Table of contents

    20 November 2005, Volume 14 Issue 11 Previous issue    Next issue
    Multi-agent controlled teleportation of multi-qubit quantum information via two-step protocol
    Yang Jie
    Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14 (11):  2149-2152.  DOI: 10.1088/1009-1963/14/11/001
    Abstract ( 1112 )   PDF (174KB) ( 730 )  
    Utilizing both the general quantum teleportation and the two-step protocol, a new method is presented by which multi-qubit quantum information can be teleported in a much easier way from a sender Alice to a receiver Bob via the control of many agents in a network than by Yang et al's method. In this method, only all the agents collaborate with Bob can the unknown states in Alice's qubits be fully reconstructed in Bob's qubits. Comparisons between the method and Yang et al's method are made. Results show that, in this method,the preparation difficulty of initial states and the identification difficulty of entangled states are considerably reduced, new method is more feasible in technique, and Hadamard operations are not needed at all.
    Dynamic properties of epidemic spreading on finite size complex networks
    Liu Yang, Shan Xiu-Ming, Ren Yong, Jiao Jian, Qiu Ben, Li Ying
    Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14 (11):  2153-2157.  DOI: 10.1088/1009-1963/14/11/002
    Abstract ( 1437 )   PDF (235KB) ( 814 )  
    The Internet presents a complex topological structure, on which computer viruses can easily spread. By using theoretical analysis and computer simulation methods, the dynamic process of disease spreading on finite size networks with complex topological structure is investigated. On the finite size networks, the spreading process of SIS (susceptible--infected--susceptible) model is a finite Markov chain with an absorbing state. Two parameters, the survival probability and the conditional infecting probability, are introduced to describe the dynamic properties of disease spreading on finite size networks. Our results can help understanding computer virus epidemics and other spreading phenomena on communication and social networks. Also, knowledge about the dynamic character of virus spreading is helpful for adopting immunity policy.
    A method for constructing exact solutions and application to Benjamin Ono equation
    Wang Zhen, Lu Hui-Fang, Zhang Hong-Qing, Li De-Sheng
    Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14 (11):  2158-2163.  DOI: 10.1088/1009-1963/14/11/003
    Abstract ( 1385 )   PDF (242KB) ( 1000 )  
    By using an improved projective Riccati equation method, this paper obtains several types of exact travelling wave solutions to the Benjamin Ono equation which include multiple soliton solutions, periodic soliton solutions and Weierstrass function solutions. Some of them are found for the first time. The method can be applied to other nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics.
    A realizable quantum encryption algorithm for qubits
    Zhou Nan-Run, Zeng Gui-Hua
    Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14 (11):  2164-2169.  DOI: 10.1088/1009-1963/14/11/004
    Abstract ( 1369 )   PDF (235KB) ( 818 )  
    A realizable quantum encryption algorithm for qubits is presented by employing bit-wise quantum computation. System extension and bit-swapping are introduced into the encryption process, which makes the ciphertext space expanded greatly. The security of the proposed algorithm is analysed in detail and the schematic physical implementation is also provided. It is shown that the algorithm, which can prevent quantum attack strategy as well as classical attack strategy, is effective to protect qubits. Finally, we extend our algorithm to encrypt classical binary bits and quantum entanglements.
    Generalized path-integral solution and coherent states of the harmonic oscillator in D-dimensions
    Ma Yu-Quan, Zhang Jin, Chen Yong-Kang, Dai Hong
    Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14 (11):  2170-2175.  DOI: 10.1088/1009-1963/14/11/005
    Abstract ( 1219 )   PDF (228KB) ( 805 )  
    We construct a general form of propagator in arbitrary dimensions and give an exact wavefunction of a time-dependent forced harmonic oscillator in D(D \ge 1) dimensions. The coherent states, defined as the eigenstates of annihilation operator, of the D-dimensional harmonic oscillator are derived. These coherent states correspond to the minimum uncertainty states and the relation between them is investigated.
    Blind source separation of multichannel electroencephalogram based on wavelet transform and ICA
    You Rong-Yi, Chen Zhong
    Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14 (11):  2176-2180.  DOI: 10.1088/1009-1963/14/11/006
    Abstract ( 1122 )   PDF (270KB) ( 841 )  
    Combination of the wavelet transform and independent component analysis (ICA) was employed for blind source separation (BSS) of multichannel electroencephalogram (EEG). After denoising the original signals by discrete wavelet transform, high frequency components of some noises and artifacts were removed from the original signals. The denoised signals were reconstructed again for the purpose of ICA, such that the drawback that ICA cannot distinguish noises from source signals can be overcome effectively. The practical processing results showed that this method is an effective way to BSS of multichannel EEG. The method is actually a combination of wavelet transform with adaptive neural network, so it is also useful for BBS of other complex signals.
