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    Preparing three-dimensional graphene architectures:Review of recent developments
    Zeng Min (曾敏), Wang Wen-Long (王文龙), Bai Xue-Dong (白雪冬)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2013, 22 (9): 098105.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/22/09/098105
    Abstract726)      PDF (1751KB)(4066)      
    The recent development of synthesis processes to assemble graphene sheets into porous three-dimensional (3D) macroscopic structures are reviewed, including our efforts on 3D graphene structures. Mechanisms for building 3D graphene architectures and their composite materials are also summarized. The functional systems based on 3D graphene architectures provide a significant enhancement in the efficacy due to their unique structures and properties.
    Topological insulator nanostructures and devices
    Xiu Fa-Xian (修发贤), Zhao Tong-Tong (赵彤彤)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2013, 22 (9): 096104.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/22/09/096104
    Abstract706)      PDF (1496KB)(1734)      
    Topological insulators’ properties and their potential device applications are reviewed. We also explain why topological insulator (TI) nanostructures are an important avenue for research and discuss some methods by which TI nanostructures are produced and characterized. The rapid development of high-quality TI nanostructures provides an ideal platform to exploit salient physical phenomena that have been theoretically predicted but not yet experimentally realized.
    Graphene applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices and circuits
    Wu Hua-Qiang (吴华强), Linghu Chang-Yang (令狐昌洋), Lü Hong-Ming (吕宏鸣), Qian He (钱鹤)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2013, 22 (9): 098106.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/22/09/098106
    Abstract620)      PDF (2142KB)(2172)      
    Recent progress of research for graphene applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices is reviewed, and recent developments in circuits based on graphene devices are summarized. The bandgap-mobility tradeoff inevitably constrains the application of graphene for the conventional field-effect transistor (FET) devices in digital applications. However, this shortcoming has not dampened the enthusiasm of the research community toward graphene electronics. Aside from high mobility, graphene offers numerous other amazing electrical, optical, thermal, and mechanical properties that continually motivate innovations.
    Unique electrical properties of nanostructured diamond cones
    Gu Chang-Zhi (顾长志), Wang Qiang (王强), Li Jun-Jie (李俊杰), Xia Ke (夏钶)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2013, 22 (9): 098107.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/22/09/098107
    Abstract383)      PDF (1221KB)(658)      
    The preparation and electrical properties of diamond nanocones are reviewed, including a maskless etching process and mechanism of large-area diamond conical nanostructure arrays using a hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) system with negatively biased substrates, and the field electron emission, gas sensing, and quantum transport properties of a diamond nanocone array or an individual diamond nanocone. Optimal cone aspect ratio and array density are investigated, along with the relationships between the cone morphologies and experimental parameters, such as the CH4/H2 ratio of the etching gas, the bias current, and the gas pressure. The reviewed experiments demonstrate the possibility of using nanostructured diamond cones as a display device element, a point electron emission source, a gas sensor or a quantum device.
    Electrostatic field effects on three-dimensional topological insulators
    Yang Wen-Min (杨雯敏), Lin Chao-Jing (林朝镜), Liao Jian (廖剑), Li Yong-Qing (李永庆)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2013, 22 (9): 097202.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/22/09/097202
    Abstract608)      PDF (1303KB)(956)      
    Three-dimensional topological insulators are a new class of quantum matter which has interesting connections to nearly all main branches of condensed matter physics. In this article, we briefly review the advances in the field effect control of chemical potential in three-dimensional topological insulators. It is essential to the observation of many exotic quantum phenomena predicted to emerge from the topological insulators and their hybrid structures with other materials. We also describe various methods for probing the surface state transport. Some challenges in experimental study of electron transport in topological insulators will also be briefly discussed.
