Atomic crystals resistive switching memory
Facing the growing data storage and computing demands, a high accessing speed memory with low power and non-volatile character is urgently needed. Resistive access random memory with 4F2 cell size, switching in sub-nanosecond, cycling endurances of over 1012 cycles, and information retention exceeding 10 years, is considered as promising next-generation non-volatile memory. However, the energy per bit is still too high to compete against static random access memory and dynamic random access memory. The sneak leakage path and metal film sheet resistance issues hinder the further scaling down. The variation of resistance between different devices and even various cycles in the same device, hold resistive access random memory back from commercialization. The emerging of atomic crystals, possessing fine interface without dangling bonds in low dimension, can provide atomic level solutions for the obsessional issues. Moreover, the unique properties of atomic crystals also enable new type resistive switching memories, which provide a brand-new direction for the resistive access random memory.
Optical properties of phosphorene
Phosphorene is a two-dimensional semiconductor with layers-dependent bandgap in the near-infrared range and it has attracted a great deal of attention due to its high anisotropy and carrier mobility. The highly anisotropic nature of phosphorene has been demonstrated through Raman and polarization photoluminescence measurements. Photoluminescence spectroscopy has also revealed the layers-dependent bandgap of phosphorene. Furthermore, due to the reduced dimensionality and screening in phosphorene, excitons and trions can stably exist at elevated temperatures and have large binding energies. The exciton and trion dynamics are thus detected by applying electrical bias or optical injection to the phosphorene system. Finally, various optical and optoelectronic applications based on phosphorene have been demonstrated and discussed.
Two-dimensional materials for ultrafast lasers
As the fundamental optical properties and novel photophysics of graphene and related two-dimensional (2D) crystals are being extensively investigated and revealed, a range of potential applications in optical and optoelectronic devices have been proposed and demonstrated. Of the many possibilities, the use of 2D materials as broadband, cost-effective and versatile ultrafast optical switches (or saturable absorbers) for short-pulsed lasers constitutes a rapidly developing field with not only a good number of publications, but also a promising prospect for commercial exploitation. This review primarily focuses on the recent development of pulsed lasers based on several representative 2D materials. The comparative advantages of these materials are discussed, and challenges to practical exploitation, which represent good future directions of research, are laid out.
Graphene integrated photodetectors and opto-electronic devices–a review
Graphene and other two-dimensional materials have recently emerged as promising candidates for next-generation, high-performance photonics. In this paper, the progress of research into photodetectors and other electro-optical devices based on graphene integrated silicon photonics is briefly reviewed. We discuss the performance metrics, photo-response mechanisms, and experimental results of the latest graphene photodetectors integrated with silicon photonics. We also lay out the unavoidable performance trade-offs in meeting the requirements of various applications. In addition, we describe other opto-electronic devices based on this idea. Integrating two-dimensional materials with a silicon platform provides new opportunities in advanced integrated photonics.
Band gap engineering of atomically thin two-dimensional semiconductors
Atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) layered materials have potential applications in nanoelectronics, nanophotonics, and integrated optoelectronics. Band gap engineering of these 2D semiconductors is critical for their broad applications in high-performance integrated devices, such as broad-band photodetectors, multi-color light emitting diodes (LEDs), and high-efficiency photovoltaic devices. In this review, we will summarize the recent progress on the controlled growth of composition modulated atomically thin 2D semiconductor alloys with band gaps tuned in a wide range, as well as their induced applications in broadly tunable optoelectronic components. The band gap engineered 2D semiconductors could open up an exciting opportunity for probing their fundamental physical properties in 2D systems and may find diverse applications in functional electronic/optoelectronic devices.
Thermal properties of two-dimensional materials
Two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene, phosphorene, and transition metal dichalcogenides (e.g., MoS2 and WS2), have attracted a great deal of attention recently due to their extraordinary structural, mechanical, and physical properties. In particular, 2D materials have shown great potential for thermal management and thermoelectric energy generation. In this article, we review the recent advances in the study of thermal properties of 2D materials. We first review some important aspects in thermal conductivity of graphene and discuss the possibility to enhance the ultra-high thermal conductivity of graphene. Next, we discuss thermal conductivity of MoS2 and the new strategy for thermal management of MoS2 device. Subsequently, we discuss the anisotropic thermal properties of phosphorene. Finally, we review the application of 2D materials in thermal devices, including thermal rectifier and thermal modulator.