    Neural Volterra filter for chaotic time series prediction
    Xiao Xian-Ci, Li Heng-Chao, Zhang Jia-Shu
    Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14 (11):  2181-2188.  DOI: 10.1088/1009-1963/14/11/007
    Abstract ( 1090 )   PDF (372KB) ( 755 )  
    A new second-order neural Volterra filter (SONVF) with conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm is proposed to predict chaotic time series based on phase space delay-coordinate reconstruction of chaotic dynamics system in this paper, where the neuron activation functions are introduced to constraint Volterra series terms for improving the nonlinear approximation of second-order Volterra filter (SOVF). The SONVF with CG algorithm improves the accuracy of prediction without increasing the computation complexity. Meanwhile, the difficulty of neuron number determination does not exist here. Experimental results show that the proposed filter can predict chaotic time series effectively, and one-step and multi-step prediction performances are obviously superior to those of SOVF, which demonstrate that the proposed SONVF is feasible and effective.
    Transition to complete synchronization via near-synchronization in two coupled chaotic neurons
    Lu Qi-Shao, Wang Hai-Xia, Wang Qing-Yun
    Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14 (11):  2189-2195.  DOI: 10.1088/1009-1963/14/11/008
    Abstract ( 1135 )   PDF (343KB) ( 1023 )  
    The synchronization transition in two coupled chaotic Morris--Lecar (ML) neurons with gap junction is studied with the coupling strength increasing. The conditional Lyapunov exponents,along with the synchronization errors are calculated to diagnose synchronization of two coupled chaotic ML neurons. As a result, it is shown that the increase in the coupling strength leads to incoherence, then induces a transition process consisting of three different synchronization states in succession, namely, burst synchronization, near-synchronization and embedded burst synchronization, and achieves complete synchronization of two coupled neurons finally.These sequential transitions to synchronization reveal a new transition route from incoherence to complete synchronization in coupled systems with multi-time scales.
    Digital communication of two-dimensional messages in a chaotic optical system
    Zhou Yun, Wu Liang, Zhu Shi-Qun
    Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14 (11):  2196-2201.  DOI: 10.1088/1009-1963/14/11/009
    Abstract ( 985 )   PDF (911KB) ( 581 )  
    The digital communication of two-dimensional messages is investigated when two solid state multi-mode chaotic lasers are employed in a master-slave configuration. By introducing the time derivative of intensity difference between the receiver (carrier) and the transmittal (carrier plus signal), several signals can be encoded into a single pulse. If one signal contains several binary bits, two-dimensional messages in the form of a matrix can be encoded and transmitted on a single pulse. With these improvements in secure communications using chaotic multi-mode lasers, not only the transmission rate can be increased but also the privacy can be enhanced greatly.
    Solvent effects on optical properties of a newly synthesized two-photon polymerization initiator: BPYPA
    Guo Ya-Hui, Sun Yuan-Hong, Tao Li-Min, Zhao Ke, Wang Chuan-Kui
    Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14 (11):  2202-2207.  DOI: 10.1088/1009-1963/14/11/010
    Abstract ( 1025 )   PDF (286KB) ( 476 )  
    Time-dependent hybrid density functional theory in combination with polarized continuum model is applied to study the solvent effects on the geometrical and electronic structures as well as one- and two-photon absorption processes, of a newly synthesized asymmetrical charge-transfer organic molecule bis-(4-bromo-phenyl)-[4-(2-pyridin-4-yl-vinyl)-phenyl]-amine (BPYPA).There exist two charge-transfer states for the compound in visible region. The two-photon absorption cross section calculated by a three-state model and solvatochromic shift of the charge-transfer states are found to be solvent-dependent, where a nonmonotonic behaviour with respect to the polarity of the solvents is observed. The numerical results show that the organic molecule exhibits a rather large two-photon absorption cross section as compared with the compound 4-trans-[p-(N, N-Di-n-butylamino)-p-stilbenyl vinyl] pyridine (DBASVP) reported previously, and is predicted to be a good two-photon polymerization initiator. The hydrogen-bond effect is analysed. The computational results are in good agreement with the measurements.
    Total cross sections for electrons scattering from simple molecules containing the larger atom sulfur at 30--5000eV
    Shi De-Heng, Liu Yu-Fang, Sun Jin-Feng, Yang Xiang-Dong, Zhu Zun-Lue
    Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14 (11):  2208-2213.  DOI: 10.1088/1009-1963/14/11/011
    Abstract ( 883 )   PDF (252KB) ( 394 )  
    A complex optical model potential modified by the concept of bonded atom, which takes into consideration the overlapping effect of electron clouds, is employed to calculate the total cross sections for electrons scattering from simple molecules (SO2, H2S, OCS,CS2 and SO3) containing the larger atom, sulfur, at 30--5000eV by using the additivity rule model at Hartree--Fock level. The quantitative molecular total cross section results are compared with those obtained in experiments and other calculations wherever available, and good agreement is obtained. It is shown that the additivity rule model together with the complex optical model potential modified by the concept of bonded atom can give the results closer to the experiments than the one unmodified by it. So, the introduction of bonded-atom concept in complex optical model potential betters the accuracy of the total cross section calculations of electrons from the molecules containing the larger atom, sulfur.