    Intercalation of metals and silicon at the interface of epitaxial graphene and its substrates
    Huang Li (黄立), Xu Wen-Yan (徐文焱), Que Yan-De (阙炎德), Mao Jin-Hai (毛金海), Meng Lei (孟蕾), Pan Li-Da (潘理达), Li Geng (李更), Wang Ye-Liang (王业亮), Du Shi-Xuan (杜世萱), Liu Yun-Qi (刘云圻), Gao Hong-Jun (高鸿钧)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2013, 22 (9): 096803.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/22/09/096803
    Abstract647)      PDF (1875KB)(998)      
    Intercalations of metals and silicon between epitaxial graphene and its substrates are reviewed. For metal intercalation, seven different metals have been successfully intercalated at the interface of graphene/Ru(0001) and form different intercalated structures. Meanwhile, graphene maintains its original high quality after the intercalation and shows features of weakened interaction with the substrate. For silicon intercalation, two systems, graphene on Ru(0001) and on Ir(111), have been investigated. In both cases, graphene preserves its high quality and regains its original superlative properties after the silicon intercalation. More importantly, we demonstrate that thicker silicon layers can be intercalated at the interface, which allows the atomic control of the distance between graphene and the metal substrates. These results show the great potential of the intercalation method as a non-damaging approach to decouple epitaxial graphene from its substrates and even form a dielectric layer for future electronic applications.
    Metallic nanowires for subwavelength waveguiding and nanophotonic devices
    Pan Deng (潘登), Wei Hong (魏红), Xu Hong-Xing (徐红星)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2013, 22 (9): 097305.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/22/9/097305
    Abstract408)      PDF (5002KB)(758)      
    Plasmonics is a rapidly developing field concerning light manipulation at the nanoscale with many potential applications, of which plasmonic circuits are promising for future information technology. Plasmonic waveguides are fundamental elements for constructing plasmonic integrated circuits. Among the proposed different plasmonic waveguides, metallic nanowires have drawn much attention due to the highly confined electromagnetic waves and relatively low propagation loss. Here we review the recent research progress in the waveguiding characteristics of metallic nanowires and nanowire-based nanophotonic devices. Plasmon modes of both cylindrical and pentagonal metallic nanowires with and without substrate are discussed. Typical methods for exciting and detecting the plasmons in metallic nanowires are briefly summarized. Because of the multimode characteristic, the plasmon propagation and emission in the nanowire have many unique properties, benefiting the design of plasmonic devices. A few nanowire-based devices are highlighted, including quarter-wave plate, Fabry-Pérot resonator, router and logic gates.
    Proximity effects in topological insulator heterostructures
    Li Xiao-Guang (李晓光), Zhang Gu-Feng (张谷丰), Wu Guang-Fen (武光芬), Chen Hua (陈铧), Dimitrie Culcer, Zhang Zhen-Yu(张振宇)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2013, 22 (9): 097306.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/22/9/097306
    Abstract498)      PDF (1308KB)(872)      
    Topological insulators (TIs) are bulk insulators that possess robust helical conducting states along their interfaces with conventional insulators. A tremendous research effort has recently been devoted to TI-based heterostructures, in which conventional proximity effects give rise to a series of exotic physical phenomena. This paper reviews our recent studies on the potential existence of topological proximity effects at the interface between a topological insulator and a normal insulator or other topologically trivial systems. Using first-principles approaches, we have realized the tunability of the vertical location of the topological helical state via intriguing dual-proximity effects. To further elucidate the control parameters of this effect, we have used the graphene-based heterostructures as prototypical systems to reveal a more complete phase diagram. On the application side of the topological helical states, we have presented a catalysis example, where the topological helical state plays an essential role in facilitating surface reactions by serving as an effective electron bath. These discoveries lay the foundation for accurate manipulation of the real space properties of the topological helical state in TIbased heterostructures and pave the way for realization of the salient functionality of topological insulators in future device applications.
