Please wait a minute...
Chin. Phys. B, 2013, Vol. 22(10): 108401    DOI: 10.1088/1674-1056/22/10/108401

A novel slotted helix slow-wave structure for high power Ka-band traveling-wave tubes

Liu Lu-Weia, Wei Yan-Yua, Wang Shao-Menga, Hou Yana, Yin Hai-Ronga, Zhao Guo-Qinga, Duan Zhao-Yuna, Xu Jina, Gong Yu-Bina, Wang Wen-Xianga, Yang Ming-Huab
a National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Vacuum Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054, China;
b Beijing Vacuum Electronics Research Institute (BVERI), Beijing 100016, China
Abstract  A novel slotted helix slow-wave structure (SWS) is proposed to develop a high power, wide-bandwidth, and high reliability millimeter-wave traveling-wave tube (TWT). This novel structure, which has higher heat capacity than a conventional helix SWS, evolves from conventional helix SWS with three parallel rows of rectangular slots made in the outside of the helix tape. In this paper, the electromagnetic characteristics and the beam-wave interaction of this novel structure operating in the Ka-band are investigated. From our calculations, when the designed beam voltage and beam current are set to be 18.45 kV and 0.2 A, respectively, this novel circuit can produce over 700-W average output power in a frequency range from 27.5 GHz to 32.5 GHz, and the corresponding conversion efficiency values vary from 19% to 21.3%, and the maximum output power is 787 W at 30 GHz.
Keywords:  slotted helix      slow-wave structure      millimeter-wave      traveling-wave tube      beam-wave interaction  
Received:  06 December 2012      Revised:  17 April 2013      Published:  30 August 2013
PACS:  84.40.Fe (Microwave tubes (e.g., klystrons, magnetrons, traveling-wave, backward-wave tubes, etc.))  
  84.47.+w (Vacuum tubes)  
  07.57.Hm (Infrared, submillimeter wave, microwave, and radiowave sources)  
Fund: Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61271029), the Natural Science Key Laboratory Foundation, and the Natural Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars of China (Grant No. 61125103).
Corresponding Authors:  Wei Yan-Yu     E-mail:

Cite this article: 

Liu Lu-Wei, Wei Yan-Yu, Wang Shao-Meng, Hou Yan, Yin Hai-Rong, Zhao Guo-Qing, Duan Zhao-Yun, Xu Jin, Gong Yu-Bin, Wang Wen-Xiang, Yang Ming-Hua A novel slotted helix slow-wave structure for high power Ka-band traveling-wave tubes 2013 Chin. Phys. B 22 108401