    Numerical study of the coupling between F0 with varied numbers of c-subunits and F1 in an ATP synthase
    Qian Jun, Xie Ping, Dou Shuo-Xing, Wang Peng-Ye
    Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14 (11):  2214-2221.  DOI: 10.1088/1009-1963/14/11/012
    Abstract ( 929 )   PDF (410KB) ( 373 )  
    ATP synthase is a rotary motor which is composed of two portions: the `rotor' F0, consisting of a c-ring, and the `stator' F1, consisting of an \alpha3\beta3 hexamer. In different species, the number of c-subunits which form the c-ring is varied from 10 to 14, whereas the \alpha3 \beta3 hexamer is fixed to be 3-fold symmetrical. We have numerically studied the rotational coupling between F0 with varied number of c-subunits and F1. It is found that, for any number of c-subunits, the rotor F0 advances 3 steps per revolution on average, which is determined by the period of F1, whereas the exact angular pausing positions are determined by the period of F0. When the symmetry of the c-ring of F0 is matched with the 3-fold symmetry of F1, the three steps have equivalent sizes. If not matched, the three steps become nonequivalent: both the step size and average dwell time are different for these steps.
    Grover search algorithm in an ion trap system
    Zheng Shi-Biao
    Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14 (11):  2222-2225.  DOI: 10.1088/1009-1963/14/11/013
    Abstract ( 1440 )   PDF (203KB) ( 843 )  
    Two schemes for the implementation of the two-qubit Grover search algorithm in the ion trap system are proposed. These schemes might be experimentally realizable with presently available techniques. The experimental implementation of the schemes would be an important step toward more complex quantum computation in the ion trap system.
    Ultrafast third-order optical nonlinearity of several sandwich-type phthalocyaninato and porphyrinato europium complexes
    Jiang Jian-Zhuang, Huang Wen-Tao, Li Yan, Xiang Hong, Yang Hong, Gong Qi-Huang, Huang Yan-Yi, Huang Chun-Hui
    Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14 (11):  2226-2230.  DOI: 10.1088/1009-1963/14/11/014
    Abstract ( 1000 )   PDF (267KB) ( 482 )  
    The third-order optical nonlinearity of two sandwich-type phthalocyaninato and porphyrinato europium complexes, including double- and triple-deckers Eu[Pc(OC5H11)8]2, Eu2(Pc)(TPP)2, Pc=phthalocyanine, TPP=5, 10, 15, 20- tetraphenylporphyrinate), was investigated by using the femtosecond time-resolved optical Kerr gate method at 830 nm wavelength. Their second-order hyperpolarizability is estimated to be 0.74×10-30esu and 3.0×10-30esu respectively. This exhibits an evident enhancement in comparison with 0.47×10-30esu for one-decker Eu(Pc)(acac) (acac=acetylacetonate), which is also measured under the same conditions. The enhancement is attributed to the introduction of lanthanide metal to the large \pi -conjugated system, intermacrocycle interaction and two-photon resonance etc.
    Light-induced acoustic effect in LiNbO3:Fe:Ce crystals
    Huang Wei, Wang Chang-Qing, Wu Zhong-Kang
    Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14 (11):  2231-2234.  DOI: 10.1088/1009-1963/14/11/015
    Abstract ( 1018 )   PDF (321KB) ( 466 )  
    The phenomena of acoustic emission in LiNbO3:Fe:Ce crystals have been observed in the process of light-induced quasi-breakdown. It is found that the ultra-high frequency acoustic signal introduced into the crystal is modulated by the low frequency acoustic waves. Its frequency increases with the increase of the intensity of incident light and its jump period of breakdown is the same as that of the photovoltaic current Ic, the change of light-induced refractive index \Delta n and the diffracted light intensity L. This phenomenon has been analysed in this paper, which is caused by the inverse piezoelectric strain effect of the jump of space charge field during the quasi-breakdown.
    Effect of structure random disturbances on characterizations of microstructured optical fibres
    Lu Yang, Zhang Ye-Jin, Yang Si-Gang, Peng Xiao-Zhou, Chen Xiang-Fei, Xie Shi-Zhong
    Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14 (11):  2235-2240.  DOI: 10.1088/1009-1963/14/11/016
    Abstract ( 970 )   PDF (344KB) ( 515 )  
    A method is presented to analyse the effect of structure random disturbances on the confinement loss and the chromatic dispersion characterizations of microstructured optical fibres, which combines multipole methods with the random statistics process. Some useful results to the fabrication of microstructured optical fibres have been obtained.