Photodetecting and light-emitting devices based on two-dimensional materials
Two-dimensional (2D) materials, e.g., graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), and black phosphorus (BP), have demonstrated fascinating electrical and optical characteristics and exhibited great potential in optoelectronic applications. High-performance and multifunctional devices were achieved by employing diverse designs, such as hybrid systems with nanostructured materials, bulk semiconductors and organics, forming 2D heterostructures. In this review, we mainly discuss the recent progress of 2D materials in high-responsive photodetectors, light-emitting devices and single photon emitters. Hybrid systems and van der Waals heterostructure-based devices are emphasized, which exhibit great potential in state-of-the-art applications.
Light-matter interaction of 2D materials: Physics and device applications
In the last decade, the rise of two-dimensional (2D) materials has attracted a tremendous amount of interest for the entire field of photonics and opto-electronics. The mechanism of light-matter interaction in 2D materials challenges the knowledge of materials physics, which drives the rapid development of materials synthesis and device applications. 2D materials coupled with plasmonic effects show impressive optical characteristics, involving efficient charge transfer, plasmonic hot electrons doping, enhanced light-emitting, and ultrasensitive photodetection. Here, we briefly review the recent remarkable progress of 2D materials, mainly on graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides, focusing on their tunable optical properties and improved opto-electronic devices with plasmonic effects. The mechanism of plasmon enhanced light-matter interaction in 2D materials is elaborated in detail, and the state-of-the-art of device applications is comprehensively described. In the future, the field of 2D materials holds great promise as an important platform for materials science and opto-electronic engineering, enabling an emerging interdisciplinary research field spanning from clean energy to information technology.
A review for compact model of graphene field-effect transistors
Graphene has attracted enormous interests due to its unique physical, mechanical, and electrical properties. Specially, graphene-based field-effect transistors (FETs) have evolved rapidly and are now considered as an option for conventional silicon devices. As a critical step in the design cycle of modern IC products, compact model refers to the development of models for integrated semiconductor devices for use in circuit simulations. The purpose of this review is to provide a theoretical description of current compact model of graphene field-effect transistors. Special attention is devoted to the charge sheet model, drift-diffusion model, Boltzmann equation, density of states (DOS), and surface-potential-based compact model. Finally, an outlook of this field is briefly discussed.
Recent progress on integrating two-dimensional materials with ferroelectrics for memory devices and photodetectors
Two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene and MoS2 related transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC), have attracted much attention for their potential applications. Ferroelectrics, one of the special and traditional dielectric materials, possess a spontaneous electric polarization that can be reversed by the application of an external electric field. In recent years, a new type of device, combining 2D materials with ferroelectrics, has been fabricated. Many novel devices have been fabricated, such as low power consumption memory devices, highly sensitive photo-transistors, etc. using this technique of hybrid systems incorporating ferroelectrics and 2D materials. This paper reviews two types of devices based on field effect transistor (FET) structures with ferroelectric gate dielectric construction (termed FeFET). One type of device is for logic applications, such as a graphene and TMDC FeFET for fabricating memory units. Another device is for optoelectric applications, such as high performance phototransistors using a graphene p-n junction. Finally, we discuss the prospects for future applications of 2D material FeFET.
Topological transport in Dirac electronic systems: A concise review
Various novel physical properties have emerged in Dirac electronic systems, especially the topological characters protected by symmetry. Current studies on these systems have been greatly promoted by the intuitive concepts of Berry phase and Berry curvature, which provide precise definitions of the topological phases. In this topical review, transport properties of topological insulator (Bi2Se3), topological Dirac semimetal (Cd3As2), and topological insulator-graphene heterojunction are presented and discussed. Perspectives about transport properties of two-dimensional topological nontrivial systems, including topological edge transport, topological valley transport, and topological Weyl semimetals, are provided.
Toward high-performance two-dimensional black phosphorus electronic and optoelectronic devices
Recently, black phosphorus (BP) has joined the two-dimensional material family as a promising candidate for electronic and photonic applications due to its moderate bandgap, high carrier mobility, and unusual in-plane anisotropy. Here, we review recent progress in BP-based devices, such as field-effect transistors, contact resistance, quantum transport, stability, photodetector, heterostructure, and in-plane anisotropy. We also give our perspectives on future BP research directions.
