an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure with typical structure parameters by
the coupled Schr\"{o}dinger--Poisson model under the various boundary conditions,
the correctness of the above analyses are validated.

This paper reports on the photoluminescence spectra of ZnSe single crystal with
trace chlorine excited by the femtosecond laser pulse. Three emission bands,
including second-harmonic-generation, two-photon-excited peak and a broad band at
500--700nm, were detected. The thermal strain induced by femtosecond pulse strongly
influences the photoluminescence of ZnSe crystal. The corresponding strain \va in
ZnSe crystal is estimated to be about 8.8 \ti10^{-3} at room temperature. The
zinc-vacancy, as the main point defect induced by femtosecond pulse, is successfully
used to interpret the broad emission at 500--700nm. The research shows that
self-activated luminescence possesses the recombination mechanism of donor--vacancy
pair, and it is also influenced by a few selenium defects and the temperature. The
rapid decrease in photoluminescence intensity of two-photon-excited fluorescence and
second-harmonic generation emission at lower temperature is attributed to the fact
that more point defects result in the thermal activation of the two-photo-absorption
energy converting to the stronger recombination emission of chlorine--zinc vacancy
in 500--700nm. The experimental results indicate that the femtosecond exciting
photoluminescence shows a completely different emission mechanism to that of He--Cd
exciting luminescence in ZnSe single crystal. The femtosecond laser exhibits a
higher sensitive to the impurity in crystal materials, which can be recommended as
an efficient way to estimate the trace impurity in high quality crystals.

The nonideal effects in a quantum field-effect directional coupler where two quantum
wires are coupled through a finite potential barrier are studied by adopting the
lattice Green function method. The results show that the electron energy
distribution, asymmetric geometry and finite temperature all have obvious influence
on the electron transfer of the coupler. Only for the electrons with energies in a
certain region, can the complete periodic transfer between two quantum wires take
place. The conductance of these electrons as a function of the barrier length and
potential height exhibits a fine periodic or quasi-periodic pattern. For the
electrons with energies beyond the region, however, the complete periodic transfer
does not hold any more since many irregular oscillations are superimposed on the
conductance profile. In addition, the finite temperature and asymmetric geometry
both can reduce the electron transfer efficiency.

This paper reports that the structures of AlGaAs/InGaAs high electron mobility
transistor (HEMT) and AlAs/GaAs resonant tunnelling diode (RTD) are epitaxially
grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) in turn on a GaAs substrate. An
Al_{0.24}Ga_{0.76}As chair barrier layer, which is grown adjacent to the top
AlAs barrier, helps to reduce the valley current of RTD. The peak-to-valley current
ratio of fabricated RTD is 4.8 and the transconductance for the 1-μm gate HEMT
is 125mS/mm. A static inverter which consists of two RTDs and a HEMT is designed and
fabricated. Unlike a conventional CMOS inverter, the novel inverter exhibits
self-latching property.

An empirical formula of the critical temperature that is concentration dependent for
polycrystalline (La_{1-x}Pr_{x})_{0.7}Ca_{0.3}MnO_{3} is presented in this
paper. With this formula, the temperature dependence of resistance is simulated for
various values of x by using the random resistor network model and the Monte Carlo
method. The hysteresis effect in \rho -- T curves is reasonably explained. The
simulation results are in good agreement with the relevant experimental
measurements.

A new on-line methodology is used to characterize the negative bias temperature
instability (NBTI) without inherent recovery. Saturation drain voltage shift and
mobility shift are extracted by I_{D}-V_{D} characterizations, which were
measured before stress, and after every certain stress phase, using the
proportional differential operator (PDO) method. The new on-line methodology avoids
the mobility linearity assumption as compared with the previous on-the-fly method.
It is found that both reaction--diffusion and charge-injection processes are
important in NBTI effect under either DC or AC stress. A similar activation energy,
0.15 eV, occurred in both DC and AC NBTI processes. Also degradation rate factor is
independent of temperature below 90\du\ and sharply increases above it. The
frequency dependence of NBTI degradation shows that NBTI degradation is independent
of frequencies. The carrier tunnelling and reaction--diffusion mechanisms exist
simultaneously in NBTI degradation of sub-micron pMOSFETs, and the carrier
tunnelling dominates the earlier NBTI stage and the reaction--diffusion mechanism
follows when the generation rate of traps caused by carrier tunnelling reaches its
maximum.

This paper reports that the thermo-optic coefficient (\dd n / \dd T) as well as
thermal expansion coefficients (\beta) of DR1/PMMA polymer film are measured for
both TE (transversal electric) and TM (transversal magnetic) polarizations by using
an attenuated total reflection configuration at the wavelengths of 832nm. The
thermo-optic coefficients of DR1/PMMA are negative and as high as the order of
10^{-4}/℃. The influences of dopant concentration, poling process and
photobleaching process on the thermo-optic properties of DR1/PMMA are also
investigated.

Visible photoluminescence (PL) has been observed from rare earth (Tm, Sm and
Dy)-doped AlN films grown by radio-frequency magnetron reactive sputtering. X-ray
diffraction indicates that the films are c-axis-oriented hexagonal wurtzite type
structure with an average crystal size of about 80--110nm. Room-temperature PL
spectra indicate that the blue emission is due to the transition of ^{1}D_{2} to
^{3}F_{4} and ^{1}G_{2} to ^{3}H_{6} intra 4f electron of Tm^{3+}, the
yellow emissions of AlN:Sm are due to ^{4}G_{5/2} to the ^{6}H_{J} (J =
5/2, 7/2, 9/2, 11/2) and the reddish emissions of AlN:Dy correspond to the
^{4}F_{9/2} to ^{6}H_{J} (J = 15/2, 13/2, 11/2 and 9/2) and
^{6}F_{11/2} transitions.

We present a comparison of changes in large and sharp solar wind dynamic pressure,
observed by several spacecraft, with fast disturbances in the magnetospheric
magnetic field, measured by the geosynchronous satellites. More than 260 changes in
solar wind pressure during the period 1996--2003 are selected for this study. Large
statistics show that an increase (a decrease) in dynamic pressure always results in
an increase (a decrease) in the magnitude of geosynchronous magnetic field. The
amplitude of response to the geomagnetic field strongly depends on the location of
observer relative to the noon meridian, the value of pressure before disturbance,
and the change in amplitude of pressure.

In this paper, we study a realistic model of quintessential inflation with radiation
and matter. By the analysis of the dynamical system and numerical work about the
evolution of the equation of state and cosmic density parameter, we show that this
model is a good match for the current astronomical observation. The conclusion we
obtain is in favour of the model where the modular part of the complex field plays
the role of the inflaton whereas the argument part is the quintessence field.
Numerical calculation shows that a heteroclinic orbit (solution of the dynamical
system) is interpolated between early-time de Sitter phase (an unstable critical
point) and a late-time de Sitter attractor.