    Characteristics of local photonic state density in an infinite two-dimensional photonic crystal
    Zhou Yun-Song, Wang Fu-He, Wang Xue-Hua, Gu Ben-Yuan
    Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14 (11):  2241-2245.  DOI: 10.1088/1009-1963/14/11/017
    Abstract ( 1008 )   PDF (543KB) ( 1228 )  
    The local density of photonic states (LDPS) of an infinite two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal (PC) composed of rotated square-pillars in a 2D square lattice is calculated in terms of the plane-wave expansion method in a combination with the point group theory. The calculation results show that the LDPS strongly depends on the spatial positions. The variations of the LDPS as functions of the radial coordinate and frequency exhibit ``mountain chain'' structures with sharp peaks. The LDPS with large value spans a finite area and falls abruptly down to small value at the position corresponding to the interfaces between two different refractive index materials. The larger/lower LDPS occurs inward the lower/larger dielectric-constant medium. This feature can be well interpreted by the continuity of electric-displacement vector at the interface. In the frequency range of the pseudo-PBG (photonic band gap), the LDPS keeps very low value over the whole Wiger--Seitz cell. It indicates that the spontaneous emission in 2D PCs cannot be prohibited completely, but it can be inhibited intensively when the resonate frequency falls into the pseudo-PBG.
    Host dependent thermal stability and frequency upconversion of Er3+-doped heavy metal xyfluoride germanate glasses
    Fang Da-Wei, Zhang Zai-Xuan, Zhao Shi-Long, Zhang Li-Yan, Wang Bao-Ling, Xu Shi-Qing, Jiang Zhong-Hong
    Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14 (11):  2246-2250.  DOI: 10.1088/1009-1963/14/11/018
    Abstract ( 753 )   PDF (269KB) ( 686 )  
    The upconversion properties of Er3+-doped heavy metal oxyfluoride germanate glasses under 975\,nm excitation have been investigated. The intense green (551 and 529\,nm) and relatively weak red (657\,nm) emissions corresponding to the transitions 4S3/2 \to 4I15/2,2H11/2\to 4I15/2 and 4F9/2 \to 4I15/2, respectively, were simultaneously observed at room temperature. The content of PbF2 has an important influence on the upconversion luminescence emission. With increasing content of PbF2, the intensities of green (529\,nm) and red (657\,nm) emissions increase slightly, while the green emission (551\,nm) increases markedly. These results suggest that PbF2 has an influence on the green (551\,nm) emission more than on the green (529\,nm) and red (657\,nm) emissions.
    Theoretical analysis of ion cyclotron range of frequency antenna array for HT-7U
    Zhang Xin-Jun, Qin Cheng-Ming, Zhao Yan-Ping
    Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14 (11):  2251-2255.  DOI: 10.1088/1009-1963/14/11/019
    Abstract ( 817 )   PDF (1013KB) ( 490 )  
    This paper considers the coupling analysis of phased antenna array designed to excite fast wave in the ion cyclotron range of frequency. The coupling of the antenna is calculated in slab geometry. The coupling code based on the variational principle gives the self-consistent current flowing in the antenna, this method has been extended so that it can be applied to a phased antenna array. As an example, this paper analyses the coupling prosperities of a 2×2 phased antenna array. It gives the optimum geometry of antenna array. The fields excited at plasma surface are found to more or less correspond to the antenna current phasing.
    Calculation of ion energy distributions of argon excimer ions generated in helicon plasma
    Fang Tong-Zhen, Jiang Nan, Wang Long
    Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14 (11):  2256-2261.  DOI: 10.1088/1009-1963/14/11/020
    Abstract ( 970 )   PDF (279KB) ( 558 )  
    A program is developed to calculate the ion energy distributions (IEDs) of Ar2+ making use of a simplified kinetic model with a combination of Monte Carlo method. Several coefficients are used to realize good match between the calculated and measured results. Some important assumptions are confirmed: argon excimer ions have short lifetime, hence they are formed in a short range before the collecting electrode. The excimer ions that encounter collisions will be discarded because they turn to other ion species after they collide with argon atoms. From the calculated results some plasma parameters such as the cross section or neutral density in discharge could be evaluated.