Review of ultrafast spectroscopy studies of valley carrier dynamics in two-dimensional semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides
The two-dimensional layered transition metal dichalcogenides provide new opportunities in future valley-based information processing and also provide an ideal platform to study excitonic effects. At the center of various device physics toward their possible electronic and optoelectronic applications is understanding the dynamical evolution of various many-particle electronic states, especially exciton which dominates the optoelectronic response of TMDs, under the novel context of valley degree of freedom. Here, we provide a brief review of experimental advances in using helicity-resolved ultrafast spectroscopy, especially ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy, to study the dynamical evolution of valley-related many-particle electronic states in semiconducting monolayer transitional metal dichalcogenides.
Graphene resistive random memory–the promising memory device in next generation
Graphene-based resistive random access memory (GRRAM) has grasped researchers' attention due to its merits compared with ordinary RRAM. In this paper, we briefly review different types of GRRAMs. These GRRAMs can be divided into two categories: graphene RRAM and graphene oxide (GO)/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) RRAM. Using graphene as the electrode, GRRAM can own many good characteristics, such as low power consumption, higher density, transparency, SET voltage modulation, high uniformity, and so on. Graphene flakes sandwiched between two dielectric layers can lower the SET voltage and achieve multilevel switching. Moreover, the GRRAM with rGO and GO as the dielectric or electrode can be simply fabricated. Flexible and high performance RRAM and GO film can be modified by adding other materials layer or making a composite with polymer, nanoparticle, and 2D materials to further improve the performance. Above all, GRRAM shows huge potential to become the next generation memory.
Photodetectors based on junctions of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides
Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have gained considerable attention because of their novel properties and great potential applications. The flakes of TMDCs not only have great light absorption from visible to near infrared, but also can be stacked together regardless of lattice mismatch like other two-dimensional (2D) materials. Along with the studies on intrinsic properties of TMDCs, the junctions based on TMDCs become more and more important in applications of photodetection. The junctions have shown many exciting possibilities to fully combine the advantages of TMDCs, other 2D materials, conventional and organic semiconductors together. Early studies have greatly enriched the application of TMDCs in photodetection. In this review, we investigate the efforts in photodetectors based on the junctions of TMDCs and analyze the properties of those photodetectors. Homojunctions based on TMDCs can be made by surface chemical doping, elemental doping and electrostatic gating. Heterojunction formed between TMDCs/2D materials, TMDCs/conventional semiconductors and TMDCs/organic semiconductor also deserve more attentions. We also compare the advantages and disadvantages of different junctions, and then give the prospects for the development of junctions based on TMDCs.
Geometric stability and electronic structure of infinite and finite phosphorus atomic chains
One-dimensional mono- or few-atomic chains were successfully fabricated in a variety of two-dimensional materials, like graphene, BN, and transition metal dichalcogenides, which exhibit striking transport and mechanical properties. However, atomic chains of black phosphorus (BP), an emerging electronic and optoelectronic material, is yet to be investigated. Here, we comprehensively considered the geometry stability of six categories of infinite BP atomic chains, transitions among them, and their electronic structures. These categories include mono- and dual-atomic linear, armchair, and zigzag chains. Each zigzag chain was found to be the most stable in each category with the same chain width. The mono-atomic zigzag chain was predicted as a Dirac semi-metal. In addition, we proposed prototype structures of suspended and supported finite atomic chains. It was found that the zigzag chain is, again, the most stable form and could be transferred from mono-atomic armchair chains. An orientation dependence was revealed for supported armchair chains that they prefer an angle of roughly 35°-37° perpendicular to the BP edge, corresponding to the  direction of the substrate BP sheet. These results may promote successive research on mono- or few-atomic chains of BP and other two-dimensional materials for unveiling their unexplored physical properties.
Brownian ratchet mechanism of translocation in T7 RNA polymerase facilitated by a post-translocation energy bias arising from the conformational change of the enzyme
T7 RNA polymerase can transcribe DNA to RNA by translocating along the DNA. Structural studies suggest that the pivoting rotation of the O helix in the fingers domain may drive the movement of the O helix C-terminal Tyr639 from pre- to post-translocation positions. In a series of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the movement of Tyr639 is not tightly coupled to the rotation of the O helix, and that the two processes are only weakly dependent on each other. We also show that the internal potential of the enzyme itself generates a small difference in free energy (ΔE) between the post- and pre-translocation positions of Tyr639. The calculated value of ΔE is consistent with that obtained from single-molecule experimental data. These findings lend support to a model in which the translocation takes place via a Brownian ratchet mechanism, with the small free energy bias ΔE arising from the conformational change of the enzyme itself.