[1] Feng J J, Hu Y F, Cai J, Wu X P and Tang Y 2010 Vacuum Electronics 52 27 (in Chinese)
[2] Komm D S, Benton R T, Limburg H C, Menninger W L and Zhai X L 2001 IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 48 174
[3] He J, Wei Y Y, Gong Y B, Duan Z Y and Wang W X 2010 Acta Phys. Sin. 59 2843 (in Chinese)
[4] He J, Wei Y Y, Gong Y B, Duan Z Y, Lu Z G and Wang W X 2010 Acta Phys. Sin. 59 6659 (in Chinese)
[5] He J, Wei Y Y, Gong Y B and Wang W X 2011 Chin. Phys. B 20 054102
[6] Gao X, Yang Z Q, Cao W P and Jiang Y N 2011 Chin. Phys. B 20 030703
[7] Feng J J, Cai J, Hu Y F, Wu X P, Ma S Y and Qu B 2009 Institute of Chinese Electronics Conference on Microwave Tubes, p. 5 (in Chinese)
[8] Xie H Q and Liu P K 2006 Chin. Phys. 15 2042
[9] Smirnova E I, Carlsten B E and Earley L M 2008 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 36 763
[10] Peng W F, Hu Y L, Yang Z H, Li J Q, Lu Q R and Li B 2011 Chin. Phys. B 20 028401
[11] Li Z L, Feng J J, Wang E F and Liu B T 2010 Vacuum Electronics 52 41 (in Chinese)
[12] Wang Y 2004 J. Appl. Opt. 25 57 (in Chinese)
[13] Guo J H, Yu S, Li H F, Zhang T Z, Lei C J, Li X and Zhang Y Y 2011 Acta Phys. Sin. 60 090301 (in Chinese)
[14] Chong C K, Dawson R C, Forster J W, Le Borgne R H, Ramay M L, Stolz R J and Tamashiro R N 2008 Proc. IEEE Int. Vac. Electron. Conf., April 22-24, 2008, Monterey, USA, p. 191
[15] Boshch E, Christ R, Lefevre M, Racamier J, Rupp H, Tribout J and Jarno J 2009 Proc. IEEE Int. Vac. Electron. Conf., April 28-30, 2009, Rome, Italy, p. 70
[16] Machida T, Suzuki W, Yoshida M, Matsuoka J and Tsutaki K 2011 Proc. IEEE Int. Vac. Electron. Conf., February 21-24, 2011, Bangalor, India, p. 17
[17] Chong C K, Davis J A, Borgne R H L, Ramay M L, Stolz R J, Tamashiro R N, Vaszari J P and Zhai X L 2005 IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 52 653
[18] Wei Y Y, Liu L W, Gong Y Y, Xu X, Yin H R, Yue L N, Liu Y and Wang W X, U.S. Patent 13 345 121
[19] Liu L W, Wei Y Y, Xu X, Shen F, Zhao G Q, Huang M Z, Tang T, Wang W X and Gong Y B 2012 Proc. 5th Global Symposium on Millimeter Waves Conf., May 27-30, 2012, Harbin, China, p. 312
[20] Ansoft ANSYS, Inc., Analysis Guide, Release 14.0, 2012
[21] Ansoft Corp., Ansoft HFSS User’s Reference,
[22] CST Corp., CST MWS Tutorials [online] available:
[23] CST Corp., CST PS Tutorials [online] available:
[24] Han Y, Liu Y W, Ding Y G and Liu P K 2008 IEEE Electron Dev. Lett. 29 955
[25] Han Y, Liu Y W, Ding Y G and Liu P K 2009 Acta Phys. Sin. 58 1806 (in Chinese)
[26] Booske J H, Converse M C, Kory C L, Chevalier C T, Gallagher D A, Kreischer K E, Heinen V O and Bhattacharjee S 2005 IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 52 685
[27] Duan Z Y, Gong Y B, Lu M Y, Wei Y Y and Wang W X 2008 Chin. Phys. Lett. 25 934
[28] Srivastava V, Carter R G, Ravinder B, Sinha A K and Joshi S N 2000 IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 47 2438
[29] Jung S S, Soukhov A V, Jia B F and Park G S 2002 Appl. Phys. Lett. 80 3000
[1] Linear theory of beam-wave interaction in double-slot coupled cavity travelling wave tube
Fang-ming He(何昉明), Wen-qiu Xie(谢文球), Ji-run Luo(罗积润), Min Zhu(朱敏), Wei Guo(郭炜). Chin. Phys. B, 2016, 25(3): 038401.
[2] A novel multi-pin rectangular waveguide slow-wave structure based backward wave amplifier at 340 GHz
Zhang Kai-Chun, Qi Zhong-Kuo, Yang Zhao-Long. Chin. Phys. B, 2015, 24(7): 079402.
[3] Design and development of high linearity millimeter wave traveling-wave tube for satellite communications
He Jun, Huang Ming-Guang, Li Xian-Xia, Li Hai-Qiang, Zhao Lei, Zhao Jian-Dong, Li Yue, Zhao Shi-Lei. Chin. Phys. B, 2015, 24(10): 104102.
[4] Study of a millimeter-wave squint indirect holographic algorithm suitable for imaging with large field-of-view
Gao Xiang, Li Chao, Fang Guang-You. Chin. Phys. B, 2014, 23(2): 028401.
[5] Design of a reentrant double staggered ladder circuit for V-band coupled-cavity traveling-wave tube
Liu Yang, Xu Jin, Lai Jian-Qiang, Xu Xiong, Shen Fei, Wei Yan-Yu, Huang Min-Zhi, Tang Tao, Gong Yu-Bin. Chin. Phys. B, 2012, 21(7): 074202.
[6] Study on a W-band modified V-shaped microstrip meander-line traveling-wave tube
Shen Fei, Wei Yan-Yu, Xu Xiong, Yin Hai-Rong, Gong Yu-Bin, Wang Wen-Xiang. Chin. Phys. B, 2012, 21(6): 064210.
[7] Research of sine waveguide slow-wave structure for a 220-GHz backward wave oscillator
Xu Xiong, Wei Yan-Yu, Shen Fei, Huang Min-Zhi, Tang Tao, Duan Zhao-Yun, Gong Yu-Bin. Chin. Phys. B, 2012, 21(6): 068402.
[8] A staggered double vane circuit for a W-band traveling-wave tube amplifier
Lai Jian-Qiang, Wei Yan-Yu, Liu Yang, Huang Min-Zhi, Tang Tao, Wang Wen-Xiang, Gong Yu-Bin. Chin. Phys. B, 2012, 21(6): 068403.
[9] An open-styled dielectric-lined azimuthally periodic circular waveguide for a millimeter wave traveling-wave tube
Liu Yang,Wei Yan-Yu,Xu Jin,Yin Hai-Rong,Yue Ling-Na,Gong Yu-Bin,Wang Wen-Xiang. Chin. Phys. B, 2012, 21(4): 048403.
[10] Improvement of breakdown characteristics of AlGaN/GaN HEMT with U-type gate foot for millimeter-wave power application
Kong Xin, Wei Ke, Liu Guo-Guo, Liu Xin-Yu. Chin. Phys. B, 2012, 21(12): 128501.
[11] Linear theory of a dielectric-loaded rectangular Cerenkov maser with a sheet electron beam
Chen Ye, Zhao Ding, Liu Wen-Xin, Wang Yong, Wan Xiao-Sheng. Chin. Phys. B, 2012, 21(10): 104103.
[12] Investigation of a wideband folded double-ridged waveguide slow-wave system
He Jun, Wei Yan-Yu, Gong Yu-Bin, Wang Wen-Xiang. Chin. Phys. B, 2011, 20(5): 054102.
[13] Dispersion characteristics of a slow wave structure with a modified photonic band gap
Gao Xi, Yang Zi-Qiang, Cao Wei-Ping, Jiang Yan-Nan. Chin. Phys. B, 2011, 20(3): 030703.
[14] Linear analysis of a three-dimensional rectangular Cerenkov maser with a sheet electron beam
Chen Ye, Zhao Ding, Wang Yong. Chin. Phys. B, 2011, 20(10): 108402.
[15] Small-signal analysis of a rectangular helix structure traveling-wave-tube
Fu Cheng-Fang, Wei Yan-Yu, Duan Zhao-Yun, Wang Wen-Xiang, Gong Yu-Bin. Chin. Phys. B, 2009, 18(7): 2749-2756.
No Suggested Reading articles found!