    Formation and spectroscopic characterization of mono-dispersed CdSe nanocrystals
    Miao Yan-Ming, Li Chao-Rong, Cao Li, Liu Rui-Bin, He Yu-Ping, Xie Si-Shen, Zou Bing-Suo
    Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14 (11):  2262-2268.  DOI: 10.1088/1009-1963/14/11/021
    Abstract ( 905 )   PDF (2031KB) ( 685 )  
    In this article, mono-dispersed hexagonal structure CdSe nanocrystals with polyhedron shape were prepared by an open solvent thermal reaction. They show a discrete excitonic transition structure in the absorption spectra and the minimal photoluminescence (PL) peak full-width at half-maximum of 19\,nm. The PL quantum yield is about 60%. Transmission electron micrographs,high-resolution transmission electron micrographs, x-ray powder diffraction patterns, UV-vis absorption spectra and PL spectra were obtained for the as-prepared CdSe nanocrystals. The size of the CdSe nanocrystals can be tuned by changing the reaction temperature or time. Due to the improved synthesis method, a different growth mechanism of the CdSe nanocrystals is discussed.
    Controlled growth of large-scale silver nanowires
    Xiao Cong-Wen, Yang Hai-Tao, Shen Cheng-Min, Li Zi-An, Zhang Huai-Ruo, Liu Fei, Yang Tian-Zhong, Chen Shu-Tang, Gao Hong-Jun
    Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14 (11):  2269-2275.  DOI: 10.1088/1009-1963/14/11/022
    Abstract ( 883 )   PDF (4986KB) ( 493 )  
    Large-scale silver nanowires with controlled aspect ratio were synthesized via reducing silver nitrate with 1, 2-propanediol in the presence of poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP). Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and x-ray powder diffraction were employed to characterize these silver nanowires. The diameter of the silver nanowires can be readily controlled in the range of 100 to 400 nm by varying the experimental conditions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results show that there exists no chemical bond between the silver and the nitrogen atoms. The interaction between PVP and silver nanowires is mainly through the oxygen atom in the carbonyl group.
    Relationship between width of pulses and Lorentz factor expected from the light curve of fireball sources
    Qin Yi-Ping, Zhang Fu-Wen
    Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14 (11):  2276-2286.  DOI: 10.1088/1009-1963/14/11/023
    Abstract ( 1256 )   PDF (402KB) ( 422 )  
    Time profiles of many gamma-ray bursts consist of distinct pulses, which provides a possibility of characterizing the temporal structure of these bursts. We employ a simple model of highly symmetric fireballs to analyse the effect of the expansion speed on the light curve arising from different forms of local pulses. The relationship between the ratio r of the FWHM width of the rising phase of the light curve to that of the decaying phase and the Lorentz factor is investigated. The analysis shows that, when the rest frame radiation form is ignored, temporal profiles of the light curve arising from pulses of fireballs will not be affected by the expansion speed (that is,r is almost a constant) as long as the fireball expands relativistically. When the rest frame radiation form is taken into account, there will be a break in the curves of r-\log\Ga. The location of the break depends mainly on the adopted value of the rest frame peak frequency \nu _{\rm 0,p}$. One would reach almost the same result when a jet is considered. In addition, we utilize a sample of 48 individual GRB pulses to check the relationship between the ratio r and the expansion speed Ga. We find no significant correlation between them, and this is consistent with the theoretical analysis.
    First principles study on the charge density and the bulk modulus of the transition metals and their carbides and nitrides
    Li Cheng-Bin, Liu Fu-Qing, Fan Xiang-Jun, Li Ming-Kai, Yin Dong
    Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14 (11):  2287-2292.  DOI: 10.1088/1009-1963/14/11/024
    Abstract ( 1342 )   PDF (330KB) ( 852 )  
    A first principles study of the electronic properties and bulk modulus (B0 of the fcc and bcc transition metals, transition metal carbides and nitrides is presented. The calculations were performed by plane-wave pseudopotential method in the framework of the density functional theory with local density approximation. The density of states and the valence charge densities of these solids are plotted. The results show that B0 does not vary monotonically when the number of the valence d electrons increases. B0 reaches a maximum and then decreases for each of the four sorts of solids. It is related to the occupation of the bonding and anti-bonding states in the solid. The value of the valence charge density at the midpoint between the two nearest metal atoms tends to be proportional to B0.
    Rectifying barrier at GaN/SiC hetero-junction studied with positron annihilation spectroscopy
    Hu Yi-Fan, Beling C. D.
    Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14 (11):  2293-2229.  DOI: 10.1088/1009-1963/14/11/025
    Abstract ( 844 )   PDF (321KB) ( 597 )  
    Positron annihilation spectroscopy on GaN films grown on SiC substrate with MBE are presented. It is shown that the GaN/SiC interface is rectifying towards positrons, such that positrons can only travel from SiC to GaN and not vice versa. Potential steps seen by the positron at the GaN/SiC interface are calculated from experimental values of electron and positron work function. This ``rectifying'' effect has been successfully mimicked by inserting a thin region of very high electric field in the Variable Energy Positron Fit (VEPF) analysis. The built-in electric field is attributed to different positron affinities, dislocation and/or interface defects at the GaN/SiC interface.