    Field-effect transistors based on two-dimensional materials for logic applications
    Wang Xin-Ran (王欣然), Shi Yi (施毅), Zhang Rong (张荣)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2013, 22 (9): 098505.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/22/9/098505
    Abstract528)      PDF (3245KB)(3606)      
    Field-effect transistors (FETs) for logic applications, based on two representative two-dimensional (2D) materials, graphene and MoS2, are discussed. These materials have drastically different properties and require different considerations. The unique band structure of graphene necessitates engineering of the Dirac point, including the opening of the bandgap, the doping and the interface, before the graphene can be used in logic applications. On the other hand, MoS2 is a semiconductor, and its electron transport depends heavily on the surface properties, the number of layers, and the carrier density. Finally, we discuss the prospects for the future developments in 2D material transistors.
    Controllable synthesis of fullerene nano/microcrystals and their structural transformation induced by high pressure
    Yao Ming-Guang (姚明光), Du Ming-Run (杜明润), Liu Bing-Bing (刘冰冰)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2013, 22 (9): 098109.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/22/09/098109
    Abstract425)      PDF (3908KB)(741)      
    Fullerene molecules are interesting materials because of their unique structures and properties in mechanical, electrical, magnetic, and optical aspects. Current research is focusing on the construction of well-defined fullerene nano/microcrystals that possess desirable structures and morphologies. Further tuning the intermolecular interaction of the fullerene nano/microcrystals by use of pressure is an efficient way to modify their structures and properties, such as creation of nanoscale polymer structures and new hybrid materials, which expands the potential of such nanoscale materials for direct device components. In this paper, we review our recent progress in the construction of fullerene nanostructures and their structural transformation induced by high pressure. Fullerene nano/microcrystals with controllable size, morphology and structure have been synthesized through the self-assembly of fullerene molecules by a solvent-assisted method. By virtue of high pressure, the structures, components, and intermolecular interactions of the assemblied fullerene nano/microcrystals can be finely tuned, thereby modifying the optical and electronic properties of the nanostructures. Several examples on high pressure induced novel structural phase transition in typical fullerene nanocrystals with C60 or C70 cage serving as building blocks are presented, including high pressure induced amorphization of the nanocrystals and their bulk moduli, high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) induced polymerization in C60 nanocrystals, pressure tuned reversible polymerization in ferrocene-doped C60/C70 single crystal, as well as unique long-range ordered crystal with amorphous nanoclusters serving as building blocks in solvated C60 crystals, which brings new physical insight into the understanding of order and disorder concept and new approaches to the design of superhard carbon materials. The nanosize and morphology effects on the transformations of fullerene nanocrystals have also been discussed. These results provide the foundation for the fabrication of pre-designed and controllable geometries, which is critical in fullerenes and relevant materials for designing nanometer-scale electronic, optical, and other devices.
    Controllable growth of low-dimensional nanostructures on well-defined surfaces
    Qin Zhi-Hui (秦志辉)
    Chin. Phys. B, 2013, 22 (9): 098108.   DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/22/09/098108
    Abstract377)      PDF (4235KB)(979)      
    The controllable growth of nanostructures with desired geometric order and well-defined shapes has stimulated great interest due to its applicability in the development of microelectronic devices. Self-assembly is an efficient and versatile way to guide the atoms or molecules into low-dimensional nanostructures as a consequence of balancing complex interplay between adsorbate-adsorbate and adsorbate-substrate interfacial interactions. The tailoring of low-dimensional nanostructures by control of inter-adsorbate and adsorbate-substrate interfacial interactions is reviewed. Such inherent interactions greatly influence not only the size and shape of the growing nanostructures, but also their chemical identity. The degree of interaction between adsorbates can be controlled via preparation procedures, opening up the study of the influence of this phenomenon with respect to reactivity and catalytic behavior. The formation of well-defined molecular layers can be controlled not only by repulsive molecule-molecule interaction but also by symmetry matching or charge transfer between adsorbed molecules and the substrate. It has become obvious that inter-adsorbate and adsorbate-substrate interfacial interactions can be tuned to fabricate diverse surface nanostructures from semiconductor, metallic, and molecular materials.