Residual symmetry, interaction solutions, and conservation laws of the (2+1)-dimensional dispersive long-wave system
Meshless analysis of an improved element-free Galerkin method for linear and nonlinear elliptic problems
Modes splitting in graphene-based double-barrier waveguides
The graphene-based double-barrier waveguides induced by electric field have been investigated. The guided modes can only exist in the case of Klein tunneling, and the fundamental mode is absent. The guided modes in the single-barrier waveguide split into symmetric and antisymmetric modes with different incident angles in the double-barrier waveguide. The phase difference between electron states and hole states is also discussed. The phase difference for the two splitting modes is close to each other and increases with the order of guided modes. These phenomena can be helpful for the potential applications in graphene-based optoelectronic devices.
Two-step quantum secure direct communication scheme with frequency coding
Quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) is an important branch of quantum cryptography. It can transmit secret information directly without establishing a key first, unlike quantum key distribution which requires this precursory event. Here we propose a QSDC scheme by applying the frequency coding technique to the two-step QSDC protocol, which enables the two-step QSDC protocol to work in a noisy environment. We have numerically simulated the performance of the protocol in a noisy channel, and the results show that the scheme is indeed robust against channel noise and loss. We also give an estimate of the channel noise upper bound.
Rapidly calculating the partition function of macroscopic systems
It has remained an open problem to accurately compute the partition function of macroscopic systems since the establishment of statistical physics. A rapid method approaching this problem was presented and was strictly tested by molecular dynamic (MD) simulations on Ar atoms in both dense gaseous and liquid states. The outcomes from the method on the internal energy and the work of isothermal expansion (and therefore the free energy) are in good agreement with the MD simulations, suggesting the method would be immediately applied in vast areas.
Homoclinic and heteroclinic chaos in nonlinear systems driven by trichotomous noise
Effects of time delays in a mathematical bone model
Adaptive fuzzy synchronization for a class of fractional-order neural networks
Chaotic system optimal tracking using data-based synchronous method with unknown dynamics and disturbances
Moderate point: Balanced entropy and enthalpy contributions in soft matter
Various soft materials share some common features, such as significant entropic effect, large fluctuations, sensitivity to thermodynamic conditions, and mesoscopic characteristic spatial and temporal scales. However, no quantitative definitions have yet been provided for soft matter, and the intrinsic mechanisms leading to their common features are unclear. In this work, from the viewpoint of statistical mechanics, we show that soft matter works in the vicinity of a specific thermodynamic state named moderate point, at which entropy and enthalpy contributions among substates along a certain order parameter are well balanced or have a minimal difference. Around the moderate point, the order parameter fluctuation, the associated response function, and the spatial correlation length maximize, which explains the large fluctuation, the sensitivity to thermodynamic conditions, and mesoscopic spatial and temporal scales of soft matter, respectively. Possible applications to switching chemical bonds or allosteric biomachines determining their best working temperatures are also briefly discussed.
Spin dynamics of magnetic resonance with parametric modulation in a potassium vapor cell
A typical magnetic-resonance scheme employs a static bias magnetic field and an orthogonal driving magnetic field oscillating at the Larmor frequency, at which the atomic polarization precesses around the static magnetic field. Here we demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally the variations of the resonance condition and the spin precession dynamics resulting from the parametric modulation of the bias field. We show that the driving magnetic field with the frequency detuned by different harmonics of the parametric modulation frequency can lead to resonance as well. Also, a series of frequency sidebands centered at the driving frequency and spaced by the parametric modulation frequency can be observed in the precession of the atomic polarization. We further show that the resonant amplitudes of the sidebands can be controlled by varying the ratio between the amplitude and the frequency of the parametric modulation. These effects could be used in different atomic magnetometry applications.