    Variational analysis of the disc-loaded waveguide slow-wave structures
    Li Jian-Qing, Mo Yuan-Long
    Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14 (11):  2300-2304.  DOI: 10.1088/1009-1963/14/11/026
    Abstract ( 1001 )   PDF (251KB) ( 668 )  
    The variational method is applied to calculate the dispersion characteristics of disc-loaded waveguide slow-wave structures. The parameters describing the waveguide discontinuities in disc-loaded waveguide are calculated by the variational method. Then the dispersion characteristics of slow-wave structures are obtained using lossless microwave quadrupole theory. Good agreement was observed between results of the variational method and those of field matching method and high frequency structure simulator. In the case of broad band, results of the variational method are better than those of field matching method.
    Scattering characteristics of conducting cylinder coated with nonuniform magnetized ferrite
    Edward Yung Kai-Ning, Hu Bin-Jie, Zhang Jun, Serge Toutain
    Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14 (11):  2305-2313.  DOI: 10.1088/1009-1963/14/11/027
    Abstract ( 894 )   PDF (332KB) ( 538 )  
    An analytical technique, referred to as the scattering matrix method (SMM), is developed to analyse the scattering of a planar wave from a conducting cylinder coated with nonuniform magnetized ferrite. The SMM solution for the nonuniform ferrite coating can be reduced to the expressions for the scattering and penetrated coefficients in four particular cases: nonuniform magnetized ferrite cylinder, uniform magnetized ferrite-coated conducting cylinder, uniform ferrite cylinder as well as homogeneous dielectric-coated conducting cylinder. The resonant condition for the nonuniform ferrite coating is obtained. The distinctive differences in scattering between the nonuniform ferrite coating and the nonuniform dielectric coating are demonstrated. The effects of applied magnetic fields and wave frequencies on the scattering characteristics for two types of the linear profiles are revealed.
    On the binding energies of excitons in polar quantum well structures in a weak electric field
    K. K. Baja, Wu Yun-Feng, Liang Xi-Xia
    Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14 (11):  2314-2319.  DOI: 10.1088/1009-1963/14/11/028
    Abstract ( 959 )   PDF (273KB) ( 807 )  
    The binding energies of excitons in quantum well structures subjected to an applied uniform electric field by taking into account the exciton longitudinal optical phonon interaction is calculated. The binding energies and corresponding Stark shifts for III--V and II--VI compound semiconductor quantum well structures have been numerically computed. The results for GaAs/AlGaAs and ZnCdSe/ZnSe quantum wells are given and discussed. Theoretical results show that the exciton--phonon coupling reduces both the exciton binding energies and the Stark shifts by screening the Coulomb interaction. This effect is observable experimentally and cannot be neglected.
    Effect of external noise on the dynamical localization of two coupling electrons in quantum dot array
    He An-Min, Duan Su-Qing, Zhao Xian-Geng
    Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14 (11):  2320-2324.  DOI: 10.1088/1009-1963/14/11/029
    Abstract ( 758 )   PDF (257KB) ( 441 )  
    The effect of external noise, which is characterized by an Ornstein--Uhlenbeck process, on the dynamical localization of two coupling electrons in a quantum dot array under the action of an ac electric field is studied. A numerical solution of the stochastic equations is obtained by averaging over stochastic trajectories. The results show that the external noise may destroy the dynamical localization, but the anti-noise capacity of the system is stronger when the two electrons are localized at the ends of the quantum dot array.
    Bulk MgB2 superconductor with high critical current density synthesized by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis method
    Wei Zhi-Qiang, Feng Wang-Jun, Xia Tian-Dong, Liu Tian-Zuo, Zhao Wen-Jun
    Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14 (11):  2325-2328.  DOI: 10.1088/1009-1963/14/11/030
    Abstract ( 1115 )   PDF (793KB) ( 583 )  
    Pure MgB$_{2}$ bulk samples are successfully synthesized by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) method. The experiments show that the best preheating temperature is 250℃, the highest Jc values of the prepared MgB2 reach 1.5×106A/cm2 (10K, 0.5T) and 1.7×106A/cm2 (20K, 0T), and the MgB2 particle sizes range from 2 to 5\mum. The advantages of this method are that it is simple, economical and suitable for the manufacture of bulk MgB2 materials on industrial scale.
