The effective potential of λφ^{4}_{1+3} model with both signs of parameter m^{2} is evaluated at T=0 by means of a simple but effective method for regularization and renormalization. Then at T≠0, the effective potential is evaluated in imaginary time Green function approach, using the Plana formula. A critical temperature for restoration of symmetry breaking in the standard model of particle physics is estimated to be T_{c}≌510 GeV.

The total reflection characteristics of plane waves from the interfac e including a chiral medium have been studied with complex chiral material param eters. The possible values of chirality admittance ζ_{c}are determined for left-circularly polarized (LCP) and right-circularly polarized (RCP) total reflections at fixed incident angles from an interface between free space and a chiral medium. It is found that there exists a region of parameter ζ_{c} , in which neither LCP nor RCP modes can be totally reflected for any incident angleθ. It is demonstrated that for ζ_{1}=Re(ζ_{c})＞0,total reflection is preferred for LCP mode whereas RCP total reflection is favored for ζ_{1}＜0.

In this paper, we suggest a way to perform coherent quantum arithmetic operation on the ions in different traps by interaction-free measurement. The physical processes and implementation steps of the controlled-NOT operation are carefully investigated. This method is, in effect, to connect different ion tr a ps into one larger integral quantum register. Thus the more complex logic operat ions, as well as the quantum algorithm such as the Shor algorithm whose realizat ion needs thousands of pubits, perhaps will be implemented through this way. It is also pointed out that this method is potentially useful in quantum cryptograp hy and quantum communication.

The temporal behavior of the bidirectional phase-conjugate outputs from a coherently induced phase conjugator has been observed on a Cu-doped barium strontium potassium sodium niobate crystal. In our experiment, the phase-conjugate outputs of two incident beams vary smoothly with time if the beam ratio is large. When the beam ratio is reduced, however, each phase conjugate output will experience a temporal fluctuation. The phase-conjugate output characteristic is found to be dependent on the beam ratio of the two input beams, their positions, their beam-path-length difference and sometimes the input order of the two beams. We present a model of multi-region-interaction to explain the operation of the device and the experimental results in this paper.

The thermal diffusivities of nanostructured NiAl (n-NiAl) alloys wit h different relative densities and the polycrystalline NiAl alloy are measured by using photoacoustic technique in which the signal is detected at the front surface while the rear-surface is excited. It is shown that the values of thermal diffusivity of the nanostructured NiAl alloy are lower than that of the polycry stalline NiAl alloy. The thermal diffusivities of n-NiAl alloys decrease with t he decrease of their relative densities when they are over 70%. When the relativ e density of n-NiAl alloys is lower than 70%, an anomalous increase of thermal diffusivity is observed, which indicates there exists a critical excess volume ΔV_{c} (or critical relative density) in n-NiAl alloys near 70%. Th e results are discussed.

The influence of laser linewidth Γ_{1} on laser cooling of atoms was investigated theoretically by using a diffusing phase model. The final tempe rature which can be achieved by Doppler cooling or sub Doppler cooling in phase fluctuating laser field is presented. It was found that the natural linewidth Γ_{n} of the transition used for cooling the atoms is an important quan tity in evaluating the influence of Γ_{1} under Doppler cooling mechanis m, and the laser linewidth has little effect on the final temperature under sub-Doppler cooling mechanism because the laser detuning is very large in this case.

We have investigated the atomic coherent population trapping in a mul tilevel laser-induced continuum structure system including cascade two-photon processes, in which two sets of quasicontinua of excited levels to be modeled as the Bixon-Jortner quasicontinuum are laser-embedded into a previously structu reless atomic continuum.The condition leading to the atomic coherent population trapping and the coherent population trapping state are given explicitly. And th e effects of the Fano factors, the laser intensities and the detunings on the am ount of population trapped in the atomic bound states and the populations distri buted in the two sets of quasicontinua are also examined.

CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES

We report a comparative study between two kinds of polyaniline, PANI-H_{3}PO_{4} and PANI-C_{4}H_{6}O_{6}. We have measured the temperature dependence of the dc-conductivity σ_{dc}(T) and magnetic susceptibility χ_{T}(T). The structure of polyaniline was characterized by F ourier transform infrared technique, electron-spin-resonance and X-ray diffraction. Polyanil ine synthesized with phosphoric and tartaric acids leads to high magnetic suscep tibility χ_{T}(at T=295 K)≈10^{-4} emu/mol.2rings. The dc-conductivity of both kinds of PANI shows a semiconductor behavior and follows the quasi one-dimensional variable-range-hopping model. A compa rison of the magnetic susceptibility shows greater electron localization in PANI-C_{4}H_{6}O_{6}, which is in agreement with the lower conductivity at room temper ature for PANI-C_{4}H_{6}O_{6}.

By making use of the method of few-body physics,the energy spectra of low-lying states of a three-electron spherical dot have been calculated. The quantum-size effects on the energy spectra of three electrons are shown.The res ults show that the orders of energy levels do not change when quantum dot diamet ers change.As a result, the energies of the states of L=3k?(k=1,2,…)ful filling π (-1)^{L}=1 are lower than those of their adjacent states.