Potential energy curves, transition dipole moments, and radiative lifetimes of KBe molecule
An ab initio calculations on the ground and low-lying excited states (X2Σ+, 22Σ+, 32Σ+, 14Π, 24Π, 14Σ+, 24Σ+, and 34Σ+) of KBe molecule have been performed using multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) plus Davidson corrections (MRCI+Q) approach with all electron basis set aug-cc-pCV5Z-DK for Be and def2-AQZVPP-JKFI for K. The 32Σ+, 14Π, 24Π, 14Σ+, 24Σ+, and 34Σ+ states are investigated for the first time. Inner shell electron correlations are computed on the potential energy curves (PECs) calculations. The spectroscopic and molecular parameters are also predicted. In addition, The transition properties including transition dipole moment, Franck-Condon factors qv'v'', Einstein coefficients Av'v'', and the radiative lifetimes τv' for the 22Σ+-X2Σ+, 32Σ+-X2Σ+, and 24Π-14Π transitions are predicted at the same time.
Comparative study of Mo2Ga2C with superconducting MAX phase Mo2GaC: First-principles calculations
Molecular dynamics simulations of the effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate on lipid bilayer
Positronium formation for positron scattering from metastable hydrogen
Direct loading of atoms from a macroscopic quadrupole magnetic trap into a microchip trap
We demonstrate the direct loading of cold atoms into a microchip 2-mm Z-trap, where the evaporative cooling can be performed efficiently, from a macroscopic quadrupole magnetic trap with a high loading efficiency. The macroscopic quadrupole magnetic trap potential is designed to be moveable by controlling the currents of the two pairs of anti-Helmholtz coils. The cold atoms are initially prepared in a standard six-beam magneto-optical trap and loaded into the macroscopic quadrupole magnetic trap, and then transported to the atom chip surface by moving the macroscopic trap potential. By means of a three-dimensional absorption imaging system, we are able to optimize the position alignment of the atom cloud in the macroscopic trap and the microchip Z-shaped wire. Consequently, with a proper magnetic transfer scheme, we load the cold atoms into the microchip Z-trap directly and efficiently. The loading efficiency is measured to be about 50%. This approach can be used to generate appropriate ultracold atoms sources, for example, for a magnetically guided atom interferometer based on atom chip.
BaF radical: A promising candidate for laser cooling and magneto-optical trapping
Reflection and transmission of Laguerre Gaussian beam from uniaxial anisotropic multilayered media
Fiber core mode leakage induced by refractive index variation in high-power fiber laser
Spatial chirp in Ti:sapphire multipass amplifier
Visible and near-infrared optical properties of Nd: CLNGG crystal waveguides formed by proton implantation
Numerical study on the gas heating mechanism in pulse-modulated radio-frequency glow discharge
Dense pair plasma generation by two laser pulses colliding in a cylinder channel
Solid-like ablation propulsion generation in nanosecond pulsed laser interaction with carbon-doped glycerol
Intrinsic luminescence centers in γ- and θ-alumina nanoparticles
First-principles investigation on N/C co-doped CeO2
Total ionizing dose induced single transistor latchup in 130-nm PDSOI input/output NMOSFETs
Mechanical and thermodynamical stability of BiVO4 polymorphs using first-principles study
Theoretical description of electron-phonon Fock space for gapless and gapped nanowires
Lattice vibration and thermodynamical properties of a single-layergraphene in the presence of vacancy defects
Spatial heterogeneity in liquid-liquid phase transition
Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate the liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) and the spatial heterogeneity in Al-Pb monotectic alloys. The results reveal that homogeneous liquid Al-Pb alloy undergoes an LLPT, separating into Al-rich and Pb-rich domains, which is quite different from the isocompositional liquid water with a transition between low-density liquid (LDL) and high-density liquid (HDL). With spatial heterogeneity becoming large, LLPT takes place correspondingly. The relationship between the cooling rate, relaxation temperature and percentage of Al and the spatial heterogeneity is also reported. This study may throw light on the relationship between the structure heterogeneity and LLPT, which provides novel strategies to control the microstructures in the fabrication of the material with high performance.