    Magnetoresistances and magnetic entropy changes associated with negative lattice expansions in NaZn13-type compounds LaFeCoSi
    Qian Xiao-Ling, Hu Feng-Xia, Gao Ju, Wang Guang-Jun, Sun Ji-Rong, Shen Bao-Gen, Cheng Zhao-Hua
    Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14 (11):  2329-2334.  DOI: 10.1088/1009-1963/14/11/031
    Abstract ( 1036 )   PDF (284KB) ( 588 )  
    Magnetoresistances and magnetic entropy changes in NaZn13-type compounds La(Fe1-xCox)11.9Si1.1(x=0.04, 0.06, and 0.08) with Curie temperatures of 243\,K, 274\,K, and 301\,K, respectively, are studied. The ferromagnetic ordering is accompanied by a negative lattice expansion. Large magnetic entropy changes in a wide temperature range from \sim 230\,K to \sim 320\,K are achieved. Raising Co content increases the Curie temperature but weakens the gnetovolume effect, thereby causing a decrease in magnetic entropy change. These materials exhibit a metallic character below TC, whereas the electrical resistance decreases abruptly and then recovers the metal-like behaviour above TC. Application of a magnetic field retains the transitions via increasing the ferromagnetic ordering temperature. An isothermal increase in magnetic field leads to an increase in electrical resistance at temperatures near but above TC,which is a consequence of the field-induced metamagnetic transition from a paramagnetic state to a ferromagnetic state.
    Extraction of optical constants and thickness of nanometre scale TiO2 film
    Yang Ying-Ge, Liu Pi-Jun, Wang Ying, Zhang Ya-Fei
    Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14 (11):  2335-2337.  DOI: 10.1088/1009-1963/14/11/032
    Abstract ( 1114 )   PDF (212KB) ( 1053 )  
    TiO$_{2}$ thin films were deposited on glass substrates by sputtering in a conventional rf magnetron sputtering system. X-ray diffraction pattern and transmission spectrum were measured. The curves of refraction index and extinction coefficient distributions as well as the thickness of films calculated from transmission spectrum were obtained. The optimization problem was also solved using a method based on a constrained nonlinear programming algorithm.
    Design and fabrication of triangular inner cladding double-clad ytterbium doped fibre for high power lasers
    Fu Yong-Jun, Jian Wei, Zheng Kai, Yan Feng-Ping, Chang De-Yuan, Jian Shui-Sheng
    Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14 (11):  2338-2341.  DOI: 10.1088/1009-1963/14/11/033
    Abstract ( 1048 )   PDF (1188KB) ( 749 )  
    To improve the performance of double clad high power fibre lasers, inner cladding design plays a significant role. A triangular inner cladding and silica structure second cladding with large air holes to acquire high inner cladding numerical aperture are designed. Single mode and high power output of the fibre lasers need the double clad Yb doped fibre with large core. A fibre with annular refractive index distribution core and low numerical aperture to acquire a large mode area fibre core is designed and fabricated. Furthermore co-doping with aluminium (Al) has been used to improve the solubility of ytterbium (Yb) into silicate network, and the core absorption coefficients of two Yb doped fibres are compared with different Al concentration experimentally.
    Influence of the deposition parameters on the transition region of hydrogenated silicon films growth
    Lei Qing-Song, Wu Zhi-Meng, Xi Jian-Ping, Geng Xin-Hua, Zhao Ying
    Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14 (11):  2342-2347.  DOI: 10.1088/1009-1963/14/11/034
    Abstract ( 491 )   PDF (291KB) ( 436 )  
    Hydrogenated microcrystalline and amorphous silicon thin films were prepared by very high frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (VHF PECVD) by using a mixture of silane and hydrogen as source gas. The influence of deposition parameters on the transition region of hydrogenated silicon films growth was investigated by varying the silane concentration (SC), plasma power (Pw), working pressure (P), and substrate temperature (Ts).Results suggest that SC and Ts are the most critical factors that affect the film structure transition from microcrystalline to amorphous phase. A narrow region in the range of SC and Ts, in which the rapid phase transition takes place, was identified. It was found that at lower P or higher Pw, the transition region is shifted to larger SC. In addition, the dark conductivity and photoconductivity decrease with SC and show sharp changes in the transition region. It proposed that the transition process and the transition region are determined by the competition between the etching effect of atomic hydrogen and the growth of amorphous phase.
    Study on stability of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films
    Chen Guang-Hua, Zhang Wen-Li, Ma Zhan-Jie, Hu Yue-Hui, He Bin, Rong Yan-Dong, Zhu Xiu-Hong, Ding Yi
    Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14 (11):  2348-2351.  DOI: 10.1088/1009-1963/14/11/035
    Abstract ( 654 )   PDF (231KB) ( 433 )  
    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films with high and same order of magnitude photosensitivity (\sim 10^{5}) but different stability were prepared by using microwave electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapour deposition system under the different deposition conditions. It was proposed that there was no direct correlation between the photosensitivity and the hydrogen content (C_H}) as well as H--Si bonding configurations, but for the stability, they were the critical factors. The experimental results indicated that higher substrate temperature,hydrogen dilution ratio and lower deposition rate played an important role in improving the microstructure of a-Si:H films. We used hydrogen elimination model to explain our experimental results.
