This paper focuses on the cubature Kalman filters (CKFs) for the nonlinear dynamic systems with additive process and measurement noise. As is well known, the heart of the CKF is the third-degree spherical–radial cubature rule which makes it possible to compute the integrals encountered in nonlinear filtering problems. However, the rule not only requires computing the integration over an n-dimensional spherical region, but also combines the spherical cubature rule with the radial rule, thereby making it difficult to construct higher-degree CKFs. Moreover, the cubature formula used to construct the CKF has some drawbacks in computation. To address these issues, we present a more general class of the CKFs, which completely abandons the spherical–radial cubature rule. It can be shown that the conventional CKF is a special case of the proposed algorithm. The paper also includes a fifth-degree extension of the CKF. Two target tracking problems are used to verify the proposed algorithm. The results of both experiments demonstrate that the higher-degree CKF outperforms the conventional nonlinear filters in terms of accuracy.

Based on the fact that the real inductor and the real capacitor are fractional order in nature and the fractional calculus, the transfer function modeling and analysis of the open-loop Buck converter in continuous conduction mode (CCM) operation are carried out in this paper. The fractional order small signal model and the corresponding equivalent circuit of the open-loop Buck converter in CCM operation are presented. The transfer functions from the input voltage to the output voltage, from the input voltage to the inductor current, from the duty cycle to the output voltage, from the duty cycle to the inductor current, and the output impedance of the open-loop Buck converter in CCM operation are derived, and their bode diagrams and step responses are calculated, respectively. It is found that all the derived fractional order transfer functions of the system are influenced by the fractional orders of the inductor and the capacitor. Finally, the realization of the fractional order inductor and the fractional order capacitor is designed, and the corresponding PSIM circuit simulation results of the open-loop Buck converter in CCM operation are given to confirm the correctness of the derivations and the theoretical analysis.

Cu_{2}ZnSnS_{4} (CZTS) films are successfully prepared by co-electrodeposition in aqueous ionic solution and sulfurized in elemental sulfur vapor ambient at 400℃ for 30 min using nitrogen as the protective gas. It is found that the CZTS film synthesized at Cu/(Zn+Sn)=0.71 has a kesterite structure, a bandgap of about 1.51 eV, and an absorption coefficient of the order of 10^{4} cm^{-1}. This indicates that the co-electrodeposition method with aqueous ionic solution is a viable process for the growth of CZTS films for application in photovoltaic devices.

We report here structural, surface morphology, mechanical, and current-voltage characteristics of Zn_{1-x}M_{x}O ceramic samples with various x and M (0.00 ≤ x ≤ 0.20, M = Ni, Cu). It is found that the considered dopants do not influence the well-known peaks related to the wurtzite structure of ZnO ceramics, while the shapes and the sizes of grains are clearly affected. The average crystalline diameters deduced from the SEM micrographs are between 2.06 μ and 4.8 μ for all samples. The oxygen element ratio is increased by both dopants. Interestingly, the potential barrier can be formed by adding Cu up to 0.20, while it is completely deformed by 0.025 Ni addition. The breakdown field can be enhanced up to 4138 V/cm by 0.025 Cu addition, followed by a decrease with further increase of Cu up to 0.20. On the other hand, a gradual decrease in Vickers microhardness is reported for both dopants, and the values in the Ni samples are higher compared to those in the Cu samples. The electrical conductivity is generally improved by Ni, while the addition of Cu improves it only in the over doped region ( ≥ 0.10). These results are discussed in terms of the differences of valency and ferromagnetic ordering.

By deriving the discrete-time models of a digitally controlled H-bridge inverter system modulated by bipolar sinusoidal pulse width modulation (BSPWM) and unipolar double-frequency sinusoidal pulse width modulation (UDFSPWM) respectively, the performances of the two modulation strategies are analyzed in detail. The circuit parameters, used in this paper, are fixed. When the systems, modulated by BSPWM and UDFSPWM, have the same switching frequency, the stability boundaries of the two systems are the same. However, when the equivalent switching frequencies of the two systems are the same, the BSPWM modulated system is more stable than the UDFSPWM modulated system. In addition, a convenient method of establishing the discrete-time model of piecewise smooth system is presented. Finally, the analytical results are confirmed by circuit simulations and experimental measurements.

SnO_{2} nanotwists on thin film and SnO_{2} short nanowires on
nanorods have been grown on single silicon substrates by using
Au--Ag alloying catalyst assisted carbothermal evaporation of
SnO_{2} and active carbon powders. The morphology and the
structure of the prepared nanostructures are determined on the basis
of field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission
electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electronic diffraction
(SAED), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM),
x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman and photoluminescence (PL) spectra
analysis. The new peaks at 356, 450, and 489 nm in the measured PL
spectra of two kinds of SnO_{2} nanostructures are observed,
implying that more luminescence centres exist in these SnO_{2}
nanostructures due to nanocrystals and defects. The growth mechanism
of these nanostructures belongs to the vapour--liquid--solid (VLS)
mechanism.

In this paper, we investigate some exact soliton solutions for a generalized variable-coefficients nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS) with an arbitrary time-dependent linear potential which describes the dynamics of soliton solutions in quasi-one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensations. Under some reasonable assumptions, one-soliton and two-soliton solutions are constructed analytically by the Hirota method. From our results, some previous one- and two-soliton solutions for some NLS-type equations can be recovered by some appropriate selection of the various parameters. Some figures are given to demonstrate some properties of the one- and the two-soliton and the discussion about the integrability property and the Hirota method is given finally.

In the presented model the wave function describing the electron is a superposition of contributions from individual components of the system, in the case of metals–lattice ions and in this sense refers not to a single electron, but rather to the system as a whole. An unconventional approach to the Schrödinger equation can provide a simple analytical relationship between the total energy of the electron and the wave number. This expression can directly determine the basic parameters such as Fermi radius, the screening radius or work function and also produce a graphical interpretation of the Fermi surface.

We evaluate the influence of temperature on the behavior of a three-phase clock-driven metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) chaotic circuit. The chaotic circuit consists of two nonlinear functions, a level shifter, and three sample and hold blocks. It is necessary to analyze a CMOS-based chaotic circuit with respect to variation in temperature for stability because the circuit is sensitive to the behavior of the circuit design parameters. The temperature dependence of the proposed chaotic circuit is investigated via the simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis (SPICE) using 0.6-μm CMOS process technology with a 5-V power supply and a 20-kHz clock frequency. The simulation results demonstrate the effects of temperature on the chaotic dynamics of the proposed chaotic circuit. The time series, frequency spectra, bifurcation phenomena, and Lyapunov exponent results are provided.

Electronic properties of the (001) surface of cubic BaZrO$_{3}$ with
BaO and ZrO$_{2}$ terminations have been studied using
first-principles calculations. Surface structure, partial density of
states, band structure and surface energy have been obtained. We
find that the largest relaxation appears in the first layer of
atoms, and the relaxation of the BaO-terminated surface is larger
than that of the ZrO$_{2}$-terminated surface. The surface rumpling
of the BaO-terminated surface is also larger than that of the
ZrO$_{2}$-terminated surface. Results of surface energy calculations
reveal that the BaZrO$_{3}$ surface is likely to be more stable than
the PbZrO$_{3}$ surface.