Large elastocaloric effect in Ti-Ni shape memory alloy below austenite finish temperature
Solid refrigeration technology based on the elastocaloric effect has a great potential alternative to the conventional vapor compression cooling. Here we report the large elastocaloric effect in Ti-Ni (50 at%) shape memory alloy below its austenite finish temperature Af under different strain. Both Maxwell's and Clausius-Clapeyron equations are used to estimate the entropy change. The strain-induced entropy change increases with raising the strain and gets a maximum value at a few kelvins below Af. The maximum entropy changes ΔSmax are -20.44 and -53.70 J/kg·K, respectively for 1% and 2% strain changes. Large entropy change may be obtained down to 20 K below Af. The temperature of the maximum entropy change remains unchanged before the plastic deformation appears but moves towards low temperature when the plastic deformation happens.
General equation describing viscosity of metallic melts under horizontal magnetic field
Electrical property effect of oxygen vacancies in the heterojunction of LaGaO3/SrTiO3
Density functional theory within the local density approximation is used to investigate the effect of the oxygen vacancy on the LaGaO3/SrTiO3 (001) heterojunction. It is found that the energy favorable configuration is the oxygen vacancy located at the 3rd layer of the STO substrate, and the antiferrodistortive distortion is induced by the oxygen vacancy introduced on the SrTiO3 side. Compared with the heterojunction without introducing oxygen vacancy, the heterojunction with introducing the oxygen vacancy does not change the origin of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG), that is, the 2DEG still originates from the dxy electrons, which are split from the t2g states of Ti atom at interface; however the oxygen vacancy is not beneficial to the confinement of the 2DEG. The extra electrons caused by the oxygen vacancy dominantly occupy the 3dx2-y2 orbitals of the Ti atom nearest to the oxygen vacancy, thus the density of carrier is enhanced by one order of magnitude due to the introduction of oxygen vacancy compared with the density of the ideal structure heterojunction.
Stability, electronic structures, and mechanical properties of Fe-Mn-Al system from first-principles calculations
New ternary superconducting compound LaRu2As2: Physical properties from density functional theory calculations
Passivation effects of phosphorus on 4H-SiC (0001) Si dangling bonds: A first-principles study
Vibration-assisted coherent excitation energy transfer in a detuned dimer
The important role of high-energy intramolecular vibrational modes for excitation energy transfer in the detuned photosynthetic systems is studied. Based on a basic dimer model which consists of two two-level systems (pigments) coupled to high-energy vibrational modes, we find that the high-energy intramolecular vibrational modes can enhance the energy transfer with new coherent transfer channels being opened when the phonon energy matches the detuning between the two pigments. As a result, the energy can be effectively transferred into the acceptor. The effective Hamiltonian is obtained to reveal the strong coherent energy exchange among the donor, the acceptor, and the high-energy intramolecular. A semi-classical explanation of the phonon-assisted mechanism is also shown.
Plasma-assisted surface treatment for low-temperature annealed ohmic contact on AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors
In this study, a low-temperature annealed ohmic contact process was proposed on AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field effect transistors (HFETs) with the assistance of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) surface treatment. The effect of ICP treatment process on the 2DEG channel as well as the formation mechanism of the low annealing temperature ohmic contact was investigated. An appropriate residual AlGaN thickness and a plasma-induced damage are considered to contribute to the low-temperature annealed ohmic contact. By using a single Al layer to replace the conventional Ti/Al stacks, ohmic contact with a contact resistance of 0.35 Ω·mm was obtained when annealed at 575℃ for 3 min. Good ohmic contact was also obtained by annealing at 500℃ for 20 min.
Band structure of silicon and germanium thin films based on first principles
Plasmonic microcavity formed by the Möbius strip
Photon-mediated spin-polarized current in a quantum dot under thermal bias
Transparent conducting indium-tin-oxide (ITO) film as full front electrode in III-V compound solar cell
The application of transparent conducting indium-tin-oxide (ITO) film as full front electrode replacing the conventional bus-bar metal electrode in III-V compound GaInP solar cell was proposed. A high-quality, non-rectifying contact between ITO and 10 nm N+-GaAs contact layer was formed, which is benefiting from a high carrier concentration of the terrilium-doped N+-GaAs layer, up to 2×1019 cm-3. A good device performance of the GaInP solar cell with the ITO electrode was observed. This result indicates a great potential of transparent conducting films in the future fabrication of larger area flexible III-V solar cell.
Broadband microwave frequency doubler based on left-handed nonlinear transmission lines
Validation of the Wiedemann-Franz law in a granular s-wave superconductor in the nanometer scale
The present study tries to evaluate the validity of the Wiedemann-Franz law in a granular s-wave superconductor in the presence of concentrated impurities. By using Green's function method and the Kubo formula technique, three distinct contributions of the Aslamazov-Larkin, the Maki-Thompson and, the density of states are calculated for both the electrical conductivity and the thermal conductivity in a granular s-wave superconductor. It is demonstrated that these different contributions to the fluctuation conductivity depend differently on the tunneling because of their different natures. This study examines the transport in a granular superconductor system in three dimensions in the limit of large tunneling conductance, which makes it possible to ignore all localization effects and the Coulomb interaction. We find that the tunneling is efficient near the critical temperature and that there is a crossover to the characteristic behavior of a homogeneous system. When it is far from the critical temperature, the tunneling is not effective and the system behaves as an ensemble of real zero-dimensional grains. The results show that the Wiedemann-Franz law is violated in both temperature regions.
Exact solutions of an Ising spin chain with a spin-1 impurity
Magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect of the Cr-based spinel sulfides Co1-xCuxCr2S4
Crystallographic structure, magnetic properties, and magnetic entropy change of the Cr-based spinel sulfides Co1-xCuxCr2S4 (x=0-0.8) have been investigated. All these compounds crystallize into the cubic spinel structure, the Cu substitution shrinks linearly the lattice constant at a ratio of 0.0223 Å per Cu atom in the unit cell, and enhances linearly the Curie temperature and the spontaneous magnetization at the rates of 18 K and 0.33 μB/f.u. per Cu atom in the unit cell, respectively. All these compounds show a typical behavior of second order magnetic transition, and a room temperature magnetic entropy change of 2.57 J/kg·K is achieved for Co0.4Cu0.6Cr2S4.
Modeling of the loading path dependent magnetomechanical behavior of Galfenol alloy
The magnetomechanical behavior of single-crystal Galfenol alloy was found to be strongly dependent on the loading paths. An energy-based anisotropic domain rotation model, assuming that the interaction between domains can be ignored and the probability of the magnetic moment pointing along a particular direction is related to the free energy along this direction, is used to simulate the magnetostriction versus magnetic field and stress curve and to track the magnetic domain motion trail. The main reason for loading path dependent effect is the rotation/flipping of the magnetic domains under different loading paths. The effect of loading and unloading paths on 90° magnetic domain motion was studied by choosing different loading and unloading state and paths. The results show that prior loading magnetic field can make the 90° magnetic domains flip to the directions of 45° domains because the magnetic field is the driving force to make the domains rotate, and the final loading state and the loading path both have great influence on the motion of 90° magnetic domains.
Stoney formula for piezoelectric film/elastic substrate system
CuO added Pb0.92Sr0.06Ba0.02(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.25(Ti0.53Zr0.47)0.75O3 ceramics sintered with Ag electrodes at 900℃ for multilayer piezoelectric actuator
Cyclic stress induced phase transformation insuper-bainitic microstructure
Dislocation distributions and tilts in Al(Ga)InAs reverse-graded layers grown on misorientated GaAs substrates
Controllable preparation of tungsten/tungsten carbide nanowires or nanodots in nanostructured carbon with hollow macroporous core/mesoporous shell
Large scale tungsten nanowires and tungsten nanodots are prepared in a controllable way. The preparation is based on mechanisms of chemical vapor transportation and phase transformation during the reduction of ammonium metatungstate (AMT) in H2. The AMT is first encapsulated into the hollow core of nanostructured carbon with hollow macroporous core/mesoporous shell (NC-HMC/MS) and forms nanorods, which are the precursors of both tungsten nanowires and tungsten nanodots. Just by controlling H2 flow rate and heating rate in the reduction process, the AMT nanorods could turn into nanowires (under low rate condition) or nanodots (under high rate condition). Besides, via heat treatment at 1200℃, the as-obtained nano-sized tungsten could convert into W2C nanorods or WC nanodots respectively. Furthermore, the diameter of the as-obtained tungsten or tungsten carbide is confined within 50 nm by the NC-HMC/MS, and no agglomeration appears in the obtained nanomaterials.