    Structural and electrical properties of SrTiO3 thin films as insulator of metal--ferroelectric--insulator--semiconductor (MFIS) structures
    Ma Jian-Hua, Meng Xiang-Jian, Lin Tie, Liu Shi-Jian, Zhang Xiao-Dong, Sun Jing-Lan, Chu Jun-Hao
    Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14 (11):  2352-2359.  DOI: 10.1088/1009-1963/14/11/036
    Abstract ( 729 )   PDF (328KB) ( 515 )  
    SrTiO3 (STO) thin films were deposited on p-Si(100) substrates at various substrate temperatures from 300℃ to 700℃ by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique. Their structure and electrical properties were investigated. It was found that the transition from amorphous phase to polycrystalline phase occurred at the substrate temperatures 300--400℃. Their crystallinity became better when the substrate temperatures further increased. The dielectric and leakage current measurements were carried out by using the Si/STO/Pt metal--insulator--semiconductor (MIS) structures at room temperature. It was found that the fixed charge density decreased and both the interface trap density and the dielectric constant increased when the substrate temperatures were increased. The leakage current mechanisms for STO MIS structures with STO films prepared at 700℃ followed the space charge limited current (SCLC) under the low applied electric field and the Poole--Frenkel emission under the high one. In addition, the resistivity for films prepared at 700℃ was higher than 1011\Omega \cdot cm under the voltage lower than 10V (corresponding to the electric field of 1.54\times 103kV\cdotcm-1). It suggested that the STO films prepared at 700℃ were suitable for acting as the insulator of metal--ferroelectric--insulator--semiconductor (MFIS) structures.
    Determination of aerosol extinction coefficient and mass extinction efficiency by DOAS with a flashlight source
    Hiroaki Kuze, Liu Cheng, Nofel Lagrosas, Nobuo Takeuchi, Liu Jian-Guo, Xie Pin-Hua, Zhang Yu-Jun, Liu Wen-Qing, Si Fu-Qi
    Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14 (11):  2360-2364.  DOI: 10.1088/1009-1963/14/11/037
    Abstract ( 866 )   PDF (248KB) ( 521 )  
    With the method of differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS),average concentrations of aerosol particles along light path were measured with a flashlight source in Chiba area during the period of one month. The optical thickness at 550\,nm is compared with the concentration of ground-measured suspended particulate matter (SPM). Good correlations are found between the DOAS and SPM data, leading to the determination of the aerosol mass extinction efficiency (MEE) to be possible in the lower troposphere. The average MEE value is about 7.6m2\cdot g-1, and the parameter exhibits a good correlation with the particle size as determined from the wavelength dependence of the DOAS signal intensity.
    Functional structures and folding dynamics of two peptides
    Sheng Yue-Biao, Li Jing, Ma Bao-Liang, Wang Wei
    Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14 (11):  2365-2369.  DOI: 10.1088/1009-1963/14/11/038
    Abstract ( 654 )   PDF (1108KB) ( 369 )  
    The folding dynamics and structural characteristics of peptides RTKAWNRQLYPEW (P1) and RTKQLYPEW (P2) are investigated by using all-atomic simulation procedure CHARMM in this work. The results show that P1, a segment of an antigen, has a folding motif of α-helix, whereas P2, which is derived by deleting four residues AWNR from peptide P1, prevents the formation of helix and presents a β-strand. And peptide P1 experiences a more rugged energy landscape than peptide P2. From our results, it is inferred that the antibody CD8 cytolytic T lymphocyte prefers an antigen with a β-folding structure to that with an α-helical one.
    Nonlinear evolution characteristics of the climate system on the interdecadal-centennial timescale
    Zhang Wen, Gao Xin-Quan
    Chin. Phys. B, 2005, 14 (11):  2370-2378.  DOI: 10.1088/1009-1963/14/11/039
    Abstract ( 817 )   PDF (514KB) ( 472 )  
    To better understand the physical mechanism of the climate change on interdecadal-centennial timescale, this paper focuses on analysing and modelling the evolution characteristics of the climate change. The method of wavelet transform is used to pick out the interdecadal timescale oscillations from long-term instrumental observations, natural proxy records, and modelling series. The modelling series derived from the most simplified nonlinear climatic model are used to identify whether modifications are concerned with some forcings such as the solar radiation on the climate system. The results show that two major oscillations exist in various observations and model series, namely the 20--30a and the 60--70a timescale respectively, and these quasi-periodicities are modulated with time. Further, modelling results suggest that the originations of these oscillations are not directly linked with the periodic variation of solar radiations such as the 1-year cycle, the 11-year cycle, and others, but possibly induced by the internal nonlinear effects of the climate system. It seems that the future study on the genesis of the climate change with interdecadal-centennial timescale should focus on the internal nonlinear dynamics in the climate system.
ISSN 1674-1056   CN 11-5639/O4
, Vol. 14, No. 11

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