Carrier transport via V-shaped pits in InGaN/GaN MQW solar cells
Improving self-assembly quality of colloidal crystal guided by statistical design of experiments
A versatile and reliable approach is created to fabricate wafer-scale colloidal crystal that consists of a monolayer of hexagonally close-packed polystyrene (PS) spheres. Making wafer-scale colloidal crystal is usually challenging, and it lacks a general theoretical guidance for experimental approaches. To obtain the optimal conditions for self-assembly, a systematic statistical design and analysis method is utilized here, which applies the pick-the-winner rule. This new method combines spin-coating and thermal treatment, and introduces a mixture of glycol and ethanol as a dispersion system to assist self-assembly. By controlling the parameters of self-assembly, we improve the quality of colloidal crystal and reduce the effect of noise on the experiment. To our best knowledge, we are first to pave this path to harvest colloidal crystals. Importantly, a theoretical analysis using an energy landscape base on our process is also developed to provide insights into the PS spheres' self-assembly.
Diffusion in the aged aluminium film on iron
Metallic coatings of many types can be applied to steel to provide outstanding, long-term corrosion protection. A thin Al film is studied at an Fe substrate by the molecular dynamics method at temperatures ranging from 300 K to 1173 K. Al atoms are found to penetrate the Fe matrix at a temperature of 873 K. The potential energy of the system changes step-like at a temperature of 1173 K. At such temperature mean square atomic displacement significantly changes. The behaviors of the Al and Fe diffusion coefficients are mainly determined by the temperature dependence of the diffusion activation energy.
Dye-sensitized solar cell module realized photovoltaic and photothermal highly efficient conversion via three-dimensional printing technology
Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology is employed to improve the photovoltaic and photothermal conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) module. The 3D-printed concentrator is optically designed and improves the photovoltaic efficiency of the DSC module from 5.48% to 7.03%. Additionally, with the 3D-printed microfluidic device serving as water cooling, the temperature of the DSC can be effectively controlled, which is beneficial for keeping a high photovoltaic conversion efficiency for DSC module. Moreover, the 3D-printed microfluidic device can realize photothermal conversion with an instantaneous photothermal efficiency of 42.1%. The integrated device realizes a total photovoltaic and photothermal conversion efficiency of 49% at the optimal working condition.
Superjunction nanoscale partially narrow mesa IGBT towards superior performance
An improved design for AlGaN solar-blind avalanche photodiodes with enhanced avalanche ionization
To enhance the avalanche ionization, we designed a new separate absorption and multiplication AlGaN solar-blind avalanche photodiode (APD) by using a high/low-Al-content AlGaN heterostructure as the multiplication region instead of the conventional AlGaN homogeneous layer. The calculated results show that the designed APD with Al0.3Ga0.7N/Al0.45Ga0.55N heterostructure multiplication region exhibits a 60% higher gain than the conventional APD and a smaller avalanche breakdown voltage due to the use of the low-Al-content Al0.3Ga0.7N which has about a six times higher hole ionization coefficient than the high-Al-content Al0.45Ga0.55N. Meanwhile, the designed APD still remains a good solar-blind characteristic by introducing a quarter-wave AlGaN/AlN distributed Bragg reflectors structure at the bottom of the device.
Thermal properties of a two-dimensional intrinsically curved semiflexible biopolymer
We study the behaviors of mean end-to-end distance and specific heat of a two-dimensional intrinsically curved semiflexible biopolymer with a hard-core excluded volume interaction. We find the mean square end-to-end distance RN2∝Nβ at large N, with N being the number of monomers. Both β and proportional constant are dependent on the reduced bending rigidity κ and intrinsic curvature c. The larger the c, the smaller the proportional constant, and 1.5≥β≥1. Up to a moderate κ=κc, or down to a moderate temperature T=Tc, β=1.5, the same as that of a self-avoiding random walk, and the larger the intrinsic curvature, the smaller the κc. However, at a large κ or a low temperature, β is close to 1, and the conformation of the biopolymer can be more compact than that of a random walk. There is an intermediate regime with 1.5 > β > 1 and the transition from β=1.5 to β=1 is smooth. The specific heat of the system increases smoothly with increasing κ or there is no peak in the specific heat. Therefore, a nonvanishing intrinsic curvature seriously affects the thermal properties of a semiflexible biopolymer, but there is no phase transition in the system.
Multiple-predators-based capture process on complex networks
Link prediction in complex networks via modularity-based belief propagation
The interaction between stratospheric monthly mean regional winds and sporadic-E
Error analysis of the piston estimation method in dispersed